Physoderes azrael Kirkaldy, 1905

Hwang, Wei Song & Weirauch, Christiane, 2017, Uncovering hidden diversity: phylogeny and taxonomy of Physoderinae (Reduviidae, Heteroptera), with emphasis on Physoderes Westwood in the Oriental and Australasian regions, European Journal of Taxonomy 341, pp. 1-118 : 71-76

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2017.341

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:12B0369B-62CC-4D3D-B933-5EF0FA9B49AA

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3850765

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/070787F6-FFBB-BB2C-EB5D-CE1DFDAE5404

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Physoderes azrael Kirkaldy, 1905
status

 

Physoderes azrael Kirkaldy, 1905

Figs 8–9 View Fig View Fig , 14 View Fig , 17 View Fig , 20 View Fig ; Appendix

Physoderus [sic] azrael Kirkaldy, 1905: 339 .

Diagnosis

This species is recognized among other species of Physoderes by the head being anteriorly light brown and posteriorly brown, the pronotum dark brown straw-colored or with a light brown humeral tubercle, the posterior margin, parascutellar lobe, scutellar process and base of the corium light brown, the short and conical head, the scape reaching the apex of the clypeus, the anterior pronotal lobe being equal to or slightly narrower than the posterior lobe, the parascutellar lobe being rounded and skewed towards the median, the semicircular scutellum, the spatulate and apically rounded scutellar process, the pronotum flattened in lateral view and the hemelytron reaching the tip of the abdomen. In the male genitalia, the following features are also diagnostic: the extremely narrow transverse bridge of the pygophore and the apically truncate endosomal struts, which are basally divided into two arms converging medially to form basally a ridge. This species is most similar to P. curculionis but can be differentiated by the coloration, elevation of the pronotum, shape of the abdomen and shape of the endosomal struts in males.

Material examined

Holotype

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: ♂, East New Britain Province, 5.76277° S, 151.1375° E, date unknown, Willey leg. ( UCR_ENT 00018531 ) ( BMNH).

GoogleMaps

Other material

FIJI: 1 juv., Ovalau, Andubangda, 17.64277° S, 178.74944° E, 305 m, 18 Jul. 1938, E.C. Zimmerman leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073576) ( BPBM); 1 juv., Viti Levu, Nadarivatu Co., 4 mi. S of Nadarivatu, 17.51° S, 177.91888° E, 732 m, 9 Sep. 1938, Y. Kondo leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073569) ( BPBM); 2 juvs, Nadarivatu, 17.51° S, 177.91888° E, 1067 m, 5 Sep. 1938, Y. Kondo leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073570, UCR _ENT 00073572) ( BPBM); 1 juv., Nadarivatu, 17.51° S, 177.91888° E, 823 m, 7 Sep. 1938, Y. Kondo leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073571) ( BPBM); 1 juv., Viti Levu, 17.84833° S, 178.01194° E, 853 m, 11 Sep. 1938, E.C. Zimmerman leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073568) ( BPBM); 1 juv., Belt Road, 16–18 mi. W of Suva, 18.015° S, 178.38388° E, 22 Sep. 1938, Y. Kondo leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073575) ( BPBM); 1 juv., Mt Victoria, train from Navai, 17.61638° S, 178.01222° E, 600 m, 2 Jul. 1958, B. Malkin leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073573) ( BPBM); 1 juv., Navai, 17.61638° S, 177.97694° E, Jan. 1951, N.L.H. Krauss leg. ( UCR _ ENT 00073574) ( BPBM).

