Nicoletta, Micaela, Chaparro, Juan C., Mamani, Luis, Ochoa, José A., West, Rick C. & Ferretti, Nelson E., 2020, Two new endemic species of Bistriopelma (Araneae: Theraphosidae) from Peru, including a new remarkable horned tarantula, European Journal of Taxonomy 644, pp. 1-20: 10-17
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Bistriopelma kiwicha sp. nov.
Males of Bistriopelma kiwicha sp. nov. differ from B. peyoi sp. nov. in the absence of a projection on cephalic region ( Fig. 8AView Fig) and by the domed basal projection on tegulum ( Fig. 10AView Fig). Males also differ from B. matuskai in the presence of a fovea ( Fig. 8AView Fig) and from B. titicaca and B. lamasi in the absence of spiniform setae on cymbium and almost equal size of cymbial lobes ( Fig. 9View Fig A–B) (unequal in B. titicaca and B. lamasi ). Females of B. kiwicha sp. nov. are distinguished from B. peyoi sp. nov. and B. matuskai by the presence of a fovea ( Fig. 12View Fig A–B). Also, females of B. kiwicha sp. nov. differ from B. titicaca and B. lamasi by the procurved fovea ( Fig. 12AView Fig) (straight in B. titicaca and B. lamasi ). Also, females differ from B. lamasi by the absence of a dark pubescence on ventral maxillae ( Fig. 12View Fig F–G) and from B. titicaca by the absence of spiniform setae on prolateral faces of coxae I–IV ( Fig. 12FView Fig). In addition, the two fine-grained separated seminal receptacles of B. kiwicha sp. nov. resemble those of B. matuskai and B. titicaca , but differ from them by the shorter ducts and absence of ventral projections ( Fig. 13View Fig).
The specific epithet, kiwicha , is a Quechua word referring to Amaranthus caudatus L., a plant widely cultivated in the Peruvian Andes, particularly in the district of San Salvador, where this new species was found. It has been used in the form of cereals or flour from the plant’s seeds for more than 1400 years and was included in the daily diet during the Inca civilization.
PERU • 1 ♀; Cusco, Paucartambo, Highway 26, road to Manu province; 13°28′33.35″ S, 71°39′25.92″ W; 3903 m a.s.l.; 6 Oct. 2017; R. West, J. Richards leg.; MUBI 41GoogleMaps .
Male (holotype, MUBI 12)
COLORATION. In ethanol: Carapace reddish brown with dark short setae on cephalic region between the fovea and eyes covered with yellow setae around eye tubercle and carapace margins; abdomen black with two patches of long yellow setae on dorsal apical region on dorsolateral patches of urticating setae, ventrally dark brown with book lung markings and region above epigastric furrow light brown, spinnerets brown; legs brown, labium and maxillae yellowish brown, sternum brown ( Fig. 8View Fig).
MEASUREMENTS. Total length, without chelicerae and spinnerets: 21.52. Carapace: length 9.38, width 8.47. Abdomen: length 9.36. Eye tubercle: length 1.41, width 1.50. Eyes sizes and interdistances: AME 0.17, ALE 0.51, PME 0.20, PLE 0.40, AME–AME 0.32, AME–ALE 0.21, PME–PME 0.61, PME–PLE 0.10, ALE–PLE 0.17. Labium: length 1.26, width 1.72. Sternum: length 4.49, width 3.64. Length of legs and palpal segments in Table 3.
CEPHALOTHORAX. Fovea slightly procurved ( Fig. 8AView Fig). Clypeus very narrow. Anterior eye row slightly procurved and posterior eye row recurved ( Fig. 8GView Fig). Labium with 10 cuspules ( Fig. 8FView Fig). Maxillae with 140–139 (right/left) cuspules ( Fig. 8FView Fig). Apical half of maXillae ventrally covered with short spiniform setae. Sternal sigillae small and narrow, located near coxa III (oval), II (circular) and I (oval). First pair of sigillae about three times of diameter from margin, second and third pair about two times of diameter from margin. Chelicerae with 10 teeth on promargin of furrow and absence of teeth on retromargin.
ABDOMEN. Urticating setae: Type III located in two dorsolateral patches with elongated golden setae ( Fig 8DView Fig). Spinnerets: PMS, 0.81 long; PLS, three-segmented, 2.68 long.
LEGS AND PALPS. Leg formula: I> II> IV> III. All paired tarsal claws with 3–4 ventral teeth on each. Scopulae: Ventrally all tarsi fully scopulated. Tarsi I and II entire, III and IV divided by band of setae. Metatarsus I and II fully scopulated, III ¾ scopulated, IV ½ scopulated. Dorsal face of all tarsi with two longitudinal rows of claviform trichobothria. Tibia I two-branched tibial apophysis: ventral branch with single strong apical spine and spiniform setae on inner side and prolateral branch with single inner strong spine, shorter than the branch. Metatarsus I contacts apex of ventral branch of tibial apophysis when fleXed ( Fig. 9View Fig C–E). Palps with cymbial lobes almost equal in sizes covered with long setae ( Fig. 9View Fig A–B). Palpal tibia tapering to the apex.
