Temnothorax torrei ( Aguayo, 1931 )

Prebus, Matthew M., 2021, Taxonomic revision of the Temnothorax salvini clade (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a key to the clades of New World Temnothorax, PeerJ (e 11514) 9, pp. 1-462: 327-333

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.7717/peerj.11514

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F8C827C6-7475-4AF0-B67E-E50786131273

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5102614

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/054FDB70-FE81-FE96-B49C-1E707D302326

treatment provided by

Diego

scientific name

Temnothorax torrei ( Aguayo, 1931 )
status

 

Temnothorax torrei ( Aguayo, 1931)  

Distribution: Fig. 133M View Figure 133 ; worker, gyne & variability: Fig. 147 View Figure 147 .

Macromischa (Antillaemyrmex) torrei Aguayo, 1931: 178   . Holotype worker, by monotypy. Santa Clara Province , Cuba.

Leptothorax torrei (Aguayo)   : Baroni Urbani, 1978: 520. First combination in Leptothorax   .

Temnothorax torrei (Aguayo)   : Bolton, 2003: 272. First combination in Temnothorax   .

Type material examined: Holotype worker: CUBA: Villa Clara: Caibarién, February 1931, P.Q. Bermudez #135, M.C.Z. Type No. 16562 ( MCZENT00016562) [ MCZC].  

Non-type material examined: BAHAMAS: Exuma: Staniel Key , 24.170633 ° N 76.439227 ° N, 5 m, 1 May 1991, L. Morrison #ANTC43808, leaf litter, 1 worker (CASENT0758351) [ UCDC] 1 worker (CASENT0758352) [ UCDC]   .

CAYMAN ISLANDS: Grand Cayman : 1 km up Mastic trail, 19.32000 ° N 81.19800 ° W, 8 March 2008, J.K. Wetterer #JKW- 2008-03-08 -32, 1 worker (CASENT0868475) [ MMPC] GoogleMaps   . U.S.A.: Florida: Broward County: 4 mi S Boca Raton, 1 February 1959, H.A. Denmark, Pinus clausa   debris, 1 dealate gyne (CASENT0867193) [ FSCA]; GoogleMaps   Deerfield Beach , 17 July 1959, H.A. Denmark, Pinus clausa   debris, 1 dealate gyne (CASENT0758306) [ USNM]; GoogleMaps   Monroe County : Key Largo , Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge , Post 220, 25.19603 ° N 80.35386 ° W, 4 m, 8 June 2011, C.S. Moreau #CSM2104, 1 worker (images of FMNHINS0000088654 examined on antweb.org) [ FMNH]; GoogleMaps   Key Largo Hammock Botanical State Park, post 99, 25.27380 ° N 80.30365 ° W, 10 m, 11 April 2011, C.S. Moreau #CSM2216, 1 worker (CASENT0733969) [ UCDC]; GoogleMaps   same data as previous, except: 25.17705 ° N 80.365217 ° W, 17 m, 11 April 2011, C.S. Moreau #CSM2208, 1 worker (CASENT0759988) [ FSCA]; GoogleMaps   N. Key Largo, 25.3 ° N 80.28333 ° W, 5 m, 7 July 1986, M. Deyrup, tropical hammock, telephone pole #100, 1 alate gyne (images of CASENT0104056 examined on antweb.org) [ ABS] 1 worker (images of CASENT0104057 examined on antweb.org) [ ABS]; GoogleMaps   Key Vaca, Marathon, 13 July 1986, Klimaszewski & Peck, hammock litter, 1 worker (MCZENT00583611) [ MCZC] 1 worker (MCZENT00583612) [ MCZC]; GoogleMaps   Watson Hammock, Big Pine Key, 10 m, 16 September 1982, P.S. Ward #5749A, ground forager(s), hardwood hammock, 1 worker (CASENT0104776) [ UCDC] GoogleMaps   .

Geographic range: Low elevations: Southern Florida, Florida Keys, The Bahamas, Cayman Islands, and Cuba ( Fig. 133M View Figure 133 ).

