Orobothriurus quewerukana, Ochoa & Ojanguren Affilastro & Mattoni & Prendini, 2011

Ochoa, José A., Ojanguren Affilastro, Andres A., Mattoni, Camilo I. & Prendini, Lorenzo, 2011, Systematic Revision Of The Andean Scorpion Genus Orobothriurus Maury, 1976 (Bothriuridae), With Discussion Of The Altitude Record For Scorpions, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 2011 (359), pp. 1-90 : 70-74

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https://doi.org/ 10.1206/359.1

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scientific name

Orobothriurus quewerukana

sp. nov.

Orobothriurus quewerukana View in CoL , n. sp. Figures 15C View Fig , 19C View Fig , 20D View Fig , 23F View Fig , 24D View Fig , 40D, E View Fig , 41–43 View Fig View Fig View Fig , 53 View Fig ; table 3

Orobothriurus dumayi: Maury, 1976: 21 , figs. 40– 44; Acosta and Ochoa, 2000: 136, 143. [misidentification].

TYPE MATERIAL: CHILE: Región I (Tarapaca´): Parinacota Province: Holotype ♂ ( AMNH), Putre, 6 km W, 18 ° 13926.80S 69 ° 32947.10W, 3732 m, 16.i.2005, A. Ojanguren Affilastro, C.I. Mattoni and J.A. Ochoa, UV and under stones. Paratypes: CHILE: Región I (Tarapaca´): Iquique Province : Termas de Mamiña , 8.viii.1967, J.C. Ortiz, 4 juv. (MACN-Ar 6846) ; Mamiña, 20 ° 04933.60S 69 ° 12905.40W, 2822 m, 19.i.2005, A. Ojanguren Affilastro, C.I. Mattoni and J.A. Ochoa, UV and under stones, small wet valley with old terrace cultivation, 2 ♂, 2 ♀, 14 juv. ( LBRE), 2 ♂, 2 ♀, 8 juv. (MACN-Ar), 2 ♂, 1 ♀, 1 subad. ♀ ( MHNC), 1 ♂, 1 ♀, 6 juv. ( MZUC). Parinacota Province: same data as holotype, 2 ♂, 2♀, 6juv. (MACN-Ar),2 ♂, 1♀, 3 juv. ( LBRE), 1 ♂, 1 ♀, 3 juv. ( MHNC), 1 subad. ♂ ( AMNH). PERU: Tacna Department: Tacna Province : Palca, 17 ° 469450S 69 ° 579040W, 3230 m, 26.ii.2000, J.A. Ochoa, 1 ♀ ( AMNH), 1 ♂, 2 ♀ ( MHNC) .

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL: CHILE: Región I (Tarapaca´): Iquique Province: Mamiña, 20 ° 04933.60 S 69 ° 12905.40W, 2822 m, 19.i.2005, A. Ojanguren Affilastro, C.I. Mattoni, and J.A. Ochoa, UV and under stones, small wet

valleywith oldterrace cultivation, 1 subad. ♂, 1 subad. ♀, 2 juv. ♂, 2 juv. ♀ ( AMNH [LP 4307]), 5 juv. ( AMNH), 5 juv. ( MHNC). Parinacota Province: Putre, 6 km W, 18 ° 13926.80 S 69 ° 32947.10W, 3732m, 16.i.2005,A. Ojanguren Affilastro, C.I. Mattoni and J.A. Ochoa, UV and under stones, 1 subad. ♂, 4 juv. ♂, 1 juv. ♀ ( AMNH [LP 4306]), 4 juv. ( LBRE), 3 juv. ( MHNC).

ETYMOLOGY: The specific name is a noun in apposition composed of two Quechua words, quewe, meaning ‘‘curved,’’ and rukana, meaning ‘‘finger.’’ It refers the strong curvature of the movable finger of the pedipalp chela in the adult male.

