Curtonotum gladiiformis, Kirk-Spriggs, 2011

Kirk-Spriggs, Ashley H., 2011, A revision of Afrotropical Quasimodo flies (Diptera: Schizophora; Curtonotidae). Part III - the Malagasy species of Curtonotum Macquart, with descriptions of six new species, African Invertebrates 52 (2), pp. 391-391 : 409-413

publication ID 10.5733/afin.052.0212


persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Curtonotum gladiiformis

sp. nov.

Curtonotum gladiiformis View in CoL sp. n.

Figs 8 View Figs 1–8 , 21 View Figs 14–26 , 34 View Figs 27–39 , 41, 43, 45 View Figs 40–45 , 85 View Figs 79–91 , 99 View Figs 97–101

Etymology: From Latin gladius (sword) and formis (in the form of), and refers to the sword-like shape of the distiphallus of this species.

Differential diagnosis: This species is probably most closely related to C. balachowskyi Tsacas. Both share the similarly-shaped scimitar-like distiphallus, with the incurved basal area (viewed laterally) and the subquadrate sternite 6, with a very shallow apical excision. Curtonotum gladiiformis differs from C. balachowskyi , however, in having the lateral margin of the apical border of the basiphallus developed into a medial and submedial spine, as opposed to C. balachowskyi , in which the right lateral border forms a distinct, angulate fold, and in having the setae on sternite 6 much longer on the apical margin.


Male (primarily based on ex spirit-preserved HT).

As redescribed for C. balachowskyi , differing in the following respects: Measurements: Overall length unknown; length of head and thorax combined 2.9 mm; length of thorax and scutellum combined 2.6 mm (HT); wing 4.4 mm long (n = 1, PT).

Head ( Figs 8 View Figs 1–8 , 21 View Figs 14–26 ). Eye prominent, eye height/length ratio: 11:7 (HT); frons ( Fig. 21 View Figs 14–26 ), slightly wider than long, frons length/width ratio: 7:8 (HT), ground colour pale brown, darker brown towards vertex and between orbital plates forming conspicuous vittae that reach ventral margin; orbital plates and ocellar triangle golden-grey pruinose; ocelli clear brown; orbital plates extending from vertex of head to 0.8 length of frons, lateral margins with narrow silver pruinose fascia (adjacent to eye margin), slightly wider at antennal insertions; posterior orbital seta moderately strong, slightly longer than outer vertical seta; antennal scape and pedicel brown­grey pruinose, flagellomere 1 yellow pruinose basally, pitchy brown, grey pruinose apically, arista with 8 or 9 long dorsal branches and 3 or 4 ventral branches in addition to terminal fork; lunula yellow-grey pruinose; face with narrow silver fascia (adjacent to eye margin); occiput grey pruinose; gena narrow, eye height/genal height ratio: 10:1 (HT), silver pruinose throughout, very slightly darker beyond basal angle; palpus pale brown, brown microtrichose.

Thorax ( Fig. 8 View Figs 1–8 ). Mesonotum as described for C. boeny ; presutural seta (missing on holotype and paratypes); anterior notopleural seta markedly longer than posterior; supra-alar seta shorter than posterior dorsocentral seta; postalar setae longer and stronger than acrostichal setae; postpronotum silver­yellow pruinose, with 11 finer black­brown setulae; anepisternum silver-grey pruinose, silver-yellow pruinose medially, surface with 24 fine setulae, some larger and arranged in 2 groups of 3; anepimeron, laterotergite and meron silver-grey to yellow-grey pruinose; katepisternum silver-grey to yellow-grey pruinose with darker grey macula in anterior half, dorsal katepisternal setae ca 0.4 length of ventral katepisternal setae, with 11 short, fine setulae at base and along posterior margin.

Scutellum. As in mesonotum, slightly paler yellow pruinose at posterior margin; weaker intermediate scutellar setula inserted at 0.8 distance between medial and lateral scutellar setulae.

Legs. Fore coxa with 9 brown setulae on anterior surface; mid coxa with 8 brown setulae; fore tibia with ctenidium of 12 spinules.

Wing (as in Fig. 34 View Figs 27–39 ). Broad basally, tip evenly rounded, veins chestnut-brown, membrane very faintly infuscate brown throughout, very slightly darker in region of dm–cu crossvein; dm–cu crossvein evenly arched; haltere dirty white.