Worker diagnosis: Temnothorax torrei   can be separated from all other species in the salvini   clade by the following character combination: metanotal groove not impressed; propodeum not depressed below the level of the promesonotum; propodeum bearing standing setae dorsally; propodeal spines about as long as the propodeal declivity, and directed posterodorsally; hind femora weakly incrassate; petiolar node with only two erect setae dorsally; postpetiole very broad: 2.3 or greater times the width of the petiole; dorsum of head sculptured, although there may be a longitudinal strip of smooth and shining sculpture medially; setae on head, mesosoma, waist segments and gaster erect, short, sparse and blunt (never long and tapering); head, mesosoma, waist segments, and gaster uniformly testaceous yellow; mandibles and extremities pale yellow.

Similar species: Temnothorax ciferrii   , T. harlequina   sp. nov., T. hippolytus   sp. nov., and T. terricola   . Temnothorax torrei   can be distinguished from T. ciferrii   and T. harlequina   sp. nov. by the setae count of two on the dorsum of the petiolar node, versus four. Temnothorax torrei   is closely related to T. terricola   and T. hippolytus   sp. nov., but the sculptured dorsum of the head can be used to separate them: T. terricola   and T. hippolytus   sp. nov. have smooth and shining heads.

Worker measurements & indices (n = 4): SL = 0.310 –0.375 (0.345); FRS = 0.120 –0.145 (0.138); CW = 0.389 –0.440 (0.425); CWb = 0.362 –0.410 (0.393); PoOC = 0.202 –0.239 (0.225); CL = 0.465 –0.515 (0.501); EL = 0.092 –0.109 (0.102); EW = 0.071 –0.085 (0.078); MD = 0.104 –0.119 (0.111); WL = 0.467 –0.541 (0.516); SPST = 0.138 –0.209 (0.177); MPST = 0.161 –0.189 (0.179); PEL = 0.200 –0.250 (0.226); NOL = 0.123 –0.168 (0.146); NOH = 0.077 –0.110 (0.092); PEH = 0.140 –0.176 (0.159); PPL = 0.124 –0.166 (0.144); PPH = 0.135 –0.214 (0.169); PW = 0.255 –0.300 (0.283); SBPA = 0.112 –0.151 (0.130); SPTI = 0.166 –0.209 (0.184); PEW = 0.104 –0.129 (0.118); PNW = 0.098 –0.129 (0.118); PPW = 0.234 –0.327 (0.287); HFL = 0.290 –0.354 (0.327); HFWmax = 0.084 –0.104 (0.097); HFWmin = 0.036 –0.041 (0.039); CS = 0.595 –0.666 (0.643); ES = 0.128 –0.148 (0.141); SI = 86–93 (88); OI = 21–22 (22); CI = 125–131 (128); WLI = 129–135 (131); SBI = 30–37 (33); PSI = 30–39 (34); PWI = 225–279 (243); PLI = 139–185 (159); NI = 153–164 (159); PNWI = 94–110 (100); NLI = 61–68 (65); FI = 210–278 (249).

Worker description: In full-face view, head subquadrate, longer than broad (CI 125–131). Mandibles weakly striate, shining, and armed with five teeth: the apical-most well developed, followed by a smaller preapical tooth, which is followed by three equally developed smaller teeth. Anterior clypeal margin entire and evenly rounded. Median lobe of clypeus compressed between the closely approximated frontal lobes. Antennal scapes short: when fully retracted, failing to reach the posterior margin of the head capsule by about the maximum width of the scape (SI 86–93). Antennae 12-segmented; antennal club of three segments, with the apical-most segment one and a half times longer than the preceding two in combination. Frontal carinae short, extending past the antennal toruli by one and a half times the maximum width of the antennal scape. Compound eye weakly protruding past the lateral margin of the head capsule. Lateral margins of head very weakly convex, nearly flat, giving the head a boxy appearance. Posterior head margin weakly concave, rounding evenly into the lateral margins.