DIAGNOSIS: Orobothriurus quewerukana is closely related to O. curvidigitus and O. tamarugal (fig. 5), with which it shares the following characters: anterior margin of carapace with weak median projection (epistome; figs. 14C, 15C, D); pedipalp chela shape similar, with movable finger strongly curved in male (figs. 26C, 43C, 51A); pedipalp femur and patella more elongated in male than female; sternite VII with VSM carinae absent or obsolete (fig. 19A, C); metasomal segments I–IV with DL and ML carinae complete, granular, and VL carinae obsolete, smooth. Orobothriurus quewerukana may be separated from O. tamarugal by the shape of the lamina of the hemispermatophore (figs. 40E, 41D). The pedicel of the apex is narrower, and the frontal crest more developed and elongated in O. quewerukana ; the ventral border of the distal portion of the apex is slightly curved in O. quewerukana , but straight in O. tamarugal ; and one or two small folds, observed in the distal crest of 80 % of the specimens of O. quewerukana , are absent in the distal crest of O. tamarugal . The hemispermatophore of O. quewerukana is similar to that of O. curvidigitus , except for the slightly shorter frontal crest and the absence of folds in the distal crest (figs. 28B, 40E). The two species may be distinguished by the shape and granulation of the male telson vesicle, which is slightly deeper, with a length/height ratio of 3.59–4.00 (mean 5 3.76), and granulation on the entire ventral surface (fig. 23F), in O. quewerukana , compared with O. curvidigitus , in which the length/height ratio is 3.72–4.23 (mean 5 3.96) and granulation is present only on the anterior third of the ventral surface. The male pedipalp chela carinae are finely and densely granular in O. quewerukana and O. tamarugal (figs. 43D, E, 51B, C), but finely and sparsely granular to smooth in O. curvidigitus . These species may also be separated by the pigmentation pattern. Orobothriurus curvidigitus exhibits well-developed pigmentation on the carapace, tergites, metasoma, and pedipalps (figs. 11B, 12C, 13E), compared to O. quewerukana in which the pigmentation, especially that of the carapace and tergites, is faint or barely discernible (fig. 41) and O. tamarugal , in which it is absent (fig. 48).

DESCRIPTION: Based on holotype ♂ and paratypes. Measurements of holotype ♂ and paratype ♀ recorded in table 3.

Total length: ♂, 38.09–47.00 mm (n 5 8, mean 5 41.59 mm); ♀, 37.20–51.50 mm (n 5 8, mean 5 43.35).

Color: General color yellowish with light brown spots on carapace, tergites, and pedipalps; metasomal segments, ventral pigmentation slightly darker, especially in specimens from Palca (fig. 41). Carapace faintly spotted, especially laterally and posteriorly; anterior margin with two spots submedially (fig. 41A, C); posterolateral surfaces faintly pigmented; median ocular tubercle and lateral ocelli dark brown to black; anterior third of anteromedian longitudinal sulcus pigmented along borders; posteromedian longitudinal sulcus faintly pigmented or unpigmented; posterolateral sulci unpigmented. Chelicerae unpigmented. Pedipalp coxa, trochanter and femur usually unpigmented or faintly pigmented along DI and DE carinae (some juveniles); patella external and, usually, internal surfaces faintly spotted; chela unpigmented. Legs, only ventral margin of femur, and dorsal and ventral margins of patella pigmented (unpigmented in some adults). Tergites I–VI each with two faint spots sublaterally, extending along anterior twothirds, becoming broader near anterior margins, delimiting broad, unpigmented median stripe (fig. 41A, C); VII unpigmented (adults) or with two faint spots sublaterally (juveniles). Sternum, genital opercula, pectines and sternites III–VII unpigmented (fig. 41B, D). Metasomal segments I–III, dorsal surfaces each with two faint subtriangular spots medially, separated by narrow unpigmented line (juveniles) or unpigmented (adults, fig. 41); lateral surfaces unpigmented, except near VL carinae; ventral surface with narrow VM stripe on III (absent on I and II), not contiguous with lateral pigmentation, and two VL stripes on I–III (occasionally faint or absent on I) becoming broader in posterior third; specimens from Mamiña usually less pigmented: VL stripe absent on segments I and II; VM stripe often absent on III. Segment IV, dorsal surface unpigmented; lateral and ventral surfaces as for segment III. Segment V, dorsal surface unpigmented or faintly pigmented posteriorly; lateral surfaces pigmented in distal third; ventral surface with three stripes, two VL and one VM, becoming slightly broader in posterior half but not joining with lateral pigmentation. Telson vesicle unpigmented or with lateral surfaces faintly pigmented; aculeus sclerotized, dark reddish brown.

