Pauropsalta inversa, POPPLE, 2013
POPPLE, L. W., 2013, <p class = " HeadingRunIn " align = " left "> <strong> A revision of the <em> Pauropsalta annulata </ em> Goding & amp; Froggatt species group (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) based on morphology, calling songs and ecology, with investigations into calling song structure, molecular phylogenetic relationships and a case of hybridisation between two subspecies </ strong> </ p>, Zootaxa 3730 (1), pp. 1-102: 72-76
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Pauropsalta inversa sp. nov.
Pauropsalta annulata song type CN: Popple et al. (2008); Popple & Walter (2010).
Types: Holotype: ♂ ‘ AUSTRALIA / Queensland’ , ‘ Ceratodus / 10km N. of Eidsvold’, ‘ 25.i.2003 /m.v. lamp’, ‘ L. Popple & W. Popple’, ‘431-0002’, ‘ QM Reg. No. T 156331’ ( QM) ; Paratypes: QUEENSLAND: 1♀ Ceratodus, 10km N. of Eidsvold , 25.i.2003, m. v. lamp, Popple & Popple , 431-0011 ( QM) ; 1♂ 1♀ Eidsvold , 25°22'06"S 151°07'25"E, 24–25.xi.2006, m. v. lamp, Popple & McKinnon , 431-0014 & 431-0058 ( AE) GoogleMaps ; 2 MM Pistol Gap S. of Byfield Qld , 10.i.1970, EB, GH & SM, at light ( ANIC) ; 6♂ 1♀ Burnett River, 10km N. of Eidsvold Qld , 28.i.1988, Moulds & Moulds ( MSM) ; 1♀ Eidsvold , 25°22'06"S 151°07'25"E, 24–25.xi.2006, Popple & McKinnon, m. v. lamp , 431-0057 ( MSM) GoogleMaps ; 4♂ 3♀ Goolgowi N.S.W., 9.ii.1984, Moulds & Moulds ; 1♂ 1♀ Springsure Qld , 15.xii.1979, Valentine ( MSM) ; 1♂ AU.QLD.MOZ, Creek S. of Rolleston on SH55 Qld , 24°28.633'S 148°36.768'E, 11.i.2002, Cooley, Cowan, Hill, Marshall & Moulds ( MSM) GoogleMaps ; 54♂ 12♀ 1♂ 1♀ Eidsvold , 25°22'06"S 151°07'25"E, 24–25.xi.2006, m. v. lamp, Popple & McKinnon , 431-0012 to 431-0056 & 431-0060 to 431-0081 ( LWP) GoogleMaps ; 2♂ Billabong Motor Inn, Mundubbera , 25°35'03"S 151°15'18"E, 8.i.2007, Popple & Hereward, 431-0082 & 431-0083 ( LWP) GoogleMaps ; 1♂ Clermont , 22°49'04"S 147°38'37"E, 18.xi.2005, m. v. lamp, Popple & Hando , 442-0001 ( LWP) GoogleMaps ; 1♂ AUSTRALIA New South Wales, Mount Hope , 32°50'25"S 145°52'53"E, 21.xi.2010, S12588 View Materials , Popple & Emery, 431-0084 ( LWP) GoogleMaps ; NEW SOUTH WALES: 1♂ 1km S. of Mount Hope , 32°50'38"S 145°52'54"E, 21.xi.2010, S12588 View Materials , Popple & Emery, 431-0085 ( LWP) GoogleMaps .
Description. Male ( Figs 4O View FIGURE 4 , 31F View FIGURE 31 , 39C View FIGURE 39 , 46A View FIGURE 46 ). Head. Dorsal surface black with an inconspicuous dark brown triangular depression between the lateral ocelli, pointing anteriorly, with flat side against posterior margin of head; long silver pubescence behind eyes, with shorter yellow pubescence irregularly distributed over remainder. Genae and vertex black, with long silver pubescence. Mandibular plate black; long silver pubescence. Antennae dark brown to black. Ocelli dull red. Eyes dark red in live insects, fading to dark reddish-brown in some preserved specimens; distinct furrow between eyes and pronotum. Postclypeus shiny black with narrow yellow-brown margins; short yellow pubescence along posterior ventral surface. Anteclypeus black, with long silver pubescence. Rostrum dark brown grading to black apically, with silver pubescence; extending to mid coxae.