In profile view, compound eye ovular and moderately large (OI 21–22), with 9 ommatidia in longest row. Pronotal declivity distinct, with neck and anterior face of the pronotum forming a rounded ~110 °; anterior and dorsal faces of the pronotum forming a rounded ~130 ° angle. Mesosoma evenly, but weakly, convex dorsally from where it joins the pronotal declivity to the propodeal spines. Promesonotal suture extending from the posterior margin of the procoxal insertion only to the mesothoracic spiracle, which is well developed. Metanotal groove nearly entirely absent: only visible as a faint disruption in the surface sculpture between meso- and metacoxal insertions to the minute metathoracic spiracle, which is nearly indistinguishable against the ground sculpture. Propodeal spiracle weakly developed, directed posterolaterally, and separated from the propodeal declivity by about three and a half spiracle diameters. Propodeal spines well developed, moderately long (PSI 30–39), about as long as the propodeal declivity, tapering evenly from the base, straight, and acute. Propodeal declivity straight and flat, forming a rounded ~90 ° angle with the base of the propodeal spines. Propodeal lobes rounded and very weakly developed. Metapleural gland bulla small, extending from the metacoxal insertion halfway to the propodeal spiracle. Petiole moderately long (PLI 139–185), without tubercles anterodorsally. Subpetiolar process in the form of a weakly developed, acute, triangular tooth; ventral margin of petiole strongly concave posterior to it. Petiolar peduncle short, comprising about a third of the total length of the petiole. Petiolar node robust: grading evenly into the petiolar peduncle anteriorly, anterior face concave; anterior face forming a rounded, ~90 ° angle with the dorsal face, which is evenly, strongly convex; dorsal face rounding evenly into the posterior face, which forms a ~110 ° angle with the caudal cylinder. Postpetiole evenly rounded anterodorsally, before flattening posterodorsally; weakly lobed ventrally.

In dorsal view, humeri weakly developed: rounded and only slightly wider than the rest of the mesosoma; mesothoracic spiracles weakly protruding past the lateral margins of the mesosoma, visible as slight angles where the pronotum meets the mesonotum. Metanotal groove absent: mesonotum and propodeum completely fused and converging evenly to the bases of the propodeal spines. Propodeal spines broadly approximated basally and diverging apically, their apices separated from each other about their length; negative space between them “U” shaped. Petiolar peduncle with spiracles barely protruding past the lateral margins, peduncle not constricted anterior to them. Petiolar node ovular, subtly narrowed anteriorly, slightly wider than the peduncle, and evenly grading into the caudal cylinder, which is slightly wider than the node. Postpetiole very broad (PWI 225–279) and campaniform, articulating with nearly the entire anterior margin of the gaster, leaving small angulate margins on each side exposed. Anterior margin of the postpetiole flat, with corners evenly rounding into the lateral margins, which evenly diverge to the angulate posterior corners; posterior margin broadly concave. Metafemur weakly to moderately incrassate (FI 210–278).

Sculpture: median clypeal carina present, flanked two additional equally developed carinae over weakly areolate ground sculpture. Antennal scapes shining through weak, indistinct sculpture. Cephalic dorsum uniformly areolate. Mesosoma uniformly areolate, except for propodeal declivity which is smooth and shining. Femora moderately shining through weak areolate sculpture. Petiole smooth and shining ventrally, with shallow areolate sculpture surrounding the base of the petiolar node, which is shining dorsally through weak, indistinct sculpture. Dorsal surface of postpetiole smooth and shining, with shallow areolate sculpture on the posterior third areolate. Gaster smooth and shining, without spectral iridescence on the first tergite. Surface of the first gastral sternite smooth and shining.

Setae: antennal scapes and funiculi with short, adpressed pilosity. Dorsum of head, mesosoma, waist segments and gaster with short, erect, blunt-tipped setae; the longest setae are roughly the length of the compound eye. The head dorsum bears ~26, mesosoma dorsum ~14, petiole 2, postpetiole ~6, and first gastral tergite ~20 setae. Sparse, adpressed pubescence present on the entire body, but difficult to detect against the lightly colored integument.

Color: head, mesosoma, waist segments, and gaster uniformly testaceous yellow. Mandibles and extremities pale yellow.

