Conostegia icosandra (Swartz in Wikstr.) Urban

Kriebel, Ricardo, 2016, A Monograph of Conostegia (Melastomataceae, Miconieae), PhytoKeys 67, pp. 1-326: 66-72

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Conostegia icosandra (Swartz in Wikstr.) Urban


Conostegia icosandra (Swartz in Wikstr.) Urban   Fig. 81 View Figure 81

Conostegia icosandra   (Swartz in Wikstr.) Urban, Rep. Sp. Nov. 17: 404. 1921. Melastoma icosandrum   Swartz in Wikstrom, Kongl. Vetensk. Akad. Handl. 64. 1827. Type: O. Swartz s.n. (not seen; application of name based on Urban’s treatment). Lectotype: Guadeloupe: J. Forsstrom s.n. (designated by Howard and Kellogg, J. Arnold Arb. 67: 244. 1986): S!).

Conostegia subhirsuta   DC, Prodr. 3: 174. 1828. Lectotype (designated here): Cuba. Havana: 1825, J. de la Ossa s. n. (G!). Additional syntypes: Guadeloupe. Richard s.n. (G!, photograph of P specimen at IJ ( Schnell 1996)).

Conostegia mexicana   Cogn., DC. Monog. Phan. 7: 707. 1891. Lectotype (designated here): Mexico. Monte Pelado, July 1840-1849, H. Galeotti 2963 ( BR!); Mexico. Huatusco, 1335 m, August 1888, Comisión Geografico-Exploradora 401 ( BR). Later homonym of Conostegia mexicana   (Bonpl.) Ser. ex DC, Prodr. 3: 175. 1828 (see "Excluded taxa or uncertain names" section for further discussion of this name).

Conostegia icosandra var. crenata   Urban, Rep. Sp. Nov. 22: 222. 1926. Type: Cuba. Oriente: Arroyo Jimenez, Sierra Maestra, 600-700 m, Ekman 14783 (holotype: S!; isotype: NY!). Conostegia icosandra subsp. crenata   (Urban) Borhidi and Muniz, Bot. Kozelem. 58: 176. 1971.

Conostegia lundellii   Gleason, Publ. Carnegie lnst. Wash. 522: 348. 1940. Type: British Honduras (= Belize). El Cayo District: San Augustín, Mountain Pine Ridge, July-August 1936, C. Lundell 6587 (holotype NY!, isotypes MICH!, NY!).


Shrubs to trees 1-15.3 m tall with somewhat tetragonal and ridged stems that are glabrescent to hirsute with sessile and stipitate stellate as well as branching hairs; the nodal line present. Leaves of a pair equal to somewhat unequal in length. Petioles 1-6.9 cm long. Leaves 4.6-25.2 × 1.5-11 cm, 3-5 plinerved, with the innermost diverging from the midvein just above the blade base in opposite or alternate fashion, elliptic to ovate, acute to rounded at the base, apex acute to acuminate, the margin entire to denticulate, adaxially generally glabrous, abaxially glabrous to densely hirsute with sessile or stipitate stellate and branching trichomes. Inflorescence a terminal panicle, 2.8-18 cm long branched above the base but sometimes appearing branched at the base because of multiple inflorescences arising at opposing meristems at the terminal node, accessory branches absent or present, the axis glabrous to hirsute with sessile and stipitate stellate, bracts linear to elliptic, up to 1.5 cm long, persistent or deciduous, bracteoles 1-10 mm long, oblong to ovate, mostly persistent. Pedicel 1-10 mm long. Flowers (5-)6-9(-11) merous, calyptrate. Floral buds 5-11 × 4.5-8.5 mm, rounded at the base, obtuse to rounded and apiculate at the apex, not constricted, the hypanthial and ca-lycine portions not or only slightly differentiated; the hypanthium 3.5-4.5 × 5-5.5 mm, glabrous to puberulent. Petals 7-8 × 7-8 mm, white, broadly obovate, spreading and rotate, emarginate, glabrous. Stamens (17)19-26 (30), 6.5-9 mm long, somewhat zygomorphic, the filament 4.5-5 mm, white, anthers 3.27-3.75 × 1.5-2 mm, oblong, laterally compressed, the base sagittate, yellow, the pore 0.1-0.15 mm, terminal or subterminal. Ovary 8-15 locular, inferior, apically glabrous and forming a stylar collar. Style 5.5-6 mm, slightly to strongly bent, vertical distance from the anther to the stigma ca. -0.25, horizontal distance 0.5-1.5 mm; stigma capitate, consisting of 8-15 lobes that are difficult to distinguish, not crateriform, the stigma 3-3.5 mm wide. Berry 9-12 × 7-10 mm, blue-black or purple. Seeds 0.4-0.8 mm long, obovoid, smooth.


