Pauropsalta simplex, POPPLE, 2013

POPPLE, L. W., 2013, <p class = " HeadingRunIn " align = " left "> <strong> A revision of the <em> Pauropsalta annulata </ em> Goding & amp; Froggatt species group (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) based on morphology, calling songs and ecology, with investigations into calling song structure, molecular phylogenetic relationships and a case of hybridisation between two subspecies </ strong> </ p>, Zootaxa 3730 (1), pp. 1-102: 44-46

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Pauropsalta simplex

sp. nov.

Pauropsalta simplex   sp. nov.

( Figs 2G View FIGURE 2 , 4H View FIGURE 4 , 5H View FIGURE 5 , 18E–F View FIGURE 18 , 19 View FIGURE 19 , 22B View FIGURE 22 , 25–26 View FIGURE 25 View FIGURE 26 )

Types: Holotype: ♂ ‘ AUSTRALIA / Qld’ , ‘ Atherton / Louise St’, ‘ 17°15'57"S 145°29'00"E’, ‘ 31.xii.2006 ’, ‘ L. Popple & A. McKinnon’, ‘437-0001’, ‘ QM Reg. No. T 156324’ ( QM) GoogleMaps   . Paratypes: QUEENSLAND: 4♂ Atherton—Louise St , 17°15'57"S 145°29'00"E, 31.xii.2006, Popple & McKinnon, 437-0002 to 437-0005 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; 3♂ same data as previous, 19.xii.2007, 437-0006 to 437-0008 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ Davies Ck, between Kuranda & Mareeba N. Qld , 23.xii.1981, Kentwell ( MSM)   ; 2♂ Herberton district , 17°23'22"S 135°21'2"E, 3.i.2007, Popple & McKinnon, 654-0001 & 654-0002 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ Top of Herberton Range , 17°20'32"S 145°25'02"E, 19–20.xii.2007, Popple & McKinnon, 654-0004 ( AE) GoogleMaps   ; 7♂ 1♀ same data as previous, 654-0005 to 654-0011 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; 1♀ Julatten N. Qld, 27.i.1978, Walford-Huggins ( QM)   ; 1♂ Paluma near Townsville N. Qld, 18.xii.1984, de Keyzer ( MSM)   ; 1♀ Running River W. of Paluma N. Qld, 9.i.1987, Adams ( MSM)   .

Description. Male ( Figs 4H View FIGURE 4 , 5H View FIGURE 5 , 18E View FIGURE 18 , 22B View FIGURE 22 ). Head. Dorsal surface black with a dark brown triangular depression between the lateral ocelli, pointing anteriorly, with flat side against posterior margin of head; long silver pubescence behind eyes, with shorter yellow pubescence over remainder. Genae and vertex black, with long silver pubescence. Mandibular plate black; long silver pubescence. Antennae dark brown to black. Ocelli red. Eyes dull red to brown or grey in live insects and preserved specimens; subtle furrow between eyes and pronotum. Postclypeus black anteriorly, with pinkish-brown colouration on margins and on midline, extending to dorsal surface; short and long silver pubescence along ventral surface except down midline; short yellow pubescence along posterior ventral surface. Anteclypeus black, with long silver pubescence. Rostrum brown grading to black apically, with silver pubescence; extending to mid coxae.

Thorax. Pronotum black; central fascia brown, longitudinal, not extending to posterior margin; silver-yellow pubescence; pronotal collar brown, slightly paler laterally. Mesonotum mainly black, with brown to reddish-brown dorsolateral and lateral fascia surrounding the submedian and lateral sigilla; dorsolateral fasciae triangular, often converging medially; cruciform elevation brown to reddish-brown, posterior mesonotum, including area surrounding scutal depressions, black; ridges between wing grooves brown; silver-yellow pubescence, most evident around cruciform elevation.

Legs. Coxae black with medium brown apex; fore femora pinkish-brown with broad, black longitudinal fasciae; mid and hind femora dark brown to black, pale brown apically; fore and mid tibiae dark brown to black; hind tibiae pale to medium brown; tarsi and claws medium brown, pale brown on hind legs; spines dark brown.

Wings. Fore wing venation pale to dark brown, becoming darker towards apical cells and ambient veins; fore wing costal veins pale brown; slight angulation of fore wings at node; pterostigma brown; hind wing infuscation at the juncture of the anal lobe and wing margin, surrounding the distal termination of vein 2A, small but distinct.

Timbals. Long ribs 1–2 fused ventrally; long ribs 1–4 fused dorsally to basal spur. Long rib 5 typically extending ventrally in line with dorsal half of adjacent intercalary rib.

Opercula. Roughly sickle-shaped, obliquely elongated; central region domed, black; medial and lateral margins pallid; parallel to body axis.

Abdomen. Tergites mainly black with contrasting yellow-brown posterior margins (brown transitionally) on tergites 3 to 8 (broader on 8); silver short pubescence conspicuous laterally. Sternites yellow to yellow-brown with a broad black medial fascia.

