Hassar wilderi Kindle, 1895

Birindelli, José L. O., Fayal, Danielle F. & Wosiacki, Wolmar B., 2011, Taxonomic revision of thorny catfish genus Hassar (Siluriformes: Doradidae), Neotropical Ichthyology 9 (3), pp. 515-542: 535-539

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http://doi.org/ 10.1590/S1679-62252011000300006

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Hassar wilderi Kindle, 1895


Hassar wilderi Kindle, 1895  

Fig. 16 View Fig

Hassar wilderi Kindle, 1895: 251   [type locality: Trocera on Tocantins [=likely rio Tocantins at Trocará Indigenous territory, c. 20 km downstream from Tucuruí, Tucuruí, PA, Brazil].— Kindle, 1893: 72 [name appeared as a nomen nudum].— Eigenmann, 1925: 355, pl. 22, fig.2 [identification key, illustration].— Gosline, 1945: 23 [literature compilation].— Fowler, 1951: 492 [literature compilation].— Myers & Weitzman, 1956 [Lectotype designation].— Santos et al., 1984: 51 [identification key, description, Tucuruí reservoir].— Burgess, 1989: 222 [literature compilation].— Eschmeyer, 1998: 1792 [literature compilation].—Sabaj & Ferraris, 2003: 461 [literature compilation].— Ferraris, 2007: 171 [literature compilation].— Birindelli et al., 2009: 276 [gas bladder morphology].— Mérona et al., 2010: 53 [ecology].

Hassar iheringi Fowler, 1941a: 140   [type locality: Rio Parnahyba, Therezina, Piauhy (=rio Parnaíba, Terezina, PI, Brazil, probably a wrong locality, see Remarks)].— Gosline, 1945: 23 [literature compilation].— Fowler, 1951: 491 [literature compilation].— Burgess, 1989: 218 [literature compilation].— Eschmeyer, 1998: 760 [literature compilation].

Type-specimens. ANSP 69393 (1, 135.6 mm SL, holotype of Hassar iheringi   ); ANSP 69394-69395 (2, 116.8-144.0 mm SL, paratypes of Hassar iheringi   ); rio Parnaíba, Teresina, PI, 1936, R. von Ihering [probably a wrong locality, see Remarks]. SU 2243 (1, 157.7 mm SL, lectotype of Hassar wilderi   , ex. CU 1704); CAS 60710 View Materials (1, 181.2 mm SL, paralectotype of Hassar wilderi   , ex. CU 1705); CAS 60711 View Materials (1, 139.5 mm SL, paralectotype of Hassar wilderi   , ex. CU 1703); Trocera on Tocantins (=likely rio Tocantins at Trocará Indigenous territory, c. 20 km downstream from Tucuruí, Tucuruí, PA, Brazil), 1870-1876, F. C. Hartt.

