Perrinia angulifera (A. Adams, 1853 )

Herbert, D. G., 2012, A revision of the Chilodontidae (Gastropoda: Vetigastropoda: Seguenzioidea) of southern Africa and the south-western Indian Ocean, African Invertebrates 53 (2), pp. 381-381 : 465-470

publication ID 10.5733/afin.053.0209

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Perrinia angulifera (A. Adams, 1853 )


Perrinia angulifera (A. Adams, 1853) View in CoL

Figs 4M View Fig , 5B View Fig , 6E View Fig , 52–54 View Fig View Fig View Fig

Monodonta angulifera: A. Adams 1853: 176 ; Pilsbry 1890 in 1889–90: 416. Type loc.: Puerto Galero, Mindoro Is., Philippines, sandy mud, 6 fath. [- 11 m] (Mus. Cuming).

Tectaria montrouzieri: Fischer 1878: 212–213 View in CoL ; Souverbie & Montrouzier 1879: 31, pl. 3, fig. 6; Herbert 1996: 418, figs 18, 19 [= M. angulifera A. Adams, 1853 ]. Type loc.: Ile Art ( New Caledonia).

Perrinia angulifera View in CoL : Smith 1903: 618, pl. 35, fig. 27; Hylleberg & Kilburn 2003: 26; Héros et al. 2007: 209. Calliostoma anguliferum: Hidalgo 1904 –5: 255.

Cantharidus pliciferus: Schepman 1908: 43 , pl. 3, fig. 3. Type loc.: Siboga View in CoL st’n 109, Pulu Tongkil, Sulu Archipelago , - 13 m, Lithothamnion bottom. Syn. n.

Perrinia plicifera: Poppe et al. 2006: 45 View in CoL , pl. 15, fig. 7; Poppe & Tagaro 2008: 180, pl. 35, fig. 5.

Turcica montrouzieri: Hedley 1909: 354 ; Jansen 1996: 10, No 31.

Turcica (Perrinia) angulifera: Melvill 1928: 98 .

Turcica concinna [non A. Adams, 1863]: Jay 2009.


Shell: Elevated trochiform (L/D=1.24–1.5); apical angle 50–60°; teleoconch of up to 7.5 whorls (apical ones frequently badly eroded or missing); apex truncated; spire whorls somewhat flat-sided, but still retaining a degree of curvature; periphery angular, but not keeled; suture inserted below peripheral angle, level with subperipheral cord creating a narrow channel. First teleoconch whorl sculptured initially only with axial pliculae (± 30); 3–4 spiral cords develop during second whorl; cords crossed by crispate axial pliculae; third and subsequent whorls with 5–6 broad, rather uneven spiral cords above and including peripheral one; subsutural cord rendered coronate by well-developed triangular nodules arising from approximately alternate axial pliculae; nodules frequently apically bifid on later whorls; interaction of spiral and axial elements producing a foveolate sculpture with rectangular to D-shaped pits; shell also sculptured by broad, opisthocline (rarely orthocline) ribs, stronger in some specimens than others, 11–15 on last adult whorl; ribs for the most part arising from subsutural coronations (not invariably), strongest at periphery and rendering shell circumference undulant or even weakly stellate (infrequent). Base sculptured by 6–8 spiral cords; cords near umbilicus weaker than those toward periphery; axial pliculae evident in cord intervals, especially that between peripheral and subperipheral cords, weakest and almost obsolete near umbilicus; pliculae interact with cords causing some weak granulation of the latter; umbilicus closed in adults, but patent in very young individuals. Peristome oblique; aperture D-shaped, flattened at parietal and columella lips; columella (at maturity) with a relatively prominent tooth approximately one third of length from basal lip, occasionally also with a very low swelling apical to this; interior of outer lip with up to 16 spiral lirae running into aperture (only in mature shells), those nearest shell axis may terminate on base of columella and appear as small denticles below columella tooth; outer lip prosocline, its margin thin, but becoming thicker internally.

