Temnothorax politus ( Smith, 1939 )

Prebus, Matthew M., 2021, Taxonomic revision of the Temnothorax salvini clade (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a key to the clades of New World Temnothorax, PeerJ (e 11514) 9, pp. 1-462: 422-428

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.7717/peerj.11514

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F8C827C6-7475-4AF0-B67E-E50786131273

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5102658

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/054FDB70-FE62-FE71-B49C-1C367CC922E7

treatment provided by

Diego

scientific name

Temnothorax politus ( Smith, 1939 )
status

 

Temnothorax politus ( Smith, 1939)  

Distribution: Fig. 165A View Figure 165 ; worker & gyne: Fig. 166 View Figure 166 .

Macromischa polita   Smith, 1939: 506, pl. 1, fig. B. Syntype workers. Arizona, U.S.A.

One syntype worker here designated lectotype.

Leptothorax politus   (Smith): Baroni Urbani, 1978: 478, figs. 54 & 104. First combination in Leptothorax   .

Temnothorax politus   (Smith): Bolton, 2003: 272. First combination in Temnothorax   .

Type material examined: Lectotype worker of Macromischa polita   : U.S.A.: Arizona: 6.5 km up Santa Cruz River from Tucson , 13 September 1938, R.G. Wesson, M.C.Z. cotype 23781 (MCZENT00023781, top specimen on pin) [ MCZC].  

Paralectotype workers of Macromischa polita   : same pin as lectotype, 1 worker (MCZENT00023781, bottom specimen on pin); Sabino Canyon , 8 October 1938, 945 m, R. G. Wesson #I03 I, 1 worker (No. 53249 U.S. N.M. Cotype, USNMENT00528925) [ USNM] 1 worker (No. 53249 U.S. N.M. Cotype, USNMENT00922558) [ USNM] 1 worker (CASENT0105625) [ USNM];   W of Baboquivari Peak, 50 km E of Sells, 25 September 1938 1,070–1,220 m, R.G. Wesson #I30k, 1 worker (No. 53249 U.S. N.M. Cotype, USNMENT00922559) [ USNM];   Catalina Mountains, 11 September 1938, 1,370 m, R.G. Wesson #24j, 2 workers (No. 53249 U.S. N.M. Cotype, LACMENT323200) [ LACM]   .

Non-type material examined: MEXICO: Sonora: 9 km NNE Punta Narragansett, Isla Tiburón , 5 m, 28.950000 ° N 112.216667 ° W, 15 December 1997, P.S. Ward #13464-6, Sonoran desert, ex spider middens under stone, body parts (CASENT0758314- CASENT0758317) [ UCDC]; GoogleMaps   same data as previous, P.S. Ward #13465-3, Sonoran desert, ex spider middens under stone, 1 head capsule (CASENT0758318) [ UCDC]; GoogleMaps   same data as previous, P.S. Ward #13472-6, Sonoran desert wash, ex middens of ant, Solenopsis xyloni   ?, body parts (CASENT0758319, CASENT0758320) [ UCDC] GoogleMaps   .