Non-type specimens. Tocantins basin ( Brazil)   : ANSP 178700 View Materials (1, 152.7 mm SL), Araguaia basin, c. 13°14’S 50°35’W, Luis Alves, GO, Apr 1994 GoogleMaps   , F. L. T. Garro. INPA 20109 View Materials (1, 178.9 mm SL), lago Volta Grande , Caseara, TO, May 2000   . MPEG 1027 View Materials (1, 126.9 mm SL), Aragarças , GO, Jan 1958   , Hidasi   . MZUSP 4857 View Materials (1 c&s, 101.0 mm SL), rio Araguaia , c. 14°55’S 51°5’W, Aruanã, GO, Sep 1966 GoogleMaps   , Excursão do Departamento de Zoologia [H. A. Britski et al]   . MZUSP 46016 View Materials (2, 65.8-83.3 mm SL), Araguaia basin, c. 14°55’S 51°5’W, Aruanã, GO GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 49177 View Materials (1, 105.2 mm SL), Araguaia basin, c. 10°35’S 50°34’W, Santa Terezinha, MT, Oct 1964 GoogleMaps   , H. A. Britski. MZUSP 49178 View Materials (1, 169.9 mm SL), rio Tocantins , c. 3°46’S 49°41’W, Tucuruí, PA GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 49180 View Materials (3, 136.5-150.0 mm SL), lago Dumbá Grande , Araguaia basin, MT, 1976   . MZUSP 49182 View Materials (1, 147.9 mm SL), rio Tocantins , Barra de Tapirapé, MT   . MZUSP 49185 View Materials (2, 116.9- 135.7 mm SL), rio Tocantins , c. 2°50’S 49°40’W, Baião, PA, Sep 1970 GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 49186 View Materials (3, 112.2- 152.2 mm SL), Araguaia basin, c. 14°55’S 51°5’W, Aruanã, GO GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 52315 View Materials (2, 157.6- 173.1 mm SL), Araguaia basin, c. 14°55’S 51°5’W, Aruanã, GO GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 52336 View Materials (4, 172.0- 185.6 mm SL), Araguaia basin, Cocalinho, MT   . MZUSP 52432 View Materials (1, 178.2 mm SL), Araguaia basin, c. 14°55’S 51°5’W, Aruanã, GO GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 52359 View Materials (1, 183.4 mm SL), beach between Bandeirantes and Luis Alves, c. 13°40’S 50°48’W, Luis Alves, GO, Jul 1997 GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 52394 View Materials (4, 161.0- 188.4 mm SL), Bandeirantes , MT   . MZUSP 52408 View Materials (1, 165.8 mm SL), Itaiacú , MT   . MZUSP 52418 View Materials (1, 71.3 mm SL), between Araguaiana and Itaiacú, MT   . MZUSP 53817 View Materials (2, 130.5- 137.6 mm SL), near Aldeia Fontora, MT   . MZUSP 53819 View Materials (6, 97.6-116 mm SL), lago da Pedra, MT   . MZUSP 53825 View Materials (6, 83.7-166.2 mm SL), lago das Branquinhas, MT, Feb 1998   . MZUSP 53835 View Materials (1, 159.6 mm SL), Araguaiana , MT   . MZUSP 54194 View Materials (1, 85.6 mm SL), rio Cristalino , MT   . MZUSP 54284 View Materials (2, 101.6- 123.8 mm SL), between Araguaiana and Itaiacú, MT   . MZUSP 54296 View Materials (2, 99.5 mm SL), Araguaia basin, São Félix do Araguaia, MT, Nov 1997   . MZUSP 54451 View Materials (1 sk, not measured), rio Cristalino , MT, Oct 1997   , Coleção rio Araguaia   . MZUSP 61987 View Materials (1, 111.2 mm SL), rio Tocatins , c. 3°42’S 49°27’W, Tucuruí, PA GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 62794 View Materials (4, 76.9-90.8 mm SL), Araguaia basin, c. 14°22’S 51°0’W, Cocalinho, MT, Jun 1997 GoogleMaps   , W. Severi et al. MZUSP 62998 View Materials (5, 141- 165.7 mm SL), Araguaia basin, Barra do Garças, 15°52’3”S 51°58’17”W, Ouro Fino, MT GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 63020 View Materials (4, 83.4-164.2 mm SL), Araguaiana , near mouth rio das Mortes (Pontal), MT   . MZUSP 63148 View Materials (2, 152.4- 154.3 mm SL), rio das Mortes, Capitariguara , 14°30’22”S 51°52’29”W, Nova Xavantina, MT GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 84205 View Materials (1, 157 mm SL), rio Tocantins , Tucuruí, PA   . MZUSP 86216 View Materials (7, 72.4-157 mm SL), Araguaia basin, Cocalinho, 14°17’20”S 51°9’12”W, MT GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 86782 View Materials (7, 142.2-162.0 mm SL), Araguaia basin, Cocalinho, 14°24’11”S 50°59’27”W, MT, Oct 2004 GoogleMaps   , J. L. Birindelli et al. MZUSP 89187 View Materials (10, 128.9- 165.7 mm SL), Araguaia basin, 14°25’33”S 50°59’40”W, Cocalinho, MT, Jul 2005 GoogleMaps   , C. Chamon et al. MZUSP 89620 View Materials (3, 113.8- 127.2 mm SL), rio Verde , 13°9’28”S 50°30’22”W, Luís Alves, GO, Apr 2004 GoogleMaps   , A.Akama. UMMZ 203401 View Materials (1, 138.6 mm SL), Baiaom , PA, Jul 1935   , H. W. Curran.

Diagnosis. Hassar wilderi   is distinguished from H. orestis   by having 9 th through 14 th, modally 12 th, midlateral scute as the anteriormost with median thorn (vs. 1 st through 8 th, modally 3 rd), and tip of upper caudal-fin lobe rarely darkened (vs. usually darkened). Hassar wilderi   is distinguished from H. affinis   and H. gabiru   by having gas bladder with many well-branched diverticula on margins of the entire bladder (vs. gas bladder with two rounded or weakly-branched diverticula restricted to each side of anterior chamber of the gas bladder [rarely one extra pair on the posterior chambers]), and gas bladder triangular posteriorly, each posterior chamber extended into a short terminal diverticulum sharing medial septum with its pair (vs. gas bladder posteriorly rounded, lacking terminal diverticula) ( Fig. 4 View Fig ). Hassar wilderi   is further distinguished from Hassar affinis   by having the first branched dorsal-fin rays and membranes pale (vs. first branched dorsal-fin rays and membranes distally darkened).

