Pauropsalta notialis, POPPLE, 2013

POPPLE, L. W., 2013, <p class = " HeadingRunIn " align = " left "> <strong> A revision of the <em> Pauropsalta annulata </ em> Goding & amp; Froggatt species group (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) based on morphology, calling songs and ecology, with investigations into calling song structure, molecular phylogenetic relationships and a case of hybridisation between two subspecies </ strong> </ p>, Zootaxa 3730 (1), pp. 1-102: 22-25

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Pauropsalta notialis

sp. nov.

Pauropsalta notialis   sp. nov.

( Figs 2 View FIGURE 2 , 4C–E View FIGURE 4 , 5C–E View FIGURE 5 , 6C–E View FIGURE 6 , 10A–H View FIGURE 10 , 11–15 View FIGURE 11 View FIGURE 12 View FIGURE 13 View FIGURE 14 View FIGURE 15 )

Diagnosis. Closely matches the description given for P. annulata   , but differs in the following aspects. Eyes red, fading to brown; no living specimens with white eyes have been observed (c.f. P. annulata   ). Mesonotum dominantly matte black or glossy black, displaying narrow, dark to medium brown, dorsolateral triangular fascia in area between submedian and lateral fasciae (indistinct or absent in some specimens) and additional fascia along lateral margins (also absent in many specimens). Abdominal tergites with sharp transition in colour from black across anterior and median surface to pale brown on posterior edges; sternites brown to pale brown, with a black medial fascia, or dominantly black and bordered, at least to some extent, with brown to yellow-brown lateral margins, not entirely black. Females similar in colouration to males, but with a greater degree of brown colouration and without an entirely black mesonotum. Ovipositor sheath extends between 0.5 to 1.0 mm beyond the end of the abdomen.

Distinguishing features. Both sexes of P. notialis   can be distinguished from P. rubristrigata   by their smaller size (fore wing length much less than 20 mm). Males can be distinguished from P. corymbiae   , P. decora   and P. kobongoides   , by the pale, rather than mostly black or dark brown entire medial margin of the opercula and from P. subtropica   and P. torrensis   by the rounded, rather than slightly hooked, posterior ventral termination of the upper pygofer lobes. Males differ from those of P. granitica   by the sharp transition in colouration of the lateral abdominal tergites from black to pale brown, without a conspicuous three-step grade in tone from black to medium brown to pale brown. They differ from P. inversa   by timbal long rib 5 not extending ventrally beyond the adjacent intercalary rib and by having both dorsal and ventral projections (rather than just the former) associated with the apex of the theca), and from P. ayrensis   and P. simplex   by having pale, rather than dark, upper pygofer lobes. Pauropsalta notialis   males appear closely similar to those of P. tremula   and P. blackdownensis   ; however, individuals never share the combination of distinct mesonotal fasciae (in the area outside of the submedian and lateral sigilla) and sternites that are close to being entirely black, as seen in the latter two species. Females are less easily distinguished, except where there are differences in ovipositor length (refer to descriptions of remaining taxa below). In some instances, specimens of P. notialis   are nearly impossible to distinguish from P. annulata   s. str., but the latter species never has a glossy thorax in south-east Queensland specimens and P. notialis   never has sternites that are entirely black including at the lateral margins and the living specimens never have white eyes.

Distribution and Ecology ( Figure 11 View FIGURE 11 ). Pauropsalta notialis   occupies an essentially warm temperate distribution, beginning in central Queensland from Blackall, Carnarvon National Park and north of Clermont, and extending south through the Brigalow Belt and into New South Wales along the western slopes, the Great Dividing Range and also coastal areas south from near Ballina to Gerringong on the south coast, with isolated populations in Canberra (Australian Capital Territory) and north-west of Melbourne in Victoria, respectively. Around south-east Queensland, this species is widespread around the upper Dawson River and Burnett River catchments, including Theodore, Taroom, Monto, Eidsvold and Gayndah, further south to around Roma, St George, Goondiwindi, Miles, Chinchilla, Oakey, Millmerran and Toowoomba, and east of the ranges around Yarraman, Cooyar, Blackbutt, Woodford, Coominya, Mt Nebo, Samford, Gatton, Grantham, Redbank Plains, Kholo, Mt Marrow, Peak Crossing, Boonah and Rathdowney, largely shunning the metropolitan area of Brisbane and all coastal areas north of Ballina. It is a widespread species in Greater Sydney and the only species in the Pauropsalta annulata   species group that occurs in the suburbs within Sydney, Gosford and Newcastle. Adults occur predominantly on the upper branches and within foliage of eucalypts and also Brigalow ( Acacia harpophylla   ) in inland Queensland.

Subspecies and hybrids. Pauropsalta notialis   contains geographic variation in morphology and calling song that is captured under the descriptions of two new (mostly allopatric) subspecies and their hybrids, below. The hybridisation between these subspecies has apparently occurred extensively in areas where the subspecies have been predicted to overlap ( Popple and Walter, 2010). In contrast, other members of the P. annulata   species complex consistently display independent calling songs across their geographical distributions, including sites where they occur in sympatry (see Popple et al., 2008; Popple, 2009). The case of P. notialis   stands as an exception, which justifies the subspecific status of the two new taxa described under this epithet.