Buthus lourencoi Rossi, Tropea et Yağmur, 2013
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|Buthus lourencoi Rossi, Tropea et Yağmur|
Type material: 1 adult ♀ holotype, Mellaha (Tripoli), Libya (32°53'N, 13°17'E), February-March 1935, leg. W. Benzi ( MZUF n. 783). Note: the specimen was misidentified by Di Caporiacco as Buthus occitanus tunetanus , as indicated by a label in the vial ( Fig. 2 View Figure 2 ) GoogleMaps .
Etymology: the species is named in honor of Prof. Wilson Roberto Lourenço, Paris, France, for his impressive contributions to the knowledge and taxonomy of the genus Buthus .
Diagnosis: Species of large size for the genus, exceeding 80 mm in total length. General coloration yellow with tergites darker (yellowish-brown) and pedipalps yellowish -orange ( Fig. 3 and 4 View Figures 3–4 ). Carinae rather marked on carapace and moderately marked on tergites and metasomal segments. Movable and fixed fingers with 11 rows of granules. Pectines with 30/30 teeth.
Description: based on female holotype. Measurements are given in Table 1 View Table 1 .
Coloration: carapace basically yellowish with only intraocular area darker; tergites dark yellow to brownish with carinae black; metasoma and legs uniformly yellow; sternites pale yellow; pedipalps yellowish to orange. Pectines and genital operculum very light yellow.
Prosoma: carapace with marked anterior median carinae; central lateral and posterior carinae moderately marked, forming the typical lyre carinae configuration of the genus Buthus . Median eyes dark orange and three pairs of small lateral eyes black. Carinae dark orange.
Mesosoma : tergites I to VI with three longitudinal moderate carinae with dark pigmentation. Only tergite VII with five carinae. Tergites without longitudinal stripes of dark color but with a transversal wide stripe which is darker than the basic yellow. Sternites smooth except for sternite VII which bears four carinae. Other sternites show two vestigial furrows. Spiracles elongated.
Metasoma: very elongated with all segments longer than their wide ( Fig. 5 View Figures 5–8 ); length/width ratio of V metasomal segment about 2.2; segment I with 10 complete carinae; segments II and III with 10 carinae but lateral carinae incomplete and ventral carinae moderately marked with 2 and 4 bigger distal granules respectively; segment IV with eight carinae; segment V with five carinae, with tubercles of latero-ventral carinae marked. The intercarinal spaces are finely granulated. Anus with three lateral lobes ( Fig. 6 View Figures 5–8 ). Telson almost smooth with few setae; vesicle and base of aculeus yellowish but end of aculeus black; aculeus curved and very long; subaculear tubercle not noticeable.
Chelicerae: yellow, not reticulated, with black denticles; typical dentition of family Buthidae , as defined by Vachon (1963).
Pedipalps: femur pentacarinate with marked carinae; patella with eight moderate carinae; all carinae without dark pigmentation. Dorsal trichobothria of femur arranged in β- configuration ( Fig. 7 View Figures 5–8 ). Chela smooth, without carinae ( Fig. 8 View Figures 5–8 ). Movable fingers with 11 oblique rows of granules with one internal and one external granule and three distal granules ( Fig. 9 View Figures 9–10 ); fixed finger with 11 oblique rows of granules. Chela relatively narrow with length/width ratio of 4.35.
Chaetotaxy: polytrichous, as defined by Vachon (1952).
Legs: coxa, femur and patella with moderate carinae and sparsely hirsute; tarsus with two ventral longitudinal rows of setae. Tibial spurs present on legs III and IV.
Pectines, genital operculum and sternum: pectinal teeth count is 30-30. Genital operculum wide and lobate, split in two parts. Sternum triangular, longer than wide ( Fig. 10 View Figures 9–10 ).