Chelicerae: Movable finger with two subdistal teeth.

Carapace: Surfaces finely granular, more coarsely so along anterior margin, anteromedian longitudinal and median ocular sulci (♂) or smooth in anterior third, finely granular elsewhere (♀). Anterior margin with weak median projection (epistome; fig. 14C). Anteromedian longitudinal sulcus complete, moderately developed; median ocular and posteromedian longitudinal sulci well developed; posterolateral sulci obsolete. Median ocular tubercle raised, situated anteromedially; median ocelli two ocular diameters apart.

Pedipalps: Femur, DI, DE, and VI carinae complete (fig. 42A), DI carina more strongly developed than DE and VI carinae; VM carina vestigial, finely granular proximally; EM carina complete, granular (♂) or obsolete, finely granular (♀, juveniles); dorsal surface finely granular; internal surface sparsely granular medially. Patella, DI, VI, and VE carinae complete, granular (fig. 42B–D); DE carina complete, less developed than DI carina (♂) or obsolete (♀); EM carina vestigial, reduced to few small granules medially (♂) or absent (♀); DPP carina comprising prominent granule and additional small granules proximally; VPP carina vestigial, comprising two or three small granules proximally; internal surface with prominent granule adjacent to trichobothrium i near DI carina. Chela manus slightly rounded, fingers relatively elongated (fig. 43); length/width ratio: ♂, 3.42–4.19, (n 5 9, mean 5 3.71), ♀, 3.54–4.22 (n 5 6, mean 5 3.87); length/height ratio: ♂, 2.95–3.32, (n 5 9, mean 5 3.07), ♀, 2.87–3.34 (n 5 6, mean 5 3.16); most carinae obsolete, finely granular (less so in ♀) or absent; VM carina restricted to proximal two-thirds of manus, VI carina to proximal third; DS, DMA, and DI carinae complete, finely and densely granular, especially near base of fixed finger (♂) or smooth (♀); D carina smooth; internal surface with acuminate apophysis (♂) or low bulge (♀) near articulation of movable finger (fig. 43A, D); movable finger (♂) strongly curved, creating small gap with fixed finger when fingers closed (fig. 43C); fingers, dentate margins each with median denticle row and 4–5 pairs of internal and external accessory denticles.

Trichobothria: Femur with 3 trichobothria, patella with 19, chela with 27 (figs. 42, 43). Chela trichobothrium Et 3 situated proximal to Est (in same axis as Est in one specimen); Esb situated dorsal to Eb 2.

Tergites: Tergites I–VI, surfaces finely granular, more coarsely and densely so in ♂. Tergite VII tetracarinate, paired DL carinae restricted to posterior two-thirds of segment, paired DSM carinae to posterior half; surfaces more coarsely and densely granular in posterior half.

Legs: Femur and patella, prolateral surfaces finely granular, retrolateral surfaces smooth. Femur, VI and EM carinae complete in ♂, less developed in ♀; DE and DI carinae vestigial. Patella acarinate. Telotarsi, proand retroventral rows of spiniform macrosetae with following counts on leg I, 1/1; II, 2/2; III and IV, 3/3.

Pectines: Pectinal tooth count: ♂, 20–24 (n 5 34, mode 5 22); ♀, 19–22 (n 5 24, mode 5 20).