Description. Morphometric data are summarized in Tables 3 and 4; morphometric data for type specimens in Table 4; type and non-type specimens illustrated in Fig. 16 View Fig . Largest specimen examined 188.4 mm SL (MZUSP 52394). Dorsal profile of head rising moderately, evenly (usually in smaller specimens) or slightly convex (especially in larger specimens) from snout tip to anterior margin of orbit, and relatively straight from that point to the dorsal-fin spine. Dorsal profile of body descending gradually, approximately straight from dorsal-fin spine to caudal peduncle. Ventral contour shallowly concave from snout tip to pectoral girdle, and slightly convex from that point to caudal peduncle. Caudal peduncle short with shallow hourglass shape in lateral view.

Body elongate with prominent conical snout. Mouth subterminal, each premaxilla bearing small patch of approximately 5 to 10 acicular teeth, and each dentary with approximately 10 to 20 acicular teeth. Oval orbit with weakly developed adipose eyelid in juveniles (SL <14 cm), extended slightly beyond anterior and posterior limits of eye, and moderately developed in adults (SL> 14 cm), extended slightly further anteriorly than in juveniles. Eyes positioned about half way between tip of snout and dorsal-fin origin.

Three pairs of barbels (maxillary, inner and outer mental), all fimbriate. Maxillary barbel usually reaching base of first pectoralfin ray; with 8 to 13 (mode 10, n=66) fimbriae along ventrolateral face. Inner and outer mentonian barbels of approximately equal size, covered with many rounded papillae, and falling short of ventralmost opening of gill slit.

Gill rakers small on first gill arch, absent on remaining arches. Accessory branchial lamellae on inner face of first gill arch well developed in approximately ten rows from insertion of rakers to origin of branchial filaments (but not contacting the latter); accessory lamellae gradually reduced on remaining (second to fifth) gill arches.

Lateral-line tubules ossified, forming row of 31 to 34 (mode 32, n=60) midlateral scutes beginning with infranuchal. Three tympanal scutes, inconspicuous, usually without emergent thorn. Infranuchal scute with dorsal wing extremely thin and ventral wing dilated, expanded anteriorly, connected to posterior cleithral process; scute usually without medial thorn. Postinfranuchal scutes reduced anteriorly, non-overlapping; each with posterior margin bicuspid (without medial thorn) or tricuspid (including medial thorn), latter condition usually starting at 12 th scute (range 9 th through 14 th, n=60); medial thorn and dorsal and ventral wings gradually increasing in size posteriorly; scutes with serrated posterior margin and overlapping on last third of body.

Dorsal-fin II,6 (n=67), triangular with distal margin approximately straight, vertical when erected. Dorsal-fin spine slightly compressed and curved, with relatively small antrorse serrations along anterior margin (serrations reduced or absent on distal third); slightly larger retrorse serrations along posterior margin (serrations absent on proximal portion). Pectoral fin modally I,9, range I,7-9 (n=67); distal margin straight, oblique relative to body axis. Pectoral-fin spine slightly depressed and curved, with antrorse serrations along anterior margin (serrations absent on distal third); slightly larger retrorse serrations along posterior margin (serrations larger distally). Pelvic fin i,6 (n=66); distal margin rounded. Anal fin modally iii,7, range ii-v,6-9 (n=65); subtriangular with scarcely rounded distal margin. Adipose fin relatively small, teardrop-shaped, with rounded free posterior margin. Caudal fin i,7/8,i (n=67, rarely i,6/8,i or i,7/9,i), distinctly forked, with lobes approximately equal in size.

Gas bladder ( Fig. 4 View Fig ) moderately large, cordiform. Bundles of diverticula present along the anterior, lateral, and posterior margins of the entire bladder in small specimens (<50 mm SL); diverticula become thinner and more branched in larger specimens. Gas bladder triangular posteriorly, each posterior chamber extended into a short terminal diverticulum sharing medial septum with its pair and possessing smaller lateral diverticula.

Osteology. Osteology generally similar to that described for Hassar orestis   , excepting differences as follows. Total vertebrae 36 (n=1), vertebrae 6-14 bearing ribs. Eight (n=1) dorsal-fin pterygiophores, 11 (n=1) pelvic-fin pterygiophores; 11 (n=2) or 12 (n=3) dorsal and 10 (n=1), 11 (n=2) or 12 (n=2) ventral caudal-fin procurrent rays. All examined specimens with hypural fusion pattern PH; HY 1+2; HY 3+4; HY 5, and with complete ossification of sutural joint at junction of sphenotic, parieto-supraoccipital and frontal.

