Symphylella communa Jin & Bu, 2020

Jin, Ya-Li & Bu, Yun, 2020, Two new species of the genus Symphylella (Symphyla, Scolopendrellidae) from East China, ZooKeys 1003, pp. 1-18 : 1

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Symphylella communa Jin & Bu

sp. nov.

Symphylella communa Jin & Bu sp. nov. Figures 4 View Figure 4 , 5 View Figure 5 , 6 View Figure 6 , Tables 4, 5, 6


Symphylella communa sp. nov. is characterized by the chaetotaxy of the first tergite composed by 4+4 setae, processes of tergites somewhat longer or the same length with broad, most of lateralmaginal setae long, anterolateral setae of tergites 2-4, 6, 7, 9, and 10 distinctly longer than other lateromarginal setae, approximately as long as processes of the same tergite, cerci with numerous subequal and slightly curved setae.

Material examined.

Holotype, male (slide no. SH-DJS-SY2015048) (SNHM), China, Shanghai, Dajinshan Island, extracted from soil samples of broad-leaf forest, alt. 103 m, 30°41'N, 121°26'E, 30-VI-2015, coll. Y. Bu & Y. L. Jin. Paratypes, 1 male (slide no. SH-DJS-SY2015023) (SNHM), 10 females (slides no. SH-DJS-SY2015001, SH-DJS-SY2015018-SH-DJS-SY2015022, SH-DJS-SY2015024, SH-DJS-SY2015025, SH-DJS-SY2015048, SH-DJS-SY2015055) (SNHM), same data as holotype; 2 males (slides no. SH-DJS-SY2015099, SH-DJS-SY2015108) (SNHM), 1 female (slide no. SH-DJS-SY2015107) (SNHM), ibidem, 22-IX-2015; 4 males (slides no. SH-DJS-SY2015083, SH-DJS-SY2015124, SH-DJS-SY2015125) (SNHM), 5 females (slides no. SH-DJS-SY2015058, SH-DJS-SY2015059, SH-DJS-SY2015079, SH-DJS-SY2015122, SH-DJS-SY2015123) (SNHM), ibidem, extracted from soil samples of bamboo forest, 22-IX-2015, coll. Y. Bu & Y. L. Jin; 5 females (slides no. SH-DJS-SY2015117, SH-DJS-SY2015118, SH-DJS-SY2015120, SH-DJS-SY2015121) (SNHM), ibidem, extracted from soil samples of broad-leaf forest, 22-IX-2015, coll. Y. Bu & Y. L. Jin; 1 female (slide no. ZJ-GTS-SY2012018) (SNHM), 1 male (slide no. ZJ-GTS-SY2012009) (SNHM), Zhejiang, Gutian Mountain, extracted from soil samples of broad-leaf forest, alt. 800 m, 29°15'N, 118°06'E, 11-IV-2012, coll. Y. Bu et al.; 1 male (slide no. ZJ-GTS-SY2012021) (SNHM), ibidem, 16-V-2012; 1 female (slide no. ZJ-GTS-SY2012041) (SNHM), ibidem, 19-VI-2012; 1 female (slide no. ZJ-GTS-SY2012045) (SNHM), ibidem, 14-X-2012; 1 female (slide no. ZJ-GTS-SY2012054) (SNHM), ibidem, 17-XI-2012, coll. Y. Bu et al.; 4 females (slides no. JS-WX-SY2017012, JS-WX-SY2017017, JS-WX-SY2017018, JS-WX-SY2017033) (SNHM), 1 male (slide no. JS-WX-SY2017035) (SNHM), China, Jiangsu, Wuxi, Daji Mountain, extracted from soil samples of broad-leaf forest, alt. 5 m, 31°32'N, 120°12'E, 9-X-2017, coll. Y. Bu. Non-type specimens: 37 juveniles with 7-10 pairs of legs, same data as holotype; 6 juveniles with 7-10 pairs of legs, ibidem, 22-IX-2015; 32 juveniles with 7-10 pairs of legs, 22-IX-2015; 8 juveniles with 7-10 pairs of legs, 23-IX-2015, ibidem, extracted from soil samples of bamboo forest, 22-IX-2015, coll. Y. Bu & Y. L. Jin; 1 juvenile with 9 pairs of legs (slide no. ZJ-GTS-SY2012011), Zhejiang, Gutian Mountain, 11-IV-2012; 1 juvenile with 9 pairs of legs, ibidem, 19-VI-2012; 4 juveniles with 8 pairs of legs, ibidem, 15-VII-2012; 1 juvenile with 9 pairs of legs, ibidem, 19-IX-2012; 3 juveniles with 8 or 10 pairs of legs, ibidem, 14-X-2012; 3 juveniles with 8-10 pairs of legs, ibidem, 17-XI-2012; 6 juveniles with 8-9 pairs of legs, ibidem, 12-XII-2012; 1 juvenile with 8 pairs of legs, ibidem, 23-I-2013; 2 juveniles with 8 or 10 pairs of legs, ibidem, 27-III-2013; 1 juvenile with 10 pairs of legs, ibidem, 24-IV-2013, coll. Y. Bu et al.; 12 juveniles with 7-10 pairs of legs, Jiangsu, Wuxi, Daji Mountain, 9-X-2017, coll. Y. Bu.