Sternites: Sternites III–VI, surfaces smooth (♀) or matt in posterior three-quarters (♂); spiracles small, narrow. Sternite VII, surface smooth (♀) or finely granular (♂) (fig. 19C), acarinate.

Metasoma: Segment I, DL carinae complete; ML carinae complete, posterior granules more prominent than adjacent granulation; one pair of ML macrosetae; LIM carinae reduced to few granules in posterior third; VL carinae obsolete; VSM carinae absent (fig. 19C); two pairs of VL and VSM macrosetae. Segments I and II, ventral intercarinal surfaces finely granular (♂). Segments II–IV, surfaces between DL and ML carinae finely and sparsely granular, granulation decreasing posteriorly. Segments II and III, DL carinae complete; one pair of DL macrosetae in 14 % and 50 % of specimens, respectively; ML carinae as for segment I; LIM carinae reduced to few granules posteriorly on segment II, restricted to posterior third (♂) or absent (♀) on segment III; VL carinae as for segment I but less developed; VSM carinae absent; three pairs of VL and VSM macrosetae. Segment IV, DL carinae complete, granular; one pair of DL macrosetae; ML carinae complete, granular; LIM carinae absent; VL carinae as for segment III (absent in some subadult and juvenile specimens); VSM carinae absent; usually three pairs of VL and VSM macrosetae. Segment V, length/width ratio: ♂, 2.18–2.44 (n 5 6, mean 5 2.31), ♀, 2.01–2.20 (n 5 4, mean 5 2.10); DL carinae complete, granular; lateral surfaces sparsely granular near DL carinae (fig. 20D); VL carinae complete; VSM carinae reduced to few granules medially; VM carina complete, obscured by surface granulation in posterior half; usually three pairs of VL and VSM macrosetae; two pairs of macrosetae along posterior margin; ventral intercarinal surfaces, granulation decreasing anteriorly.

Telson: Length/height ratio: ♂, 3.59–4.00 (n 5 9, mean 5 3.76); ♀, 2.90–3.17 (n 5 6, mean 5 3.03). Vesicle slightly elongated (♂, fig. 23F) or globose (♀, fig. 24D); dorsal surface smooth, flat or slightly concave, gland not apparent (♂); ventral surface sparsely granular. Aculeus short and curved.

Hemispermatophore: Apex approximately half the length of lamina, distal border subtriangular and slightly curved to ventral margin; distal crest curved like ventral margin, with one or two small folds in 80 % of specimens. Frontal crest elongated; basal part oblique; distal part parallel to ventral margin of lamina, lateral projections complete, slightly undulated, and larger than basal part. Basal lobe, terminal process extending to constriction of frontal crest (fig. 40D, E).

DISTRIBUTION: Orobothriurus quewerukana is endemic to the western slopes of the Andes, at 2822–3732 m, in the Tacna Department of southern Peru and the Tarapacá Region of northern Chile (fig. 53).

ECOLOGY: The area inhabited by O. quewerukana belongs to the Serrania Esteparia ecoregion ( Brack, 1986) or Estepa Altoandina botanical region ( Gajardo, 1993), the vegetation of which is characterised by abundant cacti and some shrubs, like Baccharis L., Lupinus L., and Senecio L. Specimens were collected under stones during the day and with UV light detection at night. Orobothriurus quewerukana is sympatric with another bothriurid, Brachistosternus quiscapata Ochoa and Acosta, 2002 , at Palca and Putre.


American Museum of Natural History


Museo de Historia Natural de Concepcion (Chile)


Museo de Zoologia, Universidad de Concepcion














Orobothriurus quewerukana

Ochoa, José A., Ojanguren Affilastro, Andres A., Mattoni, Camilo I. & Prendini, Lorenzo 2011

Orobothriurus dumayi:

Acosta, L. E. & J. A. Ochoa 2000: 136
Maury, E. A. 1976: 21
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