Thorax. Pronotum black with silver-yellow pubescence; pronotal collar brown, grading to yellow-brown laterally. Mesonotum often entirely black, sometimes with inconspicuous dark brown dorsolateral fasciae between submedian and lateral sigilla; cruciform elevation reddish-brown to yellow-brown, black anteriorly; wing grooves yellow-brown; silver-yellow pubescence, most evident around cruciform elevation.
Legs. Coxae black, yellow-brown apically; fore femora black with narrow, dark brown longitudinal fasciae, pale brown apically; mid and hind femora black, pale brown apically; fore and mid tibiae medium to dark brown; hind tibiae pale to medium brown; fore and mid tarsi medium brown; hind tarsi pale brown; claws and spines dark brown.
Wings. Fore wing venation medium to dark brown, becoming darker towards apical cells and ambient veins; fore wing costal veins pale to medium brown; slight angulation of fore wings at node; pterostigma brown; hind wing infuscation at the juncture of the anal lobe and wing margin, surrounding the distal termination of vein 2A, distinct.
Timbals. Long ribs 1–2 (and sometimes 3) fused ventrally; long ribs 1–4 fused dorsally to basal spur. Long rib 5 typically extending further, ventrally, than adjacent intercalary rib.
Opercula. Roughly sickle-shaped, obliquely elongated; central region domed, black; medial margin pallid; parallel to body axis.
Abdomen. Tergites mainly black with narrow, contrasting yellow-orange posterior margins, wider on tergite 8; short silver pubescence conspicuous laterally. Sternites yellow to yellow-brown with a black medial fascia.
Genitalia. Pygofer black anteriorly, grading to yellow or yellow-brown apically; upper lobes prominent, erect, narrow, terminally rounded; lower lobes distinct, bulbous, without an inner tooth on each lobe; inner lobes enlarged, acute, posteriorly tapering; claspers with a pair of hooked processes; aedeagus with dorsal pseudoparameres that bifurcate and join theca near gonocoxite IX; pseudoparameres apically curved, tapering; theca gradually curved posteriorly, sclerotized, widening apically; apex abrupt and sheer, ornamented with numerous small spines and fewer medium-large spines (sometimes absent), with dorsal edge projecting conspicuously further posteriorly (> 0.1mm) relative to ventral edge.
Female ( Fig. 46B View FIGURE 46 ). Similar colouration and patterning to male, but darker brown overall. Head similar in colour to that of male with eyes varying from dark red to brown. Pronotum black; central fascia inconspicuous, dark brown, forming a smear that tapers proximally and distally, not reaching anterior or posterior margins. Mesonotum similar in colour to that of male, with barely visible (or absent) dark brown dorsolateral fasciae in area between submedian and lateral sigilla, and additional fasciae along lateral margins; when present, dorsolateral fasciae triangular, sometimes fused medially; lateral fasciae narrow, barely visible (or absent). Legs similar in colour to those of male. Abdomen with tergites similar in colour to those of male, with posterior tergite margins typically yellow-brown to medium brown; abdominal segment 9 medium brown to yellow-brown with a pair of longitudinal, near-dorsal, black fasciae that extend to the anterior edge and ventrolaterally to some extent; sternites yellow-brown to medium brown with a broad, black fascia distributed medially along sternites II to VII, and which tapers posteriorly; ovipositor sheath extending <0.5 mm beyond termination of abdominal segment 9.
Distinguishing features. The extensive black colouration of the males, along with the lack of conspicuous mesonotal fasciae, distinguishes P. inversa from all others in the P. annulata group, apart from some specimens of P. annulata , P. n. notialis , P. n. incitata, P. subtropica and P. torrensis . Males can be distinguished from these remaining taxa by timbal long rib 5, which extends further ventrally than the adjacent intercalary rib, and by the apex of the theca, which has a prominent dorsal, but no ventral, projection. Females, being similar in appearance to the males, can also be distinguished by their extensive black colouration, with the exception of some dark specimens of P. annulata . They differ from melanistic individuals of P. annulata by having pale brown sternites with a black medial fascia, in contrast to sternites that are almost entirely black.
Notes on Geographical Variation. Specimens of P. inversa from western New South Wales consistently have a glossy textured thorax and head; whereas those from Queensland are dull or matte textured over the entire body.