INDONESIA: Maluku Province: 1 ♀, Larat, 7.14521° S, 131.88479° E, Dec. 1907, collector unknown ( UCR _ENT 00046675)( CAS).– Papua Province: 1♀, Hollandia,Neth.Ind-Amer.(Jayapura), 2.54138°S, 140.71361° E, Jul.1938,L.J.Toxopeus leg.( UCR _ENT 00023997)( RMNH); 1♀,Maffin Bay, 2.09222°S, 139.01472° E, Jun. 1944, E.S. Ross ( UCR _ENT 00046670) ( CAS); 1 ♂, same collection data as preceding but Sep. 1944 ( UCR _ENT 00046659) ( CAS). – West Papua Province: 1 ♂, Vogelkop, Sucumi Camo, near head of Ransiki River, 1.5° S, 132.5° E, 300 m, 6 Aug. 1957, D.E. Hardy leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073538) ( BPBM).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Bougainville Province: 1 ♂, Buin, 6.81361° S, 155.73194° E, 29 m, 31 May 1956, J.L. Gressitt leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073536) ( BPBM); 3 ♂♂, Kieta, 6.23638° S, 155.64388° E, 31 May 1960, R.W. Paine leg. ( UCR _ENT 00069325– UCR _ENT 00069327); 4 ♀♀, same collection data as preceding ( UCR _ENT 00069332– UCR _ENT 00069335) ( BMNH); 1 ♂, Kukugai, 6.05194° S, 155.19194° E, 150 m, Dec. 1960, W.W. Brandt leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073535) ( BPBM); 1 ♀, same collection data as preceding ( UCR _ENT 00073553) ( BPBM). – East New Britain Province: 3 ♀♀, Gazelle Peninsula, Gaulim, 4.45° S, 152.08333° E, 130 m, 23–28 Oct. 1962, J. Sedlacek leg. ( UCR _ ENT 00073542– UCR _ENT 00073544) ( BPBM); 1 ♀, Gazelle Peninsula, Upper Warangoi, Illugi, 4.71472° S, 151.97944° E, 15 Dec. 1962, J. Sedlacek leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073567) ( BPBM); 1 ♂, Gazelle Peninsula, Upper Warangoi, Illugi, 4.48333° S, 152.15° E, 230 m, 8–11 Dec. 1962, J. Sedlacek leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073520) ( BPBM); 2 ♀♀, same collection data as preceding ( UCR _ENT 00073565, UCR _ENT 00073566) ( BPBM); 1 ♂, Gazelle Peninsula, Gaulim, 4.45° S, 142.08333° E, 23 May 1956, J.L. Gressitt leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073523); 1 ♀, same collection data as preceding ( UCR _ENT 00073541) ( BPBM); 1 ♀, Gazelle Peninsula, Gaulim, 4.44472° S, 152.08444° E, 140 m, 21–27 Oct. 1962, J. Sedlacek leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073540) ( BPBM); 3 ♂♂, same collection data as preceding but 19–20 Nov. 1962 ( UCR _ENT 00073516– UCR _ENT 00073518) ( BPBM); 1 ♂, Karavat, 4.35194° S, 152.04194° E, Jul. 1957, R.W. Paine leg. ( UCR _ENT 00069324) ( BMNH); 1 ♀, Keravat, 4.35° S, 152.03334° E, 30 m, 2 Apr. 1956, E.J. Ford Jr leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073562) ( BPBM); 2 ♀♀, Kerawat, Gazelle Peninsula, 4.35194° S, 152.04194° E, 60 m, 27 Aug. 1955, J.L. Gressitt leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073545, UCR _ENT 00073546) ( BPBM); 1 ♂, Rabaul, 4.19611° S, 152.17305° E, 17 Aug. 1930, J.L. Froggatt leg. ( UCR _ ENT 00046662) ( CAS); 1 ♀, same collection data as preceding but 17 May 1932 ( UCR _ENT 00046669) ( CAS); 1 ♂, Rabaul, 4.175° S, 152.23083° E, 4 Jul. 1959, J.L. Gressitt leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073519); 1 ♀, same collection data as preceding ( UCR _ENT 00073559) ( BPBM); 1 ♀, near Rabaul, 4.175° S, 152.24805°E, Feb.1929,collector unknown( UCR _ENT00046668)( CAS); 1♀,Jaquinot Bay, 5.54638°S, 151.51722° E, 3 Dec. 1969, J.E. Tobler leg. ( UCR _ENT 00046672) ( CAS); 