SPINATION. Tarsi of legs I–IV 0. Femora: legs III and IV 0, palp 1p; legs: I 1d, II 2d. Patellae: palp and leg IV 0, I 1–1p, II 1–1p, III 1r (basal). Tibiae: palp 1p; legs: I 1–1p, 2–2r (apical), 1–2v; II 1–1p, 3–2–2v (apical); III 2–1–1p, 1–1r, 1–2–2v (apical), 1d; IV 2–1–1p (apical), 1–1r, 1–4v (apical). Metatarsi: I 1v (apical), II 1p, 1–1r (apical), 3v (apical); III 2–1–1–1–1p (apical), 2–2–1–1r, 1–3v (apical), 2d (apical); IV 1–1p (apical), 1–1r, 1–1–3v (apical), 1d.
PALPAL BULB. Bulb with narrow embolus projecting retrolaterally from tegulum, sigmoidly curved, and two distant well-developed keels, PS larger than PI ( Fig. 10View Fig A–B). Tegulum long and with short domed basal projection ( Fig. 10AView Fig).
Female (paratype, MUBI 41)
COLORATION. Live specimen: Carapace dark brown with reddish setae on margins; abdomen black with few red setae on proximal region and on dorsolateral patches of urticating setae; legs dark brown with reddish setae ventrally ( Fig. 11AView Fig). In ethanol: Carapace light brown with pale setae on carapace margins; abdomen dark brown with two small dorsolateral patches of urticating setae, spinnerets brown; legs and sternum ventrally dark brown, labium and maxillae reddish brown ( Fig. 12View Fig).
MEASUREMENTS. Total length, without chelicerae and spinnerets: 18.14. Carapace: length 5.58, width 5.46. Abdomen: length 11.29. Clypeus: 0.07. Eye tubercle: length 0.75, width 0.67. Eyes sizes and interdistances: AME 0.08, ALE 0.15, PME 0.10, PLE 0.15, AME–AME 0.18, AME–ALE 0.07, PME– PME 0.36, PME–PLE 0.03, ALE–PLE 0.09. Labium: length 0.55, width 1.16. Sternum: length 2.58, width 2.45. Length of legs and palpal segments in Table 4.
CEPHALOTHORAX. Carapace with deep procurved fovea and cephalic region raised ( Fig. 12View Fig A–B). Anterior eye row straight and posterior eye row recurved ( Fig. 12HView Fig). Labium with 9 cuspules ( Fig. 12GView Fig). MaXillae with 79–83 (right/left) cuspules ( Fig. 12GView Fig). Apical half of maXillae ventrally covered with short spiniform setae. Sternal sigillae oval located near coxa III, II and I. All sigillae distant about 2 diameters from margin. Chelicerae with 12 well-developed teeth on promargin of furrow and 9 very small tooth on retromargin.
LEGS AND PALPS. Leg formula: I> IV> II> III. All paired tarsal claws with 2–4 ventral teeth on each. Scopulae: Ventrally all tarsi fully scopulated, palp and leg I entire, legs II–IV divided by a band of setae. Metatarsi I ¾ scopulated, II ½ scopulated, III ⅓ scopulated, IV ¼ scopulated. Dorsal face of all tarsi with two longitudinal rows of claviform trichobothria.
SPINATION. Femora, patellae and tarsi of legs I–IV and palps 0. Tibiae: palp 1v (apical), 1p (apical); legs I–IV 0. Metatarsi: I 1v (apical); II 1p, 1r, 1v (apical); III 1–1p, 1r, 1v; IV 1–1p, 1–1r, 1v (apical).
SPERMATHECA. Two fine-grained separated seminal receptacles with short ducts and distally ended with transverse oval lobe without ventral projections ( Fig. 13View Fig).
Distribution and natural history
Bistriopelma kiwicha sp. nov. is known from San Salvador and Paucartambo Provinces ( Fig. 14View Fig), Department of Cusco, Peru, at elevations from 3570 to 3903 m a.s.l. and both locations are separated by 14 km in a straight line. The male specimen was collected during the rainy season (February). Female specimens were found on slopes of open Andean puna in self-made retreats under various-sized angular rocks lying on the surface of the ground. The area is partly covered with gallery forests of introduced pine and eucalyptus trees ( Fig. 11View Fig B–C). Small villages with freely grazing llamas are also found throughout the habitat area.
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