Other material examined
Buthus adrianae Rossi, 2013 : Egypt: El-Hamam, about 70 km SW of Alexandria, 1 ♂ holotype (MSNB), 1 ♂ paratype, 1 ♀ paratype (ARPC), March 2009. Buthus barcaeus Birula, 1909 : Libya: 2 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀, Cyrenaica, 1909 (MRSN). Buthus chambiensis Kovařík, 2006 : Tunisia: 1 ♂ (MCVR). Buthus intumescens (Ehrenberg, 1829) : Egypt: 1 ♀ holotype (ZMBH) (based on digital photos). Buthus israelis (Shulov et Amitai, 1959) : Israel: northern Israel, 1 ♂ (ARPC). Buthus occitanus (Amoreux, 1789) : France: 2 ♂♂, 1♀, Uzés (Gard), 10–15 February 2005 (ARPC); 1 ♀, France: Uzés (Gard), 20–25 February 2009 (ARPC). Buthus paris (C. L. Koch, 1839) : Algeria: 1 ♀, Jurdjura, 1400 m a.s.l., leg. Sanna & Magnani, 2 June 1980 (MCVR); Morocco: 1 ♀, 2 ♀ im., Taza (MCVR); 1 ♀, Ifrane, Atlante, 1200 m a.s.l., leg. Osella, 27 April 1986 (MCVR); 1 ♀, Moyen Atlas, 1600 m a.s.l., leg. Sanna & Magnani, 5 June 1985 (MCVR); Tunisia: 1 ♀, 2 im., Le Kef, 2 April 1976 ( MZUF); 1 ♀ Ouadi Magrat 16 May 1983 ( MZUF); 1 ♂ (ARPC). Buthus tassili Lourenço, 2002 : Algeria: 1 ♂, Tassili, Tin Absteka, 1800 m a.s.l., leg. J. Garzoni, 8 January 1967 (MHNG); 1 ♀, Tassili, Djabaren, 1650 m a.s.l., leg. J. Garzoni, 8 January 1967 (MHNG). Buthus tunetanus (Herbst, 1800) : Tunisia: 3 ♂♂, 1 ♀, 2 im., 1876 ( MZUF); 2 ♀♀, Le Kef (MSNB); 2 ♀♀ im., Gafsa (MCVR).
Buthus lourencoi sp. n. belongs to the Buthus occitanus species complex and it is closely related to Buthus egyptiensis Lourenço et Cloudsey-Thompson, 2012 , recently described from Egypt. Both B. egyptiensis and B. lourencoi sp. n. are very large scorpions, with elongated metasomal segments and ventral carinae moderately marked on II and III metasomal segments. At the same time, B. egyptiensis can be distinguished by: 1) lower number of pectinal teeth, 27– 26 in female instead of 30; 2) lower number of granule rows on movable finger of pedipalps, 10 instead of 11; 3) tergites with blackish longitudinal stripes absent in B. lourencoi sp. n.; 4) anus with two lateral lobes in B. egyptiensis while B. lourencoi sp. n. has three lateral lobes.
Buthus lourencoi sp. n. can be distinguished from the other two species of Buthus present in Libya ( B. tunetanus and B. barcaeus ) by a combination of characters: 1) females of both B. barcaeus and B. tunetanus have stocky metasomal segments with I segment never longer than wide but in B. lourencoi sp. n. the metasomal segment I is strongly elongated, very longer than wide; also males of B. barcaeus and B. tunetanus have stocky metasomal segments with I segment usually not longer than wide; 2) B. barcaeus and B. tunetanus have lower number of pectinal teeth, up to 29 in females of B. barcaeus (Rossi, unpublished data) and B. tunetanus ( Lourenço, 2003; Kovařík, 2006), while female of B. lourencoi sp. n. has 30 pectinal teeth; 3) B. barcaeus and usually also B. tunetanus has very marked ventral carinae on the second and third metasomal segment but those carinae are less marked in B. lourencoi sp. n.; 4) B. barcaeus has 12 rows of granules on movable finger of pedipalps whereas B. lourencoi sp. n. has 11 rows; 5) metasomal segment IV of B. barcaeus is with intermediary (lateral median) carinae but B. lourencoi sp. n. lack of lateral median carinae on segment IV; 6) anus of both B. barcaeus and B. tunetanus has only two lateral lobes, but they are three in B. lourencoi sp. n.; 7) both B. barcaeus and B. tunetanus have dark tergites whereas in B. lourencoi sp. n. they are uniformly light (yellowish).