1 ♀, Wunung Plains, Jacquinot Bay, 5.56472° S, 151.57111° E, 30 Apr. 1956, J.L. Gressitt leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073560) ( BPBM); 1 ♂, Malmalwan-Vunakanau, Gazelle Peninsula, 4.6667° S, 152° E, 17 May 1956, J.L Gressitt leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073521) ( BPBM). – West New Britain Province: 1 ♂, Talasea, Narunageru Road, 5.53916° S, 150.13555° E, 22 Nov. 1969, J.E. Tobler leg. ( UCR _ENT 00046663) ( CAS); 1 ♂, Linga Linga Plantation, W of Willaumez Peninsula lm. [?], 5.79944° S, 149.38083° E, 13Apr. 1956, J.L. Gressitt leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073522) ( BPBM); 1 ♀, Volupai, Willaumez Peninsula, 5.26916° S, 149.97638° E, 100 m, 18 Apr. 1956, J.L. Gressitt leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073561) ( BPBM). – New Ireland Province: 1 ♀, Camp Bishop, 12 km up Kait River, 240 m, 7 Jul. 1956, E.J. Ford Jr leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073564) ( BPBM); 1 ♂, ridge above Camp Bishop, 15 km up Kait River, 4.48744° S, 152.76638° E, 284 m, 9 Jul. 1956, J.L. Gressitt leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073539) ( BPBM); 1 ♀, same collection data as preceding ( UCR _ ENT 00073563) ( BPBM); 2 ♂♂, Wana Wana, 4.52666° S, 152.40555° E, Nov. 1960, R.W. Paine leg. ( UCR _ENT 00069322, UCR _ENT 00069323) ( BMNH). – Madang Province: 1 ♂, Madang, 5.23361° S, 145.78888° E, Sep. 1957, R.W. Paine leg. ( UCR _ENT 00069293) ( BMNH). – Milne Bay Province: 1 ♂, Woodlark Island Co., Kulumadau Hill Mar., 9.05° S, 152.71667° E, 25 Feb. 1957, W.W. Brandt leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073537) ( BPBM). – Morobe Province: 1 ♀, Huon Penninsula Co., Finschhafen, 6.55527° S, 147.17361° E, 2 May 1944, E.S. Ross leg. ( UCR _ENT 00046671) ( CAS); 1 ♂, 18 Nov. 1969, J.E. Tobler leg. ( UCR _ENT 00046661) ( CAS); 2 ♂♂, Bumayong, 6.63444° S, 147.0025° E, Jul. 1957, R.W. Paine leg. ( UCR _ENT 00069292, UCR _ENT 00069316) ( BMNH); 1 ♀, same collection data as preceding ( UCR _ENT 00069304) ( BMNH); 1 ♀, same collection data as preceding but Sep. 1957 ( UCR _ENT 00069303) ( BMNH); 5 ♀♀, Gurakor, 6.73972° S, 146.615° E, 610 m, Jul. 1957, R.W. Paine leg. ( UCR _ENT 00069309, UCR _ENT 00069310, UCR_ENT 00069329– UCR _ENT 00069331) ( BMNH); 3 ♂♂, same collection data as preceding ( UCR _ENT 00069317– UCR _ENT 00069319) ( BMNH); 1 ♀, Lae, 6.81444° S, 146.80416° E, Jul. 1957, R.W. Paine leg. ( UCR _ENT 00069301) ( BMNH); 5 ♂♂, same collection data as preceding but May 1957 ( UCR _ENT 00069290, UCR _ENT 00069291, UCR_ENT 00069294, UCR_ENT 00069314, UCR _ENT 00069321) ( BMNH); 6 ♀♀, same collection data as preceding ( UCR _ENT 00069296– UCR _ENT 00069300, UCR _ENT 00069308) ( BMNH); 3 ♀♀, same collection data as preceding but date only as 1957 ( UCR _ENT 00069305– UCR _ ENT 00069307) ( BMNH); 1 ♂, same collection data as preceding ( UCR _ENT 00069315) ( BMNH); 1 ♂, Sio, N coast, 5.95333° S, 147.3925° E, 600 m, 24 Jul. 1956, E.J. Ford Jr leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073524) ( BPBM); 1 ♀, Yalu, Lae, 6.5875° S, 146.87666° E, Apr. 1957, R.W. Paine leg. ( UCR _ENT 00069311); 1 ♂, same collection data as preceding ( UCR _ENT 00069320) ( BMNH); 1 ♀, Rooke Island (= Umboi Island), 5.71972° S, 147.71666° E, Jan. 1957, R.W. Paine leg. ( UCR _ENT 00069313) ( BMNH).