U.S.A.: Arizona: [no collection locality], [no collection date], R.G. Wesson #99L, 1 worker (CASENT0758294) [ USNM]; GoogleMaps   Pima Co.: Forestry Cabin, Baboquivari Mountains , 1,070 m, 9 April 1963, W.S. Creighton, on mesquite, nest not found, 1 worker (LACMENT323202) [ LACM] 1 worker (CASENT0759979) [ FSCA]; GoogleMaps   4.5 km N Vail, 32.03537 ° N 110.67832 ° W ± 9 m, 985 m ± 5 m, 2 May 2016, M.M. Prebus # MMP02493 View Materials , desert wash, nest in hollow Populus   twig in leaf litter, 1 dealate gyne & 2 workers (CASENT0756844-CASENT0756846) [ MMPC] 1 worker (CASENT0758681) [ UCDC]; GoogleMaps   same data as previous, 32.03607 ° N 110.67967 ° W ± 4 m, 985 m ± 5 m, 1 May 2016, M.M. Prebus # MMP02500 View Materials , desert wash, Populus   leaf litter, 1 worker (CASENT0756857) [ MMPC]; GoogleMaps   same data as previous, 32.03653 ° N 110.68096 ° W ± 5 m, 985 m ± 5 m, 1 May 2016, M.M. Prebus # MMP02501 View Materials , desert wash, Populus   leaf litter, 1 worker (CASENT0756864) [ MMPC]; GoogleMaps   same data as previous, 32.04394 ° N 110.69148 ° W ± 4 m, 985 m ± 5 m, 1 May 2016, M.M. Prebus # MMP02503 View Materials , desert wash, Vachellia   leaf litter, 1 worker (CASENT0756873) [ MMPC]; GoogleMaps   Cienega Creek Preserve, 32.03341 ° N 110.67424 ° W ± 5 m, 980 m ± 5 m, 5 Aug 2016, M.M. Prebus #MMP2912, gallery forest, ex dead log in beetle burrows, 1 alate gyne (CASENT0758021) [ MMPC]. GoogleMaps   Pinal Co. : Boyce-Thompson Arboretum, 33.28 ° N 111.15667 ° W, 744 m, 15 September 2007, R.A. Johnson #RAJ3991, solitary forager on rock face, 1 worker (CASENT0869117) [ RAJC]; GoogleMaps   Gilliland Ranch, NE of Phoenix, 17 May 1940, Citrus sweeps, Lot No. 40-12517, Lot I, [no collector data], 1 worker (LACMENT323201) [ LACM]; 13.24 km NE Maricopa, 33.107150 ° N 111.918500 ° W, 365 m, 27 August 2002, Manda G. Cattaneo, PFT 628(B25)- Native, Voucher: EPA Proj. No. X82974701 “Assessment of Environmental Impact of Bt Cotton”, pitfall trap, 1 worker (MCZENT00541469) [ MCZC]; GoogleMaps   same data as previous, PFT 626(B25)-Native, pitfall trap, 1 worker (MCZENT00541470) [ MCZC]; GoogleMaps   same data as previous, PFT 656(B25)-Native, pitfall trap, 1 worker (MCZENT00541471) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   .

Geographic range: Low-to-mid elevations, southern Arizona, U.S.A. & Sonora, Mexico ( Fig. 165A View Figure 165 ).

Worker diagnosis: Temnothorax politus   can be separated from all other species in the salvini   clade by the following character combination: posterior margin of head convex; in profile view, dorsum of mesosoma strongly convex; pronotal declivity not marked by an angle as it transitions from the anterior face of the pronotum to the dorsal face; propodeum not depressed below the level of the promesonotum; propodeal spines longer than the propodeal declivity, directed posterodorsally, and weakly downcurved; hind femora weakly to strongly incrassate; petiolar node node robust and erect, nearly squamiform and dorsally rounded, not leaning posteriorly over the caudal cylinder of the petiole; postpetiole narrow to moderately broad: greater than 1.7 times the width of the caudal cylinder of the petiole; legs and nearly all other surfaces of the body covered in long, tapering, suberect setae; antennal scape moderately long, surpassing the posterior margin of the head by about the maximum width of the antennal scape; integument predominantly dark brown, nearly black.

Similar species: Due to the predominantly smooth and shining sculpture, dark coloration, and long, tapering setae, Temnothorax politus   is unlikely to be confused with any other species in the Nearctic. Temnothorax tenuisculptus   and less sculptured specimens of T. subditivus   may be confused with T. politus   , but both of these have short, blunt setae.

Worker measurements & indices (n = 7): SL = 0.424 –0.555 (0.503); FRS = 0.170 –0.235 (0.210); CW = 0.468 –0.655 (0.577); CWb = 0.419 –0.602 (0.526); PoOC = 0.201 –0.282 (0.255); CL = 0.529 –0.715 (0.648); EL = 0.121 –0.180 (0.150); EW = 0.102 –0.129 (0.116); MD = 0.119 –0.208 (0.157); WL = 0.581 –0.855 (0.744); SPST = 0.213 –0.318 (0.276); MPST = 0.207 –0.297 (0.247); PEL = 0.239 –0.355 (0.302); NOL = 0.150 –0.223 (0.179); NOH = 0.094 –0.223 (0.133); PEH = 0.165 –0.249 (0.216); PPL = 0.114 –0.169 (0.143); PPH = 0.132 –0.206 (0.168); PW = 0.282 –0.431 (0.371); SBPA = 0.108 –0.161 (0.143); SPTI = 0.165 –0.267 (0.229); PEW = 0.101 –0.163 (0.133); PNW = 0.120 –0.185 (0.159); PPW = 0.188 –0.286 (0.246); HFL = 0.407 –0.579 (0.513); HFWmax = 0.098 –0.155 (0.136); HFWmin = 0.028 –0.061 (0.046); CS = 0.684 –0.960 (0.851); ES = 0.172 –0.241 (0.208); SI = 92–101 (96); OI = 23–27 (25); CI = 79–84 (81); WLI = 135–147 (141); SBI = 26–28 (27); PSI = 35–39 (37); PWI = 175–192 (185); PLI = 196–250 (212); NI = 100–171 (141); PNWI = 113–127 (120); NLI = 52–67 (60); FI = 243–350 (302).