Microsculpture ( Fig. 53B, C View Fig ): Juvenile shell with finely granular microsculpture, vermiform spiral threads not evident; adult shell with well-developed scratch-like microsculpture, which is filled with intritacalx deposit in fresh shells.

Protoconch ( Fig. 53A, C View Fig ): Translucent white; diameter ca 260 µm; not projecting above first teleoconch whorl, shell apex thus appearing truncated and somewhat tilted; missing or badly eroded in most specimens; surface sculptured with a fine, irregular granulation; terminal lip strongly angled above mid-whorl.

Colour: Ground colour generally greyish white to pale buff; basal spiral cords commonly marked with brown flecks; some specimens with a reddish or brown spiral band below suture and another at periphery; entire surface covered with off-white, chalky intritacalx deposit. One specimen almost entirely brownish grey, with a dark, ash-grey intritacalx. Most shells encrusted to some degree with other organisms, frequently coralline algae and bryozoans.

Dimensions: Largest NMSA specimen (E4265), length 16.0 mm, diameter 11.6 mm. Operculum ( Fig. 4M View Fig ): Initially tightly multispiral, but whorls broadening with growth and becoming more openly multispiral.

Radula ( Fig. 53D–F View Fig ): Formula ∞+3+1+3+∞, with ca 60 transverse rows of teeth; lateral flanges of rachidian well developed creating a distinct hood, cusp with a strong transverse basal ridge, the apex broadly trigonal with stout denticles, a larger, lanceolate median one and 2 or 3 smaller ones on each side. Laterals overlapping extensively, their cusps trigonal and noticeably asymmetrical; central denticle largest, lateral denticles well developed on outer margin, progressively decreasing in size toward tooth shaft; inner margin with fewer denticles. Marginals numerous and slender, cusps of inner ones recurved and coarsely pectinate, outer ones spathulate distally with a feathered edge.

External anatomy ( Figs 5B View Fig , 6E View Fig ): Body white with pale brownish maculations on sides of foot and underside of epipodium, snout heavily marked (transversely) with dark brown to black. Snout expanded laterally, but not strongly so; free margin of cephalic lappets relatively coarsely divided (2–3 digits); right post-ocular peduncle well developed, arising beside base of eyestalk, somewhat flattened and with a distinct dorsal groove; right subocular tentacle not evident; left neck lobe with numerous tentacles of varying size, right lobe with finely fimbriate margin and approx. 3 tentacles in anterior half; 6 or 7 large epipodial tentacles on each side, with frequent smaller intermediary tentacles of varying size; an indistinct epipodial sense organ present at base of larger epipodial tentacles, none evident under neck lobes.

Type material: Three syntypes of M. angulifera A. Adams, 1853 , in NHMUK (1968215), the largest is here figured and designated lectotype ( Fig. 52A View Fig ), length 12.9 mm, diameter 8.9 mm. Holotype of C. pliciferus Schepman, 1908 ( Fig. 52C View Fig ), in ZMAN (3.08.028). Holotype of T. montrouzieri Fischer, 1878 ( Fig. 52B View Fig ), in MHNB (Herbert 1996) and there is an ‘ ex auctore ’ specimen in MNHN, but this has no type status.