SOLOMON ISLANDS: Central Province: 1 ♂, Nggela Hagalo, 9.06638° S, 160.21138° E, 88 m, 25 May 1936, R.A. Lever leg. ( UCR _ENT 00069328) ( BMNH). – Choiseul Island: 1 ♀, Kolombangara River, 7.05166° S, 156.95027° E, 60 m, 20 Mar. 1964, P. Shanahan leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073557) ( BPBM). – Guadalcanal: 1 ♂, Honiara Co., Kukum, 9.43361° S, 159.95111° E, 27 Oct. 1956, E.S. Brown leg. ( UCR _ENT 00069349) ( BMNH); 1 ♀, 9.6 km SE of Honiara, Lunga River bridge, 9.49471° S, 160.01181° E, 2 Jun. 1960, C.W. O’Brien leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073550) ( BPBM); 2 ♀♀, Berande, 9.49222° S, 160.17833° E, Nov. 1931, R. Lever leg. ( UCR _ENT 00046665, UCR _ENT 00046666) ( CAS); 1 ♂, Bonegi River, 9.435° S, 159.98527° E, 213 m, 14 Dec. 1934, R.A. Lever leg. ( UCR _ ENT 00069348) ( BMNH); 1 ♂, Guadalcanal Lavoro, 9.57722° S, 160.14555° E, 18 Feb. 1934, H.T. Pagden leg. ( UCR _ENT 00046660) ( CAS); 1 ♀, Kukum, 9.48916° S, 160.16944° E, Nov. 1931, R.J.A.W. Lever leg. ( UCR _ENT 00046674) ( CAS); 2 ♂♂, Kukum, 29 Oct. 1963, P. Greenslade leg. ( UCR _ENT 00069345, UCR _ENT 00069351); 4 ♀♀, same collection data as preceding ( UCR _ENT 00069354– UCR _ENT 00069357) ( BMNH); 1 ♂, Mt Austen, 9.61777° S, 160.12138° E, 9 Jun. 1965, P. Greenslade leg. ( UCR _ENT 00069344) ( BMNH); 1 ♂, same locality as preceding, 9 Jul. 1963, P. Greenslade leg. ( UCR _ENT 00069336) ( BMNH); 3 ♂♂, Mt Austen, 9.55472° S, 160.10666° E, 305 m, 25 Feb. 1963, P. Greenslade leg. ( UCR _ENT 00069341– UCR _ENT 00069343) ( BMNH); 2 ♀♀, same collection data as preceding ( UCR _ENT 00069361, UCR _ENT 00069362) ( BMNH); 1 ♀, same collection data as preceding but 19 Jun. 1963 ( UCR _ENT 00069367) ( BMNH); 1 ♂, same collection data as preceding ( UCR _ENT 00069368) ( BMNH); 2 ♂♂, same collection data as preceding but 11 Feb. 1963 ( UCR _ENT 00069337, UCR _ENT 00069338) ( BMNH); 1 ♂, same collection data as preceding but 23 Jun. 1963 ( UCR _ENT 00069339) ( BMNH); 1 ♂, same collection data as preceding but 4 Mar. 1963 ( UCR _ENT 00069340) ( BMNH); 2 ♀♀, same collection data as preceding but 29 Oct. 1963 ( UCR _ENT 00069365, UCR _ENT 00069366) ( BMNH); 1 ♂, Nr. Tatuve, Kolosulu, 9.65916° S, 160.16361° E, 19 May 1960, C.W. O’Brien leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073534) ( BPBM); 1 ♀, same collection data as preceding ( UCR _ENT 00073548) ( BPBM); 1 ♂, Paripao, 9.56667° S, 160.33333° E, 21 May 1960, C.W. O’Brien leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073525) ( BPBM); 2 ♂♂, Tenaru, 9.4475° S, 160.07555° E, 11 Aug. 1955, E.S. Brown leg. ( UCR _ENT 00069346, UCR _ENT 00069347) ( BMNH); 3 ♀♀, same collection data as preceding ( UCR _ENT 00069358– UCR _ENT 00069360) ( BMNH); 1 ♀, 9.64555° S, 160.15611° E, date unknown, W.M. Mann leg. ( UCR _ENT 00068917) ( AMNH); 2 ♂♂, Lunga, 9.42971° S, 160.04632° E, 10 Feb. 1958, P.G. Fenemore leg. ( UCR _ENT 00069352, UCR _ENT 00069353) ( BMNH); 1 ♀, same collection data as preceding ( UCR _ENT 00069363) ( BMNH); 1 ♀, same collection data as preceding but 29 Jul. 1955, E.S. Brown leg. ( UCR _ENT 00069364) ( BMNH); 1 ♂, Guadalcanal, 9.6 km SE of Honiara, Lunga, 9.49471° S, 160.01181° E, 2 Jun. 1960, C.W. O’Brien leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073527) ( BPBM). – Malaita Province: 1 ♀, Alite Island, 12 km NE of Dala, 8.6325° S, 160.69638° E, 300 m, 12 Jun. 1964, J. Sedlacek leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073555) ( BPBM); 1 ♀, Alite Island, Dala, 8.59027° S, 160.68555° E, 50 m, 9–14 Jun. 1964, J. and M. Sedlacek leg. ( UCR _ ENT 00073551) ( BPBM); 1 ♀, Alite Island, Tangtalau-Kwalo, 8.73333° S, 160.73333° E, 200 m, 30Sep.1957,J.L.Gressitt leg.( UCR _ENT00073554)( BPBM).–Santa Ysabel: 1♂, Sukapisu, 8.11444°S, 159.33638° E, 900 m, 19 Jun. 1960, C.W. O’Brien leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073533) ( BPBM); 1 ♀, same collection data as preceding but 18 Jun. 1960 ( UCR _ENT 00073558) ( BPBM). – Western Province: 1 ♀, Kolombangara, Pepele, 8.05° S, 156.96667° E, 30 m, 12 Feb. 1964, P. Shanahan leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073556) ( BPBM); 1 ♂, same collection data as preceding but 9 Feb. 1964 ( UCR _ENT 00073528) ( BPBM); 1 ♂, Gizo Island, Gizo, 8.1° S, 156.85° E, 100 m, Dec. 1976, N.L.H. Krauss leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073529) ( BPBM); 1 ♀, same collection data as preceding ( UCR _ENT 00073547) ( BPBM); 1 ♂, same collection data as preceding but Feb. 1984 ( UCR _ENT 00073526) ( BPBM); 1 ♂, New Georgia Islands Co., Banga, 8.28384° S, 157.21628° E, 12 Oct. 1964, E.S. Brown leg. ( UCR _ENT 00069350) ( BMNH); 1 ♀, Vella Lavella Island, Ulo Crater, 7.68555° S, 156.58472° E, 10 m, 21 Jul. 1963, P. Shanahan leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073552) ( BPBM); 1 ♀, Lunga River, 8.08638° S, 156.78083° E, 6 Nov. 1944, H.E. Milliron leg. ( UCR _ENT 00073549) ( BPBM).