Worker description: In full-face view, head subquadrate, longer than broad (CI 79–84). Mandibles densely, finely striate but shining and armed with five teeth: the apical-most well developed and acute, followed by a less developed preapical tooth and three equally developed smaller teeth. Anterior clypeal margin flat medially. Antennal scapes moderately long: when fully retracted, surpassing the posterior margin of the head capsule by about the maximum width of the antennal scape (SI 92–101). Antennae 12-segmented; antennal club of composed of three segments, with the apical-most segment slightly longer than the preceding two in combination. Frontal carinae moderately long, extending past the antennal toruli by about three and a half times the maximum width of the antennal scape. Compound eyes moderately protruding past the lateral margins of the head capsule. Lateral margin of head weakly convex, forming a continuous arc from the mandibular insertions to the posterior margin of the head. Posterior head margin flat but rounding evenly into the lateral margins.

In profile view, compound eyes ovular and moderately large (OI 23–27), with 12 ommatidia in longest row. Pronotal declivity indistinct, neck and anterior face of pronotum forming a ~120 ° angle. Mesosoma predominantly evenly convex from where it joins the pronotal neck to the propodeal spines; propodeum very weakly depressed, so that the dorsal margin dips slightly anterior to the base of the propodeal spines. Promesonotal suture extending from the posterior margin of the procoxal insertion only to the mesothoracic spiracle, which is moderately well developed. Metanotal groove visible as a disruption of the sculpture laterally from where it arises between the mid- and hind coxae to where it ends in the poorly developed metathoracic spiracle. Propodeal spiracle moderately well developed, directed posterolaterally, and separated from the propodeal declivity by about four spiracle diameters. Propodeal spines well developed and very long (PSI 35–39), longer than the propodeal declivity, tapering evenly from the base, very weakly downcurved, and acute. Propodeal declivity flat, forming a rounded ~100 ° angle with the base of the propodeal spines. Propodeal lobes rounded and weakly developed. Metapleural gland bulla small, extending from the metacoxal insertion halfway to the propodeal spiracle. Petiole long (PLI 196–250), without tubercles anterodorsally. Subpetiolar process in the form of a small, acute tooth; ventral margin of petiole nearly flat posterior to it. Petiolar peduncle moderately long: comprising about half of the petiole. Petiolar node robust and erect, nearly squamiform: transition between peduncle and node marked by a rounded angle of ~120 °; anterior face forming a rounded ~90 ° angle with the short, evenly convex dorsal face; dorsal face rounding evenly into the short posterior face, which forms a ~95 ° angle with the caudal cylinder. Postpetiole evenly rounded anteriorly, flattened dorsally, and weakly lobed ventrally.

In dorsal view, humeri developed: evenly rounded and slightly wider than the rest of the mesosoma; mesothoracic spiracles weakly protruding past the lateral margins of the mesosoma, visible as angles where the pronotum meets the mesonotum. Metanotal groove absent: mesonotum and propodeum completely fused and lateral margins converging evenly to the bases of the propodeal spines. Propodeal spines narrowly approximated basally and diverging apically, their apices separated from each other by slightly less than their length, the negative space between them “V” shaped. Petiolar peduncle with spiracles weakly protruding past the lateral margins, and slightly broader where they arise. Petiolar node nearly evenly transversely ovular, but slightly flattened posteriorly; node wider than the peduncle and the caudal cylinder. Postpetiole narrow (PWI 175–192) and transversely rectangular, articulating with most of the anterior margin of the gaster. Anterior margin of the postpetiole flat and meets the lateral margins at a rounded ~90 ° angle; lateral margins parallel to the angulate posterior corners; posterior margin flat. Metafemur moderately to strongly incrassate (FI 243–350).