Gyne measurements & indices (n = 2): SL = 0.393 –0.401 (0.397); FRS = 0.171 –0.186 (0.179); CW = 0.556 –0.565 (0.561); CWb = 0.526 –0.533 (0.530); PoOC = 0.222 –0.231 (0.227); CL = 0.572–0.58 (0.576); EL = 0.178 –0.179 (0.179); EW = 0.136 –0.145 (0.141); MD = 0.104 –0.105 (0.105); WL = 0.878 –0.888 (0.883); SPST = 0.206 –0.214 (0.210); MPST = 0.218 –0.226 (0.222); PEL = 0.307 –0.311 (0.309); NOL = 0.167 –0.177 (0.172); NOH = 0.108 –0.108 (0.108); PEH = 0.211 –0.221 (0.216); PPL = 0.146 –0.153 (0.15); PPH = 0.234 –0.244 (0.239); PW = 0.514 –0.531 (0.523); SBPA = 0.280 –0.282 (0.281); SPTI = 0.252 –0.256 (0.254); PEW = 0.152 –0.169 (0.161); PNW = 0.185 –0.192 (0.189); PPW = 0.379 –0.382 (0.381); HFL = 0.426 –0.437 (0.432); HFWmax = 0.106 –0.114 (0.110); HFWmin = 0.043 –0.047 (0.045); CS = 0.812 –0.823 (0.818); ES = 0.247 –0.251 (0.249); SI = 75; OI = 30; CI = 109; WLI = 165–169 (167); SBI = 53–54 (53); PSI = 23–24 (24); PWI = 224–251 (238); PLI = 203–210 (207); NI = 155–164 (159); PNWI = 114–122 (118); NLI = 54–57 (56); FI = 243–247 (245).

Gyne description: In full-face view, head trapezoidal, longer than broad (CI 109). Mandibles weakly striate, shining, and armed with five teeth: the apical-most well developed, followed by a less developed preapical tooth and three equally developed smaller teeth. Anterior clypeal margin evenly rounded. Antennal scapes short: when fully retracted, failing to reach the posterior margin of the head capsule by about the maximum width of the antennal scape (SI 75). Antennae 12-segmented; antennal club of three segments, with the apical-most segment one and a half times longer than the preceding two in combination. Frontal carinae moderately long, extending past the antennal toruli by about three times the maximum width of the antennal scape. Compound eye moderately protruding past the lateral margin of the head capsule. Lateral margins of head weakly convex; temples enlarged, converging evenly to the mandibular insertions. Posterior head margin weakly convex, rounding evenly into the lateral margins.

In profile view, compound eye teardrop-ovular and large (OI 30), with 16 ommatidia in longest row. Mesoscutum rounded evenly anteriorly, covering the dorsal surface of the pronotum, and flat dorsally. Mesoscutellum on the same level as the mesoscutum, not overhanging the metanotum. Propodeal spiracle well developed, directed posterolaterally, and separated from the propodeal declivity by about two spiracle diameters. Propodeal spines stout and short (PSI 23–24), about a third as long as the propodeal declivity, widely flared at the base, straight, and directed posteriorly. Propodeal declivity straight and flat, forming a rounded ~90 ° angle with the base of the propodeal spines. Propodeal lobes rounded and very weakly developed. Metapleural gland bulla small, extending from the metacoxal insertion halfway to the propodeal spiracle. Petiole long (PLI 203–210), without tubercles anterodorsally. Subpetiolar process a very weakly developed, tiny, triangular tooth, which grades evenly into the ventral margin of the petiole posteriorly. Petiolar peduncle short: comprising about a third of the total length of the petiole. Petiolar node erect: transition between peduncle and node evenly rounded, resulting in a concave anterior node face; anterior face forming a sharp ~90 ° angle with the dorsal face, which is short and evenly rounds into the posterior face, which forms a ~110 ° angle with the caudal cylinder. Postpetiole subquadrate: transition between anterior face and flat dorsal face marked by a broadly rounded ~90 ° angle; ventral surface weakly lobed.

In dorsal view, mesoscutum covering pronotum anteriorly, but humeri visible laterally as rounded sclerites. Propodeal spines very weakly diverging apically, their apices separated from each other by about twice their length. Petiolar peduncle with spiracles not protruding past the lateral margins. Petiolar node weakly trapezoidal: widest anteriorly, with lateral sides converging only slightly to the posterior face, and weakly emarginated anterodorsally. Petiolar node slightly narrower than the peduncle, and evenly grading into the caudal cylinder, which slightly broader than the node. Postpetiole very broad (PWI 224–251), anteroposteriorly compressed, and subquadrate, articulating with most of the anterior margin of the gaster, leaving small, angulate margins on each side exposed. Anterior margin of the postpetiole flat, evenly rounded as it transitions to the lateral margins, which are parallel as they continue to the angulate posterior corners; posterior margin emarginated medially. Femora weakly incrassate (FI 243–247).