Regional material examined (all NMSA unless indicated otherwise): KENYA: Shimoni (4.6482°S 39.3814°E), dredge 1+2, J.D. Taylor (NHMUK). MAURITIUS: off Tombeau Bay (20.1017°S 57.5025°E), -25– 25 m, CSIR Water Research (L2724); RÉUNION: off Baie de St-Paul, Marion-Dufresne 32, st’n DC85 (21.00°S 55.25°E), - 58–70 m, dredged, 1982 (MNHN); off St-Gilles-les-Bains, Marion-Dufresne 32, st’n DC56 (21.083°S 55.200°E), - 170–225 m, dredged, 1982 (MNHN); off Souris Chaude (21.383°S 55.667°E), - 65 m, hand-dredged sand, J. Drivas, 1993 (L548); Réunion, not further localized (M. Jay coll’n, MNHN). RODRIGUES: 160 miles south (21.350°S 65.867°E), Anton Bruun 2, st’n 124F (USNM 716607). MOZAMBIQUE: Nacala area, Fernão Veloso Bay (14.4312°S 40.7003°E), - 8–10 m, x.1998, C. Fernandes (J. Rosado coll’n); 50 miles SE of Beira (20.5000°S 35.7167°E), - 62 m, Anton Bruun 8, St’n 400C, IIOE ( USNM 718524 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; off Lacerda lighthouse, 50 km north of Maputo (25.56167°S 32.84472°E), - 50–56 m, dredged J. Rosado, v.2010 (J Rosado coll’n) GoogleMaps ; off Ponta Techobanine (26.68132°S 32.95093°E), - 68–75 m, dredged J. Rosado, xii.2005 (J. Rosado coll’n) GoogleMaps . SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal: off Kosi Bay (26.8916°S 32.9266°E), - 51 m, sand, stones, large algae, dredged NMDP, RV Sardinops , st’n ZA48, (S8959) GoogleMaps ; SE of Kosi River mouth (26.9100°S 32.9217°E), living, - 50 m, medium sand, algae, dredged NMDP, RV Meiring Naude, st’n ZA9, (D6180, D6182) GoogleMaps ; ditto (26.9167°S 32.9300°E), - 65 m, sponge, gorgonians, medium sand, dredged NMDP, RV Meiring Naude, st’n ZA12, (D8183) GoogleMaps ; ditto (26.9217°S 32.9233°E), living, - 50 m, medium sand, rubble, dredged NMDP, RV Meiring Naude, st’n ZA11, (D8960) GoogleMaps ; off Boteler Point (27.00°S 32.92°E), - 70 m, coral rubble, dredged NMDP, RV Meiring Naude, st’n ZB5, (D6382, E1762) GoogleMaps ; ditto (27.013°S 32.905°E), living, - 50 m, dead coral rubble, lithothamnion, dredged NMDP, RV Meiring Naude, st’n ZB2, (D9209) GoogleMaps ; ditto (27.013°S 32.918°E), - 70 m, some coarse sand, some shell rubble, dredged NMDP, RV Meiring Naude, st’n ZB4, (D7412) GoogleMaps ; ditto (27.0183°S 32.9200°E), - 78 m, coarse sand, dredged NMDP, RV Meiring Naude, st’n ZB6, (D7476) GoogleMaps ; NE of Dog Point (27.0800°S 32.8867°E), - 56–57 m, sand, lithothamnion pebbles, dredged NMDP, RV Sardinops , st’n ZC8, (S5072) GoogleMaps ; ditto (27.08000°S 32.89167°E), living, - 65 m, sand, lithothamnion pebbles, dredged NMDP, RV Sardinops , st’n ZC9, (S7597) GoogleMaps ; SE of Rocktail Bay (27.2017°S 32.8300°E), living, - 60 m, coarse sand, dredged NMDP, RV Sardinops , st’n ZD9, (S5250) GoogleMaps ; NE of Liefeldt’s Rocks (27.7167°S 32.6650°E), - 50 m, lithothamnion, medium sand, dead coral rubble, dredged NMDP, RV Meiring Naude, st’n ZJ6, (E4265) GoogleMaps ; ditto (27.72000°S 32.66167°E), living, - 50 m, lithothamnion, stones, some coarse sand, dredged NMDP, RV Meiring Naude, st’n ZJ1, (E4344) GoogleMaps ; ditto (27.7230°S 32.6633°E), - 50 m, medium sand with some stones, dredged NMDP, RV Meiring Naude, st’n ZJ5, GoogleMaps (E3417).