Adult body 2.2 mm long in average (1.7-3.1 mm, n = 40), holotype 2.1 mm (Fig. 4A View Figure 4 ).

Head length 200-290 μm, width 200-350 μm, with widest part somewhat behind the middle on a level with the points of articulation of mandibles (Fig. 4F View Figure 4 ). Central rod distinct, divided into two parts by a node-like interruption in the middle. Anterior branches normal, median branches vestigial. Head dorsally covered with setae of different length, longest setae (25-38 μm) located most anteriorly, at least 3.0 times as long as central shortest ones (8-11 μm). Cuticle on anterolateral part of head with fine coarse granules.

Tömösváry organ globular (Fig. 4F View Figure 4 ), diameter 13-25 μm, 0.4-0.6 of greatest diameter of third antennomere (34-45 μm), opening round with length about half of greatest diameter of the organ, inner margins of openings covered with uniform vertical striae.

Mouthparts. Mandible with two fused lamellae and 11 teeth in total (Fig. 6A View Figure 6 ). First maxilla has two lobes, inner lobe with four hooked teeth, outer lobe with teethed apex, palp straight, conical, pointed (Fig. 6B View Figure 6 ). Anterior part of second maxilla with numerous small protuberances which carry one seta each, distal setae thicker and spiniform; posterior part with sparse setae (Fig. 4G View Figure 4 ). Cuticle of maxilla and labium covered with dense pubescence (Fig. 4G View Figure 4 ).

Antennae with 15-20 antennomeres, length 500-720 μm (550 μm in holotype), about one-quarter of body length. First antennomere shorter than second one, greatest diameter 1.2-1.7 times as wide as long (34-43 μm, 20-35 μm), with five to seven setae in one whorl, longest seta (20-21 μm) inserted at inner side and distinctly longer than outer ones (11-12 μm). Second antennomere wider (29-44 μm) than long (23-35 μm), with 6-10 setae evenly inserted around the antennal wall with interior setae (20-22 μm) slightly longer than exterior ones (13-15 μm). Chaetotaxy of third antennomere similar to preceding ones. Setae on proximal antennomeres longer and on distal antennomeres shorter. Proximal antennomeres with only primary whorl of setae (Fig. 4B View Figure 4 ). Secondary whorl appearing ventrally on antennomeres 6-12 (Fig. 4E View Figure 4 ). Three kinds of sensory organs on antenna: rudimentary spined sensory organs on dorsal side of most antennomeres except first antennomere (Figs 4D View Figure 4 , 6D View Figure 6 ); cavity-shaped organs on antennomeres 3-6 next to apical one, occasionally on apical antennomere (Figs 4D View Figure 4 , 6D View Figure 6 ); bladder-shaped organs on antennomeres 6-11 next to apical one increasing in number on subdistal antennomeres to a maximum of 16 (Figs 4C, E View Figure 4 , 6D View Figure 6 ). Apical antennomere subspherical, somewhat longer than wide (length 26-38 μm, width 25-28 μm), with 12-18 setae on distal half; two to five spined sensory organs consisting of three or four curved spines around a central pillar in depressions in distal surface (Figs 4D, E View Figure 4 , 6C View Figure 6 ). All antennomeres covered with short pubescence. Chaetotaxy and sensory organs of antennae are given in Table 4 View Table 4 .

Trunk with 17 dorsal tergites. Tergites 2-13, and 15 each with one pair of triangular processes. Length from base to tip of processes somewhat shorter than or the same as its basal width; basal distance between processes of tergites 4-13, and 15 longer than their length from base to tip (Table 5 View Table 5 ). All processes with round swollen ends (Figs 5B-E, G View Figure 5 ). Anterolateral setae of tergites 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9 and 10 distinctly longer than other lateromarginal setae, approach length of process of same tergite (Fig. 5B-D View Figure 5 ), that of tergites 5, 8, 11, 13 and 15 subequal or slightly shorter than longest ones of other lateromarginal (Fig. 5E, G View Figure 5 ). Processes with one to three inserted setae. All tergites pubescent (Fig. 5B-G View Figure 5 ).