Abdomen. Tergite 1 simple, devoid of maculae; tergite 2 with oblique, subrectangular brown-black pruinose dorsolateral macula on either side and faint medial fascia; tergites 3–5 with broad, V-shaped concolourous median fasciae and well separated and extensive concolourous T-shaped dorsolateral macula, these close, but not merging with medial fascia, lateral margin of tergites 2–5 with subquadrate concolourous macula in basal ⅔; sternite 4, weakly sclerotised, quadrate, sides evenly narrowing to straight apical margin; sternite 5 similar, but wider and longer, both unmodified, with long, brown, sparse setulae arranged in irregular rows, lateral setulae longer and stronger; sternite 6 ( Fig. 85 View Figs 79–91 ) much broader than long (may appear narrower than Fig. 85 View Figs 79–91 in undissected specimens), with very shallow apical excision and faint, transverse, brown maculae apically, clothed in extremely long, sparse, black, irregular setulae, especially along apical margin.

Terminalia ( Figs 41, 43, 45 View Figs 40–45 ). Hypandrium ( Fig. 41 View Figs 40–45 , hy) long, with broad-based rounded-truncate dorsobasal lobe, posterior bridge dorsally and ventrally produced (rounded to slightly angulate in profile); hypandrial arm constricted medially (viewed laterally), with 2 setulae proximal to postgonite, the more lateral strong, ventrally-directed, the medial much smaller and weaker (or absent) (obscured by epandrium on Fig. 41 View Figs 40–45 ), sclerotised area of medial lobes (viewed dorsally), with margins evenly rounded, convex medially, closely abutting, not overlapping; postgonite ( Fig. 41 View Figs 40–45 , pg) long, thin and straight, with slight undulating anterior margin; epandrium ( Fig. 41 View Figs 40–45 , ep) broader dorsally than ventrally (viewed laterally), evenly rounded on dorsal margin, posterior margin slightly angled, ventral margin with extensive row of long, regular to irregular, ventrally-directed setae; cercus ( Fig. 41 View Figs 40–45 , ce) not prominent, longest setae longer than dorsal setae of epandrium; surstylus ( Fig. 41 View Figs 40–45 , ss) long, widest basally, slightly curved in apical ⅔; phallus (as in Figs 43 View Figs 40–45 , ph, bp, dp; 45, bp, dp) C-shaped, very large, moderately sclerotised, brown; phallapodeme ( Fig. 43 View Figs 40–45 , ph) fused to basiphallus, subtriangular (viewed laterally), with basal margin developed into two flat, narrow, subtriangular projections in basal 0.4, bifurcated at point of connection with hypandrium; ejaculatory apodeme ( Fig. 43 View Figs 40–45 , ea) free, duct inserted at junction of phallapodeme and basiphallus; basiphallus ( Fig. 43 View Figs 40–45 , bp) broad in basal region, with conspicuous internal bulge, then narrowed, moderately constricted in ca apical ⅔ (viewed dorsally); apical section ( Fig. 45 View Figs 40–45 , bp) broad, right lateral margin evenly rounded and flat, developed into a bluntly­pointed ventromedial spine, with much smaller spine basolaterally; distiphallus ( Figs 43, 45 View Figs 40–45 , dp) moderately sclerotised, extremely long, sword-like, with conspicuous curved indentation in basal third (viewed laterally), sclerotised area subdivided basally, with triangular window.

Variation: In the two PT the basiphallus is not as markedly constricted in the apical ⅔ as in Fig. 43 View Figs 40–45 and this may be the result of slight distortion in phallus of the HT.

Holotype: ♂ “ MADAGASCAR: Province / Fianarantsoa, near Isalo / National Park , in dry wash / east of Interpretive Center / 22°37.60’S, 45°21.49’E / 28.iii–9.iv. 2003, 885 m / M.E. Irwin & R. Harin’Hala / Malaise trap in open area / MA­02­11B­60 // HOLOTYPE ♂ / Curtonotum / gladiiformis sp. n. / A.H. Kirk-Spriggs 2010 [red card]” ( CAS). In good condition, some head setae missing; card-pointed; dissected, abdomen and terminalia in micro-vial pinned beneath specimen. GoogleMaps

Paratypes (all labelled: “ PARATYPE ♂ / Curtonotum / gladiiformis sp. n. / A.H. Kirk-Spriggs 2010 [blue card]”): 1♂ same data as holotype, except: “ 3–10.ii.2002, MA­02­11B­14” [right wing detached and glued to card]; 1♂ “ 6–14.xii.2002, MA­02­11B­49 // BMSA(DNA)#0050” (both CAS) GoogleMaps .

Distribution ( Fig. 99 View Figs 97–101 ): Apparently confined to the Wooded Grassland­Bushland vegetation type, in the Central Highlands biome. In the Central biogeographical zone and Subarid bioclimatic zone ( Figs 105–107 View Figs 105–107 ; Tables 1–3; Appendix II).


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