Other material examined: ARABIAN SEA: Gulf of Oman , Townsend ( NMGW). ANDAMAN ISLANDS: Port Blair, Winckworth coll’n ( NHMUK).NEW GUINEA: off west side of Lolorua Is., SW of Port Moresby, - 13–18 m , Ponder & Colman ( AMS); New Britain, J. Brazier ( AMS C11849 ). AUSTRALIA: Flinders Passage , 7(?) fath. [- 13 m] Challenger ( NHMUK); Gulf of Carpentaria, 10 mls SW of Mapoon, - 128 m ( AMS) ; off Murray Is., Torres Strait, - 9–15 m, C. Hedley ( AMS); east of Banks Is. , Torres Strait, - 18 m , BMR st’n 522 ( AMS); Cape York Peninsula , Albany Passage, 4–14 fath. [- 7–26 m], C. Hedley ( AMS); ½ ml west of North Direction Is., - 36.5 m , Great Barrier Reef Exped’n, dredged, st’n 16, 1929 ( AMS); 2 mls NE of west side of Gillet Cay , Swains Reef, southern Great Barrier Reef, 30–40 fath. [- 55–73 m] ( AMS). NEW CALEDONIA (all ORSTOM, MNHN): Secteur de Poum, st’n 1027 (20°03'S 163°51'E), - 29 m GoogleMaps ; secteur de Poum, st’n 1017 (20°08'S 163°51'E), - 21 m; secteur de Nouméa, st’n 56 (22°10'S 166°15'E), - 11 m; secteur de Nouméa, st’n 285 (22°24'S 166°26'E), living, - 19 m; secteur de Nouméa, st’n 271 (22°15'S 166°21'E), - 22 m; secteur de Koumac, st’n 942 (20°37'S 164°13'E), living, - 15 m.

Distribution and habitat ( Fig. 54 View Fig ): Indo-West Pacific; from SE Asia and northern Australia, to the Andaman Islands, Maldive archipelago (Smith 1903), Mascarene Islands and the continental margin of the western Indian Ocean, from Muscat (Melvill 1928) south to northern South Africa. Off Zululand, this species was dredged, in relative abundance, amongst old coral rubble and pebbles encrusted with Lithothamnion growths lying on a substratum of coarse bioclastic sand, at depths of - 50–80 m (living specimens - 50–65 m). Cantharidus pliciferus was also found on a substratum described as a ‘ Lithothamnion bottom’ ( Schepman 1908). In fully tropical areas the bathymetric range evidently extends into shallower water (to - 10 m). Deep-water material from Réunion (- 170–225 m) comprised only long-dead specimens that probably originated in shallower habitats on the island’s steeply shelving coast.

Remarks: South-western Indian Ocean examples of this species generally have fewer (11–15), broader axial ribs than is typical (18 on last adult whorl in NHMUK types) and the axial pliculae between the spirals cords are less close-set. However, in other respects they are indistinguishable and I have little hesitation in referring them to Adams’ species. Such small differences are not unexpected in material from such widely separated localities. Cantharidus pliciferus Schepman, 1908 from the Sulu Archipelago is simply a subadult specimen of the present species and Tectaria montrouzieri Fischer, 1878 from New Caledonia, is a very typical adult (Herbert 1996), albeit rather small.

The broad, opisthocline ribs of this species set it apart from all others of the genus, even those of similar size, e.g. P. chinensis (Sowerby, 1888) from Hong Kong ( Fig. 71A, B View Fig ), P. maculata ( Brazier, 1877) from northern Australia ( Fig. 71C, D View Fig ) and P. elisa (Gould, 1849) from Singapore. Amongst local species, P. konos is very much smaller and P. stellata has a carinate and strongly stellate periphery.


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Perrinia angulifera (A. Adams, 1853 )

Herbert, D. G. 2012

Perrinia plicifera:

POPPE, G. T. & TAGARO, S. P. 2008: 180
POPPE, G. T. & TAGARO, S. P. & DEKKER, H. 2006: 45

Perrinia angulifera

HYLLEBERG, J. & KILBURN, R. N. 2003: 26

Turcica montrouzieri:

JANSEN, P. 1996: 10

Cantharidus pliciferus: Schepman 1908: 43

SCHEPMAN, M. M. 1908: 43

Tectaria montrouzieri


Monodonta angulifera: A. Adams 1853: 176

ADAMS, H. & ADAMS, A. 1853: 176
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