Tergite. Tergite 1 reduced, with eight or nine unequal length setae in two groups (4+4 or 4+5) (Fig. 5A View Figure 5 ). Tergite 2 complete, with two broad posterior processes, five to seven lateromarginal setae, one to three inserted setae, two or three central setae, with anterolateral setae 0.8-1.2 times as long as length of process, processes 0.8-1.0 time as long as broad, basal distance between processes 0.3-0.9 time as long as their length (Fig. 5B View Figure 5 ). Tergite 3 complete, broader and longer than preceding one with ratios of 0.7-1.3, 0.7-1, and 0.5-1.1 respectively, 7-10 lateromarginal setae (Fig. 5C View Figure 5 ). Tergite 4 broader than tergite 3, with ratios 1-1.7, 0.8-0.6, and 1-2.6 respectively, six to eight lateromarginal setae (Fig. 5D View Figure 5 ). Chaetotaxy of tergites 5-7, 8-10, and 11-13 similar as tergites 2-4 (Fig. 5E View Figure 5 ). Pattern of alternating tergite lengths of two short-tergites followed by a long-tergite only disrupted at the caudal end (Table 5 View Table 5 ). Tergites 14 and 16 without processes and with 12-26 and 9-16 setae respectively (Fig. 5F View Figure 5 ). Tergite 17 with 18-27 setae. Chaetotaxy and measurements of tergites are given in Tables 5 View Table 5 and 6 View Table 6 .

Legs. First pair of legs reduced to two small, hairy cupules, each with at least one long setae (4-10 μm) (Fig. 4H View Figure 4 ). Leg 12 about same length of head (Fig. 6F View Figure 6 ), trochanter 1.2-1.8 times as long as wide (50-90 μm, 36-60 μm), with five to eight subequal setae; femur almost as long as wide (31-53 μm, 30-46 μm), with five or six setae and the dorsally protruding longest setae (20-27 μm) about 0.4-0.7 time of greatest diameter of podomere, laterally with cuticular thickenings in pattern of large scales; tibia nearly 1.3-1.9 times longer than wide (40-65 μm, 23-41 μm), with four to six dorsal setae: three straight and protruding, others slightly curved and depressed, longest seta 0.7-0.9 of greatest diameter of tibia; ventral setae distinctly shorter than dorsal ones; tarsus subcylindrical, about 3.1-4.2 times as long as wide (50-89 μm, 15-22 μm) with six dorsal setae: four straight and protruding, two curved and depressed; longest setae (16-25 μm) about same length or a little longer than greatest width of podomere; one or two ventral setae close to claw distinctly shorter than dorsal ones. Claws curved, anterior one somewhat longer and broader than posterior one, the latter more curved than the former. All legs covered with dense pubescences except areas with cuticular thickenings.

Coxal sacs present at bases of legs 3-9, fully developed, each with four or five setae on surface (Fig. 4J, K View Figure 4 ). Relevant area of leg 2, 11, and 12 replaced by 1-3, 1-2, and 1-2 setae respectively (Fig. 4I View Figure 4 ).

Styli present at base of legs 3-12, subconical (length 6-10 μm, width 3-6 μm), basal part with dense straight hairs; distal quarter hairless and blunt (3-5 μm) (Figs 4J, K View Figure 4 , 6G View Figure 6 ).

Sense calicles with smooth margin to pit. Sensory seta inserted in cup center, extremely long (120-180 μm).

Cerci about 0.4-0.8 of head length and leg 12, 2.4-3.3 times as long as its greatest width (115-178 μm, 37-63 μm), moderately covered with subequal length setae (Figs 5H View Figure 5 , 6E View Figure 6 ). Two types of setae inserted on cercus: slightly curved and depressed ones and three or four long and erect outer ones. Longest outer seta (23-32 μm) 0.5-0.7 of greatest width of cerci, terminal area (20-29 μm) short, circled by 7-10 layers of curved ridges. Terminal setae (25-30 μm) 1.0-1.4 times as long as terminal area.


The species name " communa " is derived from “common” which refer to the common morphology and wide distribution of the species.


China (Jiangsu, Shanghai, Zhejiang).


Symphylella communa sp. nov. is most similar to S. asiatica Scheller, 1971 from India and Sri Lanka and S. macropora Jin & Bu, 2019 from Tibet in the shape of the central rod, tergites, processes, anterolateral setae, and leg 12. It differs from S. asiatica and S. macropora in the size of the opening of the Tömösváry organ (moderate in S. communa sp. nov. vs very small in S. asiatica , extremely large in S. macropora ) and chaetotaxy of the first tergite (4+4 in S. communa sp. nov. and S. macropora vs 3+3 setae in S. asiatica ). It is also affiliated to S. neotropica (Hansen, 1903) from Brazil in the shape of tergites and processes, but can be easily distinguished by the central rod (both the anterior and posterior parts are in the same width in S. communa sp. nov. vs the anterior part is distinctly narrow than the posterior part in S. neotropica ).