Sculpture: median clypeal carina present, extending posteriorly to the level of the antennal toruli, and flanked on either side by two equally strong carinae. Lateral clypeal lobes with additional, weaker carinae; ground sculpture smooth and shining. Antennal scapes shining through very weak areolate ground sculpture. Cephalic dorsum predominantly smooth and shining except for piligerous punctures, but with fine costulae flanking the frontal carinae medially, and concentric costulae surrounding the antennal insertions. Lateral surfaces of head with costulae over weak areolate sculpture surrounding the compound eyes and between the eyes and the mandibular insertions. Ventral surface of head smooth and shining except for a narrow strip of areolate sculpture surrounding the median sulcus. Mesosoma with weak areolate sculpture on the pronotal neck. Lateral surface of the pronotum smooth and shining except for fine costulae along the ventral margin. Mesopleuron, metapleuron and anterior half of the lateral surface of propodeum predominantly smooth and shining, but with weak costulae. Propodeal declivity smooth and shining. Dorsal surface of mesosoma predominantly smooth and shining, but with weak costulae on the propodeum leading into the bases of the propodeal spines. Femora smooth and shining. Petiole uniformly smooth and shining. Dorsum of postpetiole smooth and shining, with weak areolate sculpture on the posterior quarter. Gaster smooth and shining, without spectral iridescence.

Setae: antennal scapes and funiculi with short, subdecumbent pilosity. Dorsum of the head, pronotum, waist segments, and gaster with abundant, erect, tapering setae, the longest of which are about the length of the compound eye. The dorsum of the head bears ~82, mesosoma ~84, petiole 12, postpetiole ~26, and first gastral tergite ~140 setae. Short, sparse pubescence absent.

Color: predominantly dark brown, nearly black. The mandibles, propodeal spines, coxae, bases of the femora, tibiae, and tarsi testaceous yellow. The antennae and remainder of the femora testaceous brown.

Gyne measurements & indices (n = 1): SL = 0.620; FRS = 0.294; CW = 0.796; CWb = 0.742; PoOC = 0.316; CL = 0.800; EL = 0.216; EW = 0.175; MD = 0.184; WL = 1.298; SPST = 0.326; MPST = 0.374; PEL = 0.444; NOL = 0.222; NOH = 0.189; PEH = 0.366; PPL = 0.203; PPH = 0.309; PW = 0.761; SBPA = 0.337; SPTI = 0.380; PEW = 0.206; PNW = 0.274; PPW = 0.409; HFL = 0.693; HFWmax = 0.149; HFWmin = 0.057; CS = 1.142; ES = 0.304; SI = 84; OI = 27; CI = 93; WLI = 175; SBI = 45; PSI = 25; PWI = 199; PLI = 219; NI = 117; PNWI = 133; NLI = 50; FI = 261.

Gyne description: In full-face view, head subquadrate, slightly longer than broad (CI 93). Mandibles densely, finely striate but shining and armed with five teeth: the apical-most well developed, followed by a less developed preapical tooth and three equally developed smaller teeth. Anterior clypeal margin emarginated medially. Antennal scapes moderately long: when fully retracted, just reaching the posterior margin of the head capsule (SI 84). Antennae 12-segmented; antennal club composed of three segments, with the apical-most segment as long as the preceding two in combination. Frontal carinae moderately long, extending past the antennal toruli by about two and a half times the maximum width of the antennal scape. Compound eyes moderately protruding past the lateral margins of the head capsule. Lateral margin of head evenly convex, converging from below the compound eyes to the mandibular insertions. Posterior head margin convex, rounding evenly into the lateral margins.

In profile view, compound eyes ovular and large (OI 27), with 16 ommatidia in longest row. Mesoscutum rounded evenly anteriorly, covering the dorsal surface of the pronotum, and flat dorsally. Mesoscutellum slightly higher than the level of the mesoscutum. Posterior margin of metanotum extending past the posterior margin of the mesoscutum. Propodeal spiracle well developed, directed posterolaterally, and separated from the propodeal declivity by about four spiracle diameters. Propodeal spines stout and well developed, but short (PSI 25), about as two thirds as long as the propodeal declivity, tapering evenly from the base, directed posteriorly, slightly downcurved, and acute. Propodeal declivity straight and flat, forming a rounded ~100 ° angle with the base of the propodeal spines. Propodeal lobes rounded and very weakly developed. Metapleural gland bulla small, extending from the metacoxal insertion halfway to the propodeal spiracle. Petiole long (PLI 219), without tubercles anterodorsally. Subpetiolar process in the form of a small, very acute tooth; ventral margin of petiole nearly flat. Petiolar peduncle moderately long: comprising half the length of the petiole. Petiolar node robust and erect: transition between peduncle and node marked by a rounded angle of ~130 °; anterior face forming a rounded ~90 ° angle with the short, evenly convex dorsal face; dorsal face rounding evenly into the short posterior face, which forms a ~110 ° angle with the caudal cylinder. Postpetiole evenly rounded anterodorsally, bulging before it transitions into the flattened dorsal face; ventral surface weakly lobed.