Genitalia. Pygofer black anteriorly, grading sharply to yellow-brown medio-laterally and further to dark brown on upper lobes; upper lobes prominent, erect, terminally rounded; lower lobes distinct, bulbous, with an inner tooth strongly developed on each lobe; inner lobes enlarged, acute, posteriorly tapering; claspers with a pair of hooked processes; aedeagus with dorsal pseudoparameres that bifurcate and join theca near gonocoxite IX; pseudoparameres apically curved, tapering; theca gradually curved and weakly tapering posteriorly, sclerotized; apex simple, near flat, approximately equal to shaft in vertical width, with small spine ornamentation.

Female ( Fig. 18F View FIGURE 18 ). Similar colouration and patterning to that of male. Head colour similar to that of male. Pronotum black; central fascia brown, often broader than that of male. Mesonotum similar in colour to that of male. Legs similar in colour to those of male. Abdomen with tergites similar in colour to those of male, with posterior tergite margins typically a less contrasting brown; abdominal segment 9 medium brown with a pair of longitudinal near-dorsal black fasciae that extend to the anterior edge and ventrolaterally to some extent; sternites medium brown with a broad, discontinuous dark brown fascia distributed medially along sternites II to VII; ovipositor sheath extending <0.5 mm beyond termination of abdominal segment 9.

Distinguishing features. Male specimens of P. simplex   differ most obviously from all species in the P. annulata   group, except P. ayrensis   , in their dark brown, hooked upper pygofer lobes. They differ consistently from P. ayrensis   in being mostly matte black on the thorax, rather than shiny black, and in the shape of the theca, which is not wider at the apex than along the shaft ( Fig. 22B, c.f. P   View FIGURE 22 . ayrensis: Fig. 39E–F View FIGURE 39 ). Female specimens may be distinguished from all species in the complex, apart from P. ayrensis   , by a combination of their dull, brown and black appearance and ovipositor that does not extend significantly beyond the apex of the abdomen. They cannot be reliably distinguished from brown females of P. ayrensis   .

Measurements. N= 17 ♂ 2 ♀. Ranges and means (in parentheses), mm; BL: ♂ 11.6–13.7 (12.6); 12.5–13.1 (12.8); FWL: ♂ 13.9–16.4 (14.9); ♀ 14.8–15.4 (15.1); FWB: ♂ 4.6–5.7 (5.2); ♀ 5.4–5.5 (5.5); HW: ♂ 3.6–4.2 (3.9); ♀ 3.9–4.0 (4.0); PW: ♂ 2.8–3.4 (3.2); ♀ 3.2–3.3 (3.3); AW: ♂ 3.3–4.0 (3.7); ♀ 3.2–3.3 (3.3); OL: ♀ 3.2–3.2 (3.2).

Etymology. From Latin, meaning simple, referring to the basic calling song of this species, which comprises a single long echeme that is monotonously repeated.

Distribution and Ecology ( Figure 19 View FIGURE 19 ). The Wet Tropics region of north-eastern Queensland, from Julatten south-west of Mossman south over much of Atherton Tableland to Paluma, Hervey Range and Bluewater Creek Rest Area near Townsville. Populations occur on the high rainfall, fertile slopes, and along watercourses and on rocky outcrops in slightly drier areas. Adults are typically found in association with Corymbia tessellaris   and other eucalypt species. They are present in December and January, with peak numbers between mid-December and New Year. Singing males are mobile and typically call from a wide variety of singing stations, from tree trunks to foliage and even grass.

Geological and Pedological Associations. Adults associated with plants on rich ferrosols derived from basalt (Atherton and Julatten areas) and, contrastingly, on low fertility fine sand soils derived from rhyolite and finegrained granites (Dimbulah, Herberton and further south).

Calling Song ( Figs 2G View FIGURE 2 , 25–26 View FIGURE 25 View FIGURE 26 ). Pauropsalta simplex   produces the most basic calling song in the P. annulata   species complex. It comprises only single echemes (68–132 syllables; 0.557 – 1.057 s) that are monotonously repeated and punctuated by silences (0.214 – 0.492 s) (all statistics, n=15 individuals). The three to five syllables at the beginning of each repeated echeme are discrete, with the remainder tending to coalesce. It has a phrase repetition rate of 0.770 – 1.430 s, syllable repetition rate of 65–85 Hz, a dominant frequency plateau of 8.0–12.0 kHz and highest amplitude frequency between 8.9–11.1 kHz. Male–female duetting has been observed in the field, but a recording was not obtained. The female responded with a wing-flick during the silences that punctuated the repeated echemes. This species' calling song cannot be reliably differentiated from that of P. fuscata Ewart   s. str., a species from south-eastern Australia, but specimens can be differentiated easily by morphology (see Ewart (1989) for comparison between P. annulata   group and P. encaustica   group; the latter of which includes P. fuscata   ).


Queensland Museum


Marine Science Museum, Tokai Univ.