Toxopneustes pileolus ( Lamarck, 1816 ), Lamarck, 1816

Filander, Zoleka & Griffiths, Charles, 2017, Illustrated guide to the echinoid (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) fauna of South Africa, Zootaxa 4296 (1), pp. 1-72: 45-46

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4296.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:EFE86EDD-D170-4D97-87D9-3125400713EC

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03FE87F0-FF8B-FFF1-FF57-F8A8FECAFD53

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Toxopneustes pileolus ( Lamarck, 1816 )
status

 

* Toxopneustes pileolus ( Lamarck, 1816)  

Fig. 50 View FIGURE 50 A –C.

Toxopneustes pileolus: Mortensen, 1904: 120   –121; Mortensen, 1943a: 472 –480. Pl. XXVI. Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 , Pl. XXVII. Figs 1–4 View FIGURE 1 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 , Pl. XXVIII. Figs 1–2 View FIGURE 1 View FIGURE 2 , Pl. XXIX. Figs 1–5 View FIGURE 1 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 View FIGURE 5 , Pl. XXX. Fig. 1–4 View FIGURE 1 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 , Pl. XXXI. Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 , Pl. XXXIII. Figs 5–6 View FIGURE 5 View FIGURE 6 , Pl. LIV. Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 , 3–6 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 View FIGURE 5 View FIGURE 6 , 8– 10 View FIGURE 8 View FIGURE 9 View FIGURE 10 , 13 View FIGURE 13 , 14 View FIGURE 14 , 15 View FIGURE 15 , 16 View FIGURE 16 , Pl. LV. 13; H.L. Clark, 1923: 386; H.L. Clark, 1925a: 123; Clark & Courtman-Stock, 1976: 234; Richmond, 1997: 298; Samyn, 2003: 210, Figs 4 View FIGURE 4 F, F’; Branch et al., 2010: 234, Fig. 105.7; Schultz, 2010: 270, Figs 518– 522; Filander & Griffiths, 2014: 53. Pl. II, Fig. D.

Material examined. SAMC-A28208.

Identification. Test hemispherical, sunken towards peristome. Globiferous pedicellaria valves blossom, giving flower-like appearance. Distinguishable from other species in denuded test showing brownish, greenish or purplish radial stripes; specimen examined with purplish-banded spines, in other cases may be banded in greenish, whitish or reddish shades; periproctal plates white.

Global maximum size. Maximum test diameter 135 mm.

Global distribution. East coast of South Africa ( Filander & Griffiths 2014); East Africa to Fiji Islands and New Caledonia, and from central Japan to Australia; from littoral zone to 90 m ( Schultz 2010).

Remarks. Test densely covered by flower-like pedicellariae, equipped with poisonous glands. A tropical reef species, commonly known as the flower urchin, which uses seaweed or shells to shelter itself from sun ( Branch et al. 2010).

LIV

World Museum Liverpool

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Echinodermata

Class

Echinoidea

Order

Camarodonta

Family

Toxopneustidae

Genus

Toxopneustes

Loc

Toxopneustes pileolus ( Lamarck, 1816 )

Filander, Zoleka & Griffiths, Charles 2017
2017
Loc

Toxopneustes pileolus: Mortensen, 1904 : 120

Filander 2014: 53
Branch 2010: 234
Schultz 2010: 270
Richmond 1997: 298
Clark 1976: 234
Mortensen 1943: 472
Clark 1925: 123
Clark 1923: 386
Mortensen 1904: 120
1904