Coloration. In alcohol, head and body tan to brown, or grey, countershaded. Faint dark stripe from anterior margin of upper lip to anterior margin of eye. A conspicuous dark blotch on the first three branched dorsal-fin rays and membranes, blotch starting from midlength of rays and membranes and almost reaching their distal tips, which are pale. Tip of upper caudalfin lobe only rarely darkened.

In life, ground color yellowish or greenish laterally and white ventrally; lower lip pinkish. Eye silvery, distinctly contrasted with pale surrounding adipose tissue.

Distribution. Hassar wilderi   occurs in the Tocantins and Araguaia river basins, in Brazil ( Fig. 6 View Fig ).

Ecology. Like its congeners, specimens of Hassar wilderi   are usually collected over sandy beaches (substrate sometimes with fine gravel or muddy), and often in the main channel of large rivers. Santos et al. (1984) stated that individuals of H. wilderi   reach sexual maturity with approximately 15 cm long. Eggs are deposited between November and January.

Etymology. Named in honor of B. G. Wilder, who sent the collection made by C. F. Hartt in Brazil to C. H. Eigenmann for identification. The catfishes of this collection were then transmitted to E. M. Kindle for final determination.According to Kindle (1895: 249), the collection contained 19 genera and 27 species, including two new species: Hassar wilderi   and Hemiancistrus longipinnis   (= Baryancistrus longipinnis   ).

Remarks. According to Fowler’s (1941a) description of Hassar iheringi   , three of the four type specimens (including the holotype) were collected in “Rio Parnahyba, Terezina, Piauhy”. Examination of these specimens, however, revealed that they possess some characters that are absent in specimens from northeastern Brazilian drainages, which are herein referred to as H. affinis   . Those characters are: many thin, branched lateral diverticula on entire margin of gas bladder, dark blotch over the median portion of the first branched dorsal-fin rays, first five postinfranuchal scutes developed with two posteriorly directed thorns, and relatively deep body (see Tables 1 to 4). Actually, these features are present in H. wilderi   , who seems to occur exclusively in the Tocantins basin according to the specimens we examined. This indicates that the locality of three type specimens of H. iheringi   referred by Fowler (1941a) is probably wrong, and that those specimens were probably collected in the Tocantins basin. Similar locality errors have already been recorded by Vari (1995), Vari & Harold (2001), and Castro & Vari (2004). We therefore consider that H. iheringi   is a junior synonym of H. wilderi   , and that Fowler (1941a) ’s referred locality is wrong.

Hassar wilderi   was described based on four specimens first deposited in the Cornell University (under catalogue numbers CU 1703-1705, plus one uncatalogued specimen), which were then transferred to the Indiana University to be identified by Eigenmann (catalogued as IU 5120). Eigenmann’s (1925) monograph listed the specimens as “I.U.M. 5120, types, 162 and 207 mm ” (measurements given in TL), and included an illustration of the smallest specimen ( Eigenmann, 1925: pl. 22, fig. 2). Those specimens were subsequently transferred to the Stanford University, and Myers & Weitzman (1956) elected as lectotype one of them (CU 1704), catalogued as SU 2243. The specimens were finally transferred to the California Academy of Sciences, where the paralectotypes are catalogued as CAS 60710 View Materials (181.2 mm SL or 208 mm SL) and CAS60711 View Materials (139.5 mm SL or 168 mm TL), while the lectotype remained as SU 2243 (157.7 mm SL or 191 mm TL). Sabaj & Ferraris (2003) considered Eigenmann (1925) ’s figure as a designation of lectotype, with the consequence that Myers & Weitzman (1956)’s designation of lectotype is invalid. Nevertheless, Eigenmann (1925) considered both specimens as types, and clearly did not intend to elect a lectotype. We therefore prefer to accept Myers & Weitzman (1956)’s designation of the lectotype as valid.














Hassar wilderi Kindle, 1895

Birindelli, José L. O., Fayal, Danielle F. & Wosiacki, Wolmar B. 2011

Hassar iheringi

Eschmeyer, W 1998: 760
Burgess, W 1989: 218
Fowler, H 1951: 491
Gosline, W 1945: 23
Fowler, H 1941: 140

Hassar wilderi

Merona, B & Juras, G 2010: 53
Birindelli, J 2009: 276
Ferraris Jr. C 2007: 171
Eschmeyer, W 1998: 1792
Burgess, W 1989: 222
Santos, G 1984: 51
Fowler, H 1951: 492
Gosline, W 1945: 23
Eigenmann, C 1925: 355
Kindle, E 1895: 251
Kindle, E 1893: 72