In dorsal view, mesoscutum covering pronotum anteriorly, but humeri visible laterally as rounded sclerites. Propodeal spines diverging apically, their apices separated from each other by about two times their length. Petiolar peduncle with spiracles protruding past the lateral margins, the peduncle broadened where they arise. Petiolar node transversely ovular. Petiolar node wider than the peduncle, and evenly grading into the caudal cylinder, which is slightly narrower than the node. Postpetiole narrow (PWI 199) and transversely rectangular, articulating with most of the anterior margin of the gaster, leaving angulate margins on each side exposed. Anterior margin of postpetiole very weakly convex, nearly convex with corners marked by rounded angles as it transitions to the lateral margins, which are parallel to the angulate posterior corners; posterior margin flat. Metafemur moderately incrassate (FI 261).

Sculpture: median clypeal carina present, extending from the anterior margin nearly to the level of the antennal toruli; lateral margins of median clypeal lobe with two carinae that are slightly weaker than the medial carina. Lateral clypeal lobes with additional weaker carinae; ground sculpture weakly areolate. Antennal scapes shining through weak areolate sculpture. Cephalic dorsum rugose-costate, over weak areolate ground sculpture; concentric costulae surrounding the antennal insertions. Lateral surfaces of head sculptured similarly to the dorsum of the head. Ventral surface of head with rugulae over very weak areolate ground sculpture. Pronotal neck areolate. Pronotum with costulae, becoming very weak medially. Anepisternum and katepisternum smooth and shining medially, but with weak costulae along the margins of the sclerites. Metapleuron and lateral face of the propodeum costate. Area between the propodeal spiracle and base of propodeal spines, as well as the propodeal declivity, smooth and shining. Propodeal declivity weakly areolate. Mesoscutum costulate, with smooth and shining patches laterally. Mesoscutellum smooth and shining medially, surrounded by weak costulae and areolae laterally. Femora shining, with traces of weak areolate sculpture. Petiole with very fine areolate sculpture ventrolaterally, around the base of the petiolar node. Longitudinal carina running from the petiolar spiracle to the caudal cylinder. Dorsal surface of the node with weak costulae. Dorsum of postpetiole weakly areolate anteriorly, posterior margin weakly strigulate. Sclerites of the gaster shining but dulled by very fine areolae, as found on the ventrolateral surface of the petiole. Spectral iridescence absent.

Setae: antennal scapes and funiculi with short, subdecumbent pilosity. Dorsum of the head, pronotum, waist segments, and gaster with abundant, erect, tapering setae, the longest of which are about the width of the compound eye. Short, sparse pubescence absent.

Color: predominantly dark brown, nearly black. The mandibles, propodeal spines, coxae, bases of the femora, tibiae, and tarsi testaceous yellow. The antennae and remainder of the femora testaceous brown.

Male: Unknown.

Etymology: Morphological, from the Latin ‘politus’ (= polished), in reference to the smooth and shining integument of this species.

Comments: Temnothorax politus   is known only from the hot deserts and sky islands of southern Arizona and Sonora, Mexico. In desert habitats, it is apparently restricted to washes, irrigation canals, and other riparian habitats ( Smith, 1939). In the original description, it was noted that Wesson collected this species at higher elevations in the Santa Catalina Mountains   near Tucson, but no habitat data was associated with this occurrence. Smith (1939) also recorded that this species nests under the bark of cottonwood trees near the ground; I have personally collected several nests from ~ 12 cm diameter fallen cottonwood branches in gallery forest, as well as ~ 3 cm diameter hollow twigs in cottonwood leaf litter on the banks of a desert wash. This species is probably active in the nocturnal or crepuscular hours, at least in warm desert habitats: pitfall traps that I left overnight in Cienega Creek Preserve near Vail, Arizona yielded several workers, although I observed none foraging diurnally in the pitfall localities. The type series consisted of multiple localities across Arizona. Here, I designate a specimen from the Santa Cruz river near Tucson as the lectotype, leaving the remainder of the type series as paralectotypes.

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

LACM

Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County

UCDC

R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology

FSCA

Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Formicidae

Genus

Temnothorax

Loc

Temnothorax politus ( Smith, 1939 )

Prebus, Matthew M. 2021
2021
Loc

Temnothorax politus

Bolton B. 2003: 272
2003
Loc

Leptothorax politus

Baroni Urbani C. 1978: 478
1978
Loc

Macromischa polita

Smith MR 1939: 506
1939