(Fig. 82 View Figure 82 ). Ranging from Mexico throughout Central America and the Caribbean, reaching the coast of Venezuela, sea level to 1500 (-2000) m.

Conostegia icosandra   is variable in the amount of indument and degree of dentition of the leaf margin. Despite this variation, the species has usually been circumscribed as having conspicuous persistent bracteoles (Fig. 81 View Figure 81 ). These bracteoles are evident in populations mostly north of Nicaragua but in other populations of this species which were synonimized in Schnell (1996) and Almeda (2009) under Conostegia icosandra   , the plants are glabrous, the leaves narrower and the bracteoles missing altogether. These specimens match the name Conostegia bernoulliana   which is here considered a distinct species. In addition, the style in Conostegia icosandra   can lack the large central hole that is evident in Conostegia bernoulliana   . The distinction of these two taxa is relevant for understanding the evolution of crateriform stigmas since the true Conostegia icosandra   falls as sister to the rest of the lobed stigma clade, suggesting the crateriform stigma was possibly not lost in Conostegia icosandra   whereas it was probably lost in Conostegia pittieri   . The specimen Davidse, González and León 18607 ( NY) from Zulia, Venezuela, unlike any other specimens studied has extremely narrow leaves.

Specimens examined.

CUBA. Oriente: Sierra Maestra, Pinar de Papagayo, Ekman 9273 ( NY); Loma del Gato, Cobre Range, Clemente 1823, León 10054 ( NY). Santa Clara: Trinidad Mountains, Aguacate, Britton and Wilson 5377 ( NY); Southern Oriente and Pico Turquino, High Maestra, Ekman 10944 ( NY); Pinar de la Caridad, Southeast of Yara, Ekman 14689 ( NY); Buenos Aires, Trinidad Hills, Jack 6844 ( NY); Loma Las Divisiones, Banao Mts., León 7864 ( NY); Sierra de Gavilanes, Sanoti-Spiritus Mts., León and Clement 6616 ( NY); Lomas de Banao, Luna 172 ( NY); Sevilla Estate near Santiago, Jiquarito, Sierra Maestra, Taylor 501 ( NY); Vicinity of La Sabana, Buenos Aires, Trinidad Mountains, Smith et al. 3384 ( NY). Las Villas: Buenos Aires, Hills East of Cienfuegos, León and Jack 13934 ( NY).

GUADALOUPE. Basse Terre: Mosciu district, south of La Citerne , Proctor 20129 ( NY). Gran Savane, Duss 3472 ( NY); along road from Bains Jaunes to Soufriere, Howard 19773 ( NY); Dr. Madiana s. n. ( NY); Grand Etang, Martin and Hus 488 ( NY)   .

HAITI. Massif de la Hotte: Depts. Sud-Grand Anse límite, zona rural “Gerard”, 18 km Norte de Camp Perrin, en la carretera a Beaumont y Jérémie, Zanoni et al. 25696 ( NY).

JAMAICA. Portland: East slope of the John Crow Mts. 1.5-2 miles southwest of Ecclesdown, Proctor 9975 ( NY); about 1.5-2 miles southwest of Ecclesdown , Yuncker 18537 ( NY); Vicinity of Moody's Gap , Britton 3388 ( NY); John Crow Mountains , Britton 4181 ( NY); Woodland eastern slopes of south end of John Crow Mountains , Harris and Britton 10721 ( NY). St. Andrew   : Coopers Hill, Red Hills, Proctor 8483 ( NY). St. Thomas: Cuna Cuna Gap, Britton 4050 ( NY).

MARTINIQUE. Sta. Marie, Duss 917 ( NY); Hauteux de Case-Pelote, Petons du Cartel, Duss 4626 ( NY); along road from Morne Rouge to Mt. Pelée, Holdridge 465 ( NY); Sieber 119, 466 ( NY).

MONTSERRAT. Pond Mountain, Shafer 683 ( NY).

SAINT LUCIA. Forest reserve between Qilesse and Morne Troumasse, Howard 11666 ( NY); 1.5 miles south west of Millet on the Millet River, Slane 137 ( NY).

SAINT VINCENT. Upper Richmond Valley, Smith 489 ( NY).

TOBAGO. Roxborough-Parlatuvier road, 8th-9th mileports, Sandwith 1924 ( NY).