Recently, another new Egyptian species, B. orientalis from Alexandria, was described (Lourenço & Simon, 2012). This species can be distinguished from B. lourencoi sp. n. by: 1) smaller total size with females up to 62 mm in total length; 2) lower number of pectinal teeth (24–27 in females); 3) lower number of granule rows on the movable finger, only 10; 4) anus with two lateral lobes.
Another species, B. paris (C. L. Koch, 1839) , which is widespread from Tunisia to Morocco, is easily distinguished by: 1) a lower number of pectinal teeth, up to 28 in females; 2) aculeus strongly shorter than vesicle; 3) the metasomal segment I wider than long in females; 4) lower length/width ratio of metasomal segment V, less than 2.0; 5) carapace and mesosoma dark; 6) anus with two lateral lobes.
Also other two species are present in Tunisia: B. chambiensis Kovařík, 2006 and B. dunlopi Kovařík, 2006 , different in a combination of characters from B. lourencoi sp. n.; B. dunlopi is different in: 1) number of pectinal teeth (26–28 in females); 2) number of rows on the movable fingers of pedipalps,which is 12; 3) chela length/width ratio (4.4–4.7); 4) length to width ratio of all metasomal segments; 5) very smaller size (up to 60 mm); 6) anus with two lateral lobes.
B. chambiensis is different in: 1) number of pectinal teeth (26–28); 2) chela length/width ratio (3.4 in females); 3) length to width ratio of all metasomal segments; 4) smaller size (60–70 mm); 4) anus with two lateral lobes.
B. tassili Lourenço, 2002 from Algeria is very different from B. lourencoi sp. n. and it can be distinguished by: 1) metasomal segment V and telson black; 2) lower number of pectinal teeth: 23-25 in females; 3) aculeus shorter; 4) smaller size (50–55 mm); 5) anus with two lateral lobes.
Very recently, Rossi (2013) described a new Buthus species from Lower Egypt. Buthus adrianae Rossi, 2013 is different from B. lourencoi sp. n. in: 1) size (female up to 68 mm); 2) color, with tergites very dark; 3) number of oblique rows of granules on the movable finger, only 10; 4) number of pectinal teeth, only 23–24; 5) anus with two lateral lobes.
From the northern Algeria, Lourenço (2013) reported a very small new species of Buthus that could be easily distinguished from B. lourencoi sp. n., since B. pusillus Lourenço, 2013 has: 1) a very small total size (up to 41 mm); 2) ten complete carinae on metasomal segment II and III; 3) only two anal lobes; 4) weak setation, “oligotrichous” as defined by Vachon (1952).
A special comment is necessary for B. intumescens and B. israelis . Apparently both species are reported from Egypt. According to Fet & Lowe (2000) and Dr. J. Dunlop (pers. comm.) the type locality of B. intumescens is “ Egypt ” without more precise information. Instead, the localities in Egypt where B. israelis occurs are very well known thanks to the important work done by Levy & Amitai (1980). B. israelis in Egypt is reported only in Sinai Peninsula (Asian part of Egypt). B. intumescens could be distinguished from B. lourencoi sp. n. by: 1) ventral carinae strongly lobate on II and III metasomal segments; 2) smaller size (up to 65 mm); 3) lower number of pectinal teeth; 4) anus with two lateral lobes.
B. israelis could be distinguished from B. lourencoi sp. n. by: 1) the length/width ratio of all metasomal segments that is completely different; 2) the number of pectinal teeth is lower: 22–28 in females; 3) the smaller size (50–70 mm); 4) anus with two lateral lobes.
|Buthus lourencoi sp. n., female holotype|
|Carapace posterior width||10.04|
|Metasoma segment I length/width||6.60/5.82|
|Metasoma segment II length/width||7.44/5.47|
|Metasoma segment III length/width||7.72/5.33|
|Metasoma segment IV length/width||9.11/5.06|
|Metasoma segment V length/width||10.31/5.11|
|Movable finger length||9.5|
|Rows on movable and fixed fingers of pedipalps||11-11/11-11|
Museo Zoologico La Specola, Universita di Firenze
Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium
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