Sculpture: median clypeal carina present, extending from the anterior margin to the level of the antennal insertions, and flanked by weaker, indistinct carinae; lateral margins of median clypeal lobe with two carinae that are as strong as the medial carina. Lateral clypeal lobes with additional weaker carinae; ground sculpture weakly areolate. Antennal scapes weakly shining through areolate sculpture. Cephalic dorsum with weak costulae over areolate sculpture; ventral surface of head with slightly weaker, indistinct sculpture. Pronotal neck areolate. Lateral surfaces of pronotum weakly shining through superficial areolate ground sculpture. Anepisternum and katepisternum mostly smooth and shining, with margins weakly, indistinctly sculptured. Propodeum areolate laterally, with weak costulae over the metapleural gland bulla; propodeal declivity weakly areolate. Mesoscutum with costulae over weak areolate ground sculpture surrounding a smooth and shining central strip which extends over half of the sclerite from the anterior margin; mesoscutum also with smooth and shining patches laterally. Mesoscutellum smooth and shining medially, surrounded by weak costulae and areolae. Femora smooth and shining, with traces of weak areolate sculpture distally. Petiole with weak areolate sculpture ventrally and on the dorsal face of the peduncle, areolate on all other surfaces. Postpetiole areolate. Gaster smooth and shining, without spectral iridescence. Surface of the first gastral sternite smooth and shining.

Setae: antennal scapes and funiculi with short, adpressed pilosity. Dorsum of head, mesosoma, waist segments and gaster with short, erect, blunt-tipped setae; the longest setae are roughly a third of the width of the compound eye. Sparse, adpressed pubescence present on the entire body, but difficult to detect against the lightly colored integument.

Color: head, mesosoma, waist segments, and gaster uniformly testaceous yellow. Mandibles and extremities pale yellow. Integument within the ocellar triangle and the wing bases infuscated.

Male: Unknown.

Etymology: Patronym, in honor of Carlos de la Torre, who sent the type series to C. G. Aguayo for description.

Comments: Known primarily from stray ground foragers and specimens collected via leaf litter sifting, Temnothorax torrei   ranges from the Cayman Islands to Cuba, the Florida Keys and southern Florida. Temnothorax torrei   is also most likely present on the islands of the Bahamas. This species, like other members of the pulchellus   group, is probably ground or leaf litter nesting. The original description states that is species was found among terrestrial snail shells collected by Bermudez in “Buenavista”, Remedios, Santa Clara Province, Cuba. The collection data label on the holotype specimen from the MCZ does not match this verbal description but Caibarién, the locality indicated, is located roughly 18 km north of Buenavista, on the coast. Perhaps the label data indicates the closest city to the collection locality. This species is most closely related to T. terricola   . These species have only been collected in allopatry and differ primarily color and/or extent of areolate vs. smooth sculpturation. Future collections from the Bahamas and Cuba may reveal that these two “species” represent morphologically divergent populations, which are united by intermediate forms. For example, a morphological variant of T. torrei   was collected from Staniel Key, The Bahamas, with very weak head sculpture ( Figs. 147G–147I View Figure 147 ). Temnothorax hippolytus   sp. nov. is also a member of this complex but differs from the other members by the more well-defined promesonotal suture, predominantly smooth and shining sculpture, and dark brown coloration. The illustration of T. torrei   in Baroni Urbani (1978) embellishes certain aspects of the holotype specimen, which bears many fewer setae than depicted.

UCDC

R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology

FSCA

Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

FMNH

Field Museum of Natural History

ABS

Archbold Biological Station

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Formicidae

Genus

Temnothorax

Loc

Temnothorax torrei ( Aguayo, 1931 )

Prebus, Matthew M. 2021
2021
Loc

Temnothorax torrei (Aguayo)

Bolton B. 2003: 272
2003
Loc

Leptothorax torrei (Aguayo)

Baroni Urbani C. 1978: 520
1978
Loc

Macromischa (Antillaemyrmex) torrei

Aguayo CG 1931: 178
1931