MEXICO. Chiapas: 18-20 km north of Ocozocoautla along road to Mal Paso, Municipio of Ocozocoautla de Espinoza , Breedlove and Thorne 21011 ( CAS, MO, NY); between Colonia Francisco I. Madero and Colonia A. Lopez Mateos, Breedlove 50594 ( CAS, NY); Loc. a 3 km al este de Tziscao en el parque natural lagos de Montebello, Cabrera, Mendez and Cabrera 2957 ( NY); Avalinero, Palenque, Matuda 3601 ( NY); Finca Mexiquito, Purpus 6785 ( MO, NY)   . Oaxaca: Juchitan to the east of Sarabia, MacDougall s.n. ( NY); Palomares, Juchitán, MacDougall 88 ( NY); Distrito Choapam, Yaveo, Mexia 9141; Sierra de Juárez, Paray 127 ( NY); San Juan Teotalcingo and Santiago Choapam District of Choapam , Schultes 568 ( NY); Between Monte Negro de Lalana and San Juan Lalana District of Choapam , Schultes and Ro 796 ( NY)   . Puebla: Moist roadside soil near Ocostoc below Teziutlan , Sharp 45823 ( NY); Atecocomo, municipio de Cuetzalan, Ventura 1115 ( NY)   . Tabasco: Km. 4 de la Est. Chontalpa hacia Malpaso, carretera Huimanguillo Malpaso, Cowan et al. 2545 ( NY); Km 31.9 de la desviación de Huimanguillo hacia Fco. Rueda, Cowan 3329 ( MO, NY); Achotal, Balancan, Matuda 3068 ( NY); Carretera Huimanguillo-Francisco Rueda, 8.5 km, Ventura 20608 ( MO, NY)   . Veracruz: Minatlitlán, Mell s.n. ( NY); About 6 km by air S of Tlapacoyan on road to Altotonga, Mun. Tlapacoyan, Nee and Diggs 24874 ( NY); Vicinity of La Calavera 10 km N of Altotonga (13 km by road) on road to Tlapacoyan , Nee and Diggs 24891 ( NY); Jaltipan, Orcutt 6515 ( NY); Zacuapan, Purpus 7510 ( NY)   .

BELIZE. Cayo: Kinlocks Camp Road, Balick 3345 ( MO, NY); Along Hummingbird Highway south of Belmopan between 30-38 mi., Croat 24837 ( MO, NY); Mountain Pine Ridge, San Agustin, Lundell 6587 ( NY); Near Rio On along road to Augustine, Nee et al. 46782 ( MO, NY); Mountain Pine Ridge on main road to Augustine, Ratter 5168 ( NY)   . Stann Creek: in broken cohune ridge near Carasow Hill, Gentle 8212 ( NY); MI 32 Hummingbird HWY, Margaret Creek Village, Holmes 4613 ( NY); Mullins River Road , Schipp 145 ( MO, NY)   . Toledo: 1.4 km on S turnooff ”Farmer’s Road" 10km W of Punta Gorda Town, Arvigo 969 ( NY); in edge in wooded island Condemn Branch Pine Ridge, Gentle 5283 ( NY); ca. 3 km W of coast of Punta Gorda , Nee et al. 46934 ( MO, NY)   .

GUATEMALA. Alta Verapaz: Tucuru, Finca de la Concepción, Boeke and Utzschneider 2932 ( NY); Chacirociha, Finca Seaway, Hatch 193 ( NY); entre San Pedro Carchá y Sacoyoú, Molina and Molina 12124 ( NY); large swamp just east of Tactic, Steyermark 43988, 92629 ( NY); Saquija 43 km. northeast of Cobán, Standley 70110 ( NY); von Turckheim 2236 ( NY)   . Izabal: 1-2 km south of Izabal, Jones 3015 (F, NY); South shore of Lake Izabal east of village of Izabal at sea level, Jones 3143 ( NY); San Tomas de Castilla on coastline road to Las Pavas, Marshall et al. 332 ( MO, NY); Vicinity of Quirigua , Standley 23924 ( NY)   . Quiché: Finca Chaila, "Zona Reyna", Skutch 1809 ( NY).