Measurements. N= 30 ♂ 18 ♀. Ranges and means (in parentheses), mm; BL: ♂ 11.3–15.0 (12.2); ♀ 11.1–14.2 (12.8); FWL: ♂ 13.4–16.3 (15.0); ♀ 14.9–17.7 (16.0); FWB: ♂ 4.8–5.6 (5.1); ♀ 4.9–6.1 (5.5); HW: ♂ 3.7–4.3 (3.9); ♀ 3.8–4.6 (4.2); PW: ♂ 3.0–3.5 (3.3); ♀ 3.2–3.7 (3.4); AW: ♂ 3.2–4.2 (3.7); ♀ 3.3–4.0 (3.7); OL: ♀ 3.7–4.5 (4.0).
Etymology. From Latin, meaning inverted. For most species, there are short and long silent gaps in the lilting component and the long gaps typically occur after the short echeme. However, in P. inversa , the long gaps always occur after the long echeme. As a consequence, in an oscillogram the call of this species appears to be temporally inverted relative to the calls of other species in the P. annulata species group.
Distribution and Ecology ( Figure 43 View FIGURE 43 ). Central and southern inland Queensland from Clermont south across the Great Dividing Range to Augathella, near Tambo, Mt Moffatt (Carnarvon National Park) and St George, and east to the Fitzroy, Dawson, upper Burnett and upper Mary River catchments of south-east Queensland, including Byfield, Theodore, Dawson Range, Kalpowar, Auburn River near Mundubbera and near Gympie. A disjunct population also occurs in central inland New South Wales from Mount Hope south to Goolgowi. In Queensland, males sing from the upper branches and main trunks of tall eucalypts, such as E. tereticornis , C. tessellaris and, on occasion, E. moluccana , whereas in New South Wales, adults appear to be associated with Callitris columellaris . Adults are active from late September to at least the end of January with peak numbers usually between mid– December and New Year.
Geological and Pedological Associations. Adults are associated with tree species that are generally found in loamy alluvial soils of variable depth and on undeveloped soils in sloping terrain.
Calling Song ( Figs 2N View FIGURE 2 , 47–48 View FIGURE 47 View FIGURE 48 ). Pauropsalta inversa has prominent buzzing and lilting components in its song. It is distinguished from other species in the P. annulata group by the long silent gap that follows the long echeme (in all other species of the P. annulata species group the longer gap follows the short echeme or the echemes or the gaps that follow them are of equal duration). The lilting component comprises a long echeme (27–126 syllables, 0.270 – 1.403 s) followed by a long silence of variable duration (0.130 – 1.912 s), a short echeme (2 syllables, 0.018 – 0.035 s), and a short silence (0.054 – 0.136 s) (all statistics, n=74 individuals). As found in most other species, the buzzing component is a long drawn-out single echeme that appears equivalent to the long echeme in the lilting component. Observations on the attraction of males to simulated female wing-flicks suggest that the female responds during the silence that follows the short echeme (D. Marshall pers. comm., 1.vii.2013), which corresponds with other species in the P. annulata species group. The calling song has a phrase repetition rate of 0.472 – 4.070 s and a syllable repetition rate of 90–110 Hz. In Queensland, the dominant frequency plateau extends from ~9.5–15.0 kHz, with a highest amplitude dominant frequency between 11.3–12.1 kHz. In the disjunct New South Wales population, the dominant frequency plateau extends from ~8.8–14.0 kHz, with a highest amplitude dominant frequency between 9.7–11.4 kHz.
The duration of silence that follows the long echeme in each phrase of the lilting component varies considerably, to some extent within and among individuals, but even more conspicuously between populations. For example, in Queensland, recordings from Augathella, near Tambo, Springsure, Clermont, Rolleston, Wyseby, Mt Moffatt and St George show a conspicuously long silence (0.505 –1.912 s), whereas those from Middlemount, Blackwater and the Burnett and Mary River catchments further east have a much shorter silence (0.130 –0.379 s). In western New South Wales, the silence after the long echeme also varies with an intermediate duration at Goolgowi (0.530 –0.855 s) and a shorter duration again at Mount Hope (0.145 –0.214 s), localities that are only 155 km apart. In Queensland, the variation from east to west may be clinal. Alternatively, it may be related to the abundance of males in any particular area at the time when recordings were taken. For the instance, males were observed to be quite common in the Burnett catchment and also at Mount Hope where some of the most rapidly emitted call sequences have been recorded. In contrast, at Clermont and at Goolgowi, where some of the most drawn-out sequences were recorded, males were generally observed to be quite widely scattered through their habitat. Further investigations would be required to unravel the cause(s) and potential implications of this variation GoogleMaps .
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