Redescription

Male

BODY LENGTH. Medium, total length 8.58 mm, SD ± 0.16 (Appendix).

COLORATION ( Figs 14 View Fig , 17 View Fig ). Yellowish-brown and dark brown. Head anteriorly straw-colored, posteriorly brown. Antenna straw colored or light brown. First and second segments of labium light brown, third segment brown. Pronotum of thorax dark brown with straw-colored humeral tubercle, posterior margin and parascutellar lobe, scutellum dark brown basally, straw-colored apically including scutellar apex, pleuron dark brown with straw-colored suffusion, sternum dark brown. Corium of hemelytron base strawcolored, apex dark brown, membrane dark brown. Femora of legs straw-colored with medial and apical darkening, tibiae basally straw-colored and apically brown, tarsi and claws brown. Abdomen dorsally yellowish-orange, ventrally straw-colored with dark brown patterns, anterior half of connexivum dark brown, posterior half straw-colored, exposed part of pygophore dark brown.

VESTITURE. Densely setose. Head with some curved setae and short, fine, adpressed setae, ventral surface of postocular lobe with two rows of small, setigerous tubercles, with pair of long, straight setae on postocular lobe posterior to ocelli. Anterior lobe of thorax with irregular row of tuberculated, short, curved setae on lateral margins and fine, adpressed setae on dorsal surface, posterior lobe with short, sparse setae intermixed with short, tuberculated, curved setae. Corium of hemelytron with short, sparse, adpressed setae. Legs with two rows of spines and setigerous tubercles, tibia with regular rows of tuberculated, stout, sharp setae. Connexival margin of abdomen with a few clubbed setae on each segment or connexival margin with no prominent setae.

HEAD. Short conical; maxillary plate rounded apically; scape reaching apex of clypeus; eye hemispherical in dorsal view, less than 1/5 length of head.

THORAX. Antero-lateral paired projections acute, diverging; surface of anterior lobe with low ridges; median pronotal depression not contiguous with transverse sulcus; paramedian carina weakly defined; anterior pronotal lobe equal in length to posterior lobe, equal in width to or slightly narrower than posterior lobe, higher than posterior lobe in lateral view; parascutellar lobe rounded, skewed towards median; scutellum semicircular, scutellar process long, apex rounded or spatulate.

HEMELYTRON. Reaching tip of abdomen.

LEGS. Same as genus description.

ABDOMEN. Connexival margin smooth, not undulating, posterior margin not elevated.

GENITALIA. Anterior margin of mediosternite 8 undulating, without medial apodeme; transverse bridge of pygophore extremely narrow, only consisting of margin of anterior opening of pygophore, margin of anterior opening angular, apodeme present, apical margin of posterior opening smooth; cup-like sclerite apically rounded, with adjacent paired round protuberances; arms of basal plate converging; ductifer with sclerotized, rounded ring; endosomal struts apically truncate, basally divided into two arms converging medially to form a tapered ridge basally; shape of dorsal phallothecal sclerite subacute with lateral broad, plate-like prolongations.

Female

Similar to males.

Ecology

This species has been collected most commonly on or inside Heliconia flowers ( Heliconiaceae ), but also on Pandanus ( Pandanaceae ) in forests, on foliage of Avocado pear ( Lauraceae ), in rotting tissue of the trunk of Roystonea regia ( Arecaceae ), on Nypa fruticans ( Arecaceae ), on Cocos nucifera ( Arecaceae ), under sacking bands on trees, logs near the coast, in coastal litter, under dead bark and on Musa ( Musaceae ).

Distribution

This species is mostly found on New Britain Island and the Solomon Islands archipelago, but is also found on Fiji Island, Papua New Guinea, Sabah (Borneo) and Pulau Larat ( Indonesia). This species has the eastern-most distribution of all physoderines with specimens found in Fiji.

Remarks

This species is placed in the Physoderes clade based on the phylogenetic analysis above. It is most closely related to P. curculionis , with which it shares the semicircular scutellum and the very narrow transverse bridge on the pygophore.

BMNH

United Kingdom, London, The Natural History Museum [formerly British Museum (Natural History)]

BPBM

Bishop Museum

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

RMNH

National Museum of Natural History, Naturalis

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hemiptera

Family

Reduviidae

Genus

Physoderes

Loc

Physoderes azrael Kirkaldy, 1905

Hwang, Wei Song & Weirauch, Christiane 2017
2017
Loc

Physoderus [sic] azrael

Kirkaldy G. W. 1905: 339
1905