HONDURAS. Comayagua: 14 km SE of Taulabé, Davidse and Pohl 2228 ( NY); Matorrales en colinas rocosas de los alrededores de La Libertad, Molina 7074 ( NY); Bosque de Montania La Choca en Cordillera de Comayagua cerca de Coyocutena, Molina 8129 ( NY). Cortés: Río Amapa on road to Lake Yojoa, Howard 587 ( NY); Matorrales húmedos de Peña Blanca, nacimiento del Río Lindo, Molina 6777 ( NY); bosque de pino-roble entre Cofradia y Cusuco, Molina 7294 ( NY); Bosque lluvioso entre Agua Azul y Pito Solo Lago de Yojoa, Molina 7331 ( NY); Montaña La Cumbre caserío las Piñitas, Molina 10522 ( NY); Matorrales y bosque mixto de Cascada El Chorrito 16 kms. al S.O. de Siguatepeque, Molina 10901 ( NY); Montaña San Idalfonso entre Cusuco y San Isirdo, Molina 11544 ( NY); above la Misión, Molina 12341 ( NY). Yoró: Ocotales en sabanas pedrejosas de Piedra Colorada, Molina 6886 ( NY). El Paraíso: Montaña Teupasenti entre El Junquillo y Teupasenti, Molina 11866 ( NY); Matorrales Quebrada El Coyol, Sierra El Chile entre El Junquillo y El Robledal, Molina 14158 ( NY); Bosque mixto Quebrada Tapahuasca, Molina 14658 ( NY). Gracias a Dios: Mocorón 60 km SO de Puerto Lempira, Rivas 131 ( NY); Alrededores de Mocorón 60 km al SO de Puerto Lempira, Torres 136 ( NY). Intibucá: Cordillera Opalaca, between Calaveras and Pela Naríz road to La Esperanza, Molina 22600 ( NY). Morazán: entre la Pirámide y Zambrano, Molina 11030 ( MO, NY); carretera a Maraita, Molina 13781 ( NY); along Agua Amarilla creek 5 kms. north of El Zamorano, Molina 26269 ( NY); Region of Agua Amarilla above El Zamorano, Standley et al. 5074 ( NY); Agua amarilla, Williams and Molina 10142, 12156 ( MO, NY). Siguatepeque: near El Achote, hills above the plains of Siguatepeque, Yuncker et al. 5822, 5825, 5909 ( MO, NY).

NICARAGUA. Nueva Segovia: in gorge on Cerro Mogoton, Atwood and Neill AN15 ( MO, NY); San Mateo, 16 millas al sur de Tronquera cerca de Río Wawa, Molina 15075 ( MO, NY); frecuente a orillas de Río Leicus cerca del campo de aviación de Tronquera 35 kms S. O. de Waspan, Molina 15174 ( MO, NY).

BRAZIL: Bahia: Camaça, km la 2 da estrada do lado L de Camaça, dos Santos 1340 ( NY).

COLOMBIA. Guajira: Municipio Riohacha, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta , sector de Cenuá, Dueñas 1779 ( COL)   . Magdalena: Cincinati, Giacometto 138 ( NY); along quebrada in S portion of finca Reflejo, Kirkbride 2146 ( NY); Around San Andrés de la Sierra, western slope of Cordillera de Santa Marta, Pittier 1684 ( NY); Plants of Santa Marta above Agua Dulce, Smith 765 ( NY)   .

TRINIDAD. Arima: Cumaca Roadover Morn Croix, Adams 14331 ( NY); Arima-Blanchisseuse Road, Kalloo B.1056 ( NY); St. Pat’s, Arima Valley, Snow and Fleming 310 ( NY); Arima Valley, Snow DS-H ( NY); Blanchiseusses River, Snow DS-D ( NY).

VENEZUELA. Falcón: Cerro Santa Ana, ascensión del lado sur desde el pueblo de Santa Ana, Steyermark and Braun 94654 ( NY). Miranda: Los Guayabitos (arriba de Baruta), Aristeguieta 2880 ( NY); Bernardi s. n. ( NY). Monagas: Cuenca del Río Caripe al E de Caripe vía Las Margaritas, Quebrada Pajaral 3 km al E de Escuela Rural El Aguacate, 11.2 Km al E del puente sobre el Río Colorado, Michelangeli and Alford 612 ( NY); P. G. Pacanilla, Parque Nacional Guatopo, Quebrada al inmediatamente al S de P.G.P Macanilla, 9 km S de Los Alpes, Michelangeli and Michelangeli 803 ( NY); Montaña de Aguacate, along Quebrada de Pajarral, tributary to Río Caripe, northeast of Alto de Aguacate, between Caripe and Caripito, Steyermark 62200 ( NY). Zulia: Distrito Colón, 3 km E of the Río de Oro settlement on the Río de Oro, Davidse et al. 18607 ( NY).














Conostegia icosandra (Swartz in Wikstr.) Urban

Kriebel, Ricardo 2016

Conostegia lundellii

Gleason 1940