Pauropsalta tremula, POPPLE, 2013

POPPLE, L. W., 2013, <p class = " HeadingRunIn " align = " left "> <strong> A revision of the <em> Pauropsalta annulata </ em> Goding & amp; Froggatt species group (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) based on morphology, calling songs and ecology, with investigations into calling song structure, molecular phylogenetic relationships and a case of hybridisation between two subspecies </ strong> </ p>, Zootaxa 3730 (1), pp. 1-102: 37-40

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3730.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:0C2C146B-FEE4-4150-A6D3-B3A5E5491E8B

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5270942

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03FC8964-FF97-AE7B-FF62-FE6BD6664315

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Pauropsalta tremula
status

sp. nov.

Pauropsalta tremula   sp. nov.

( Figs 2E View FIGURE 2 , 4F View FIGURE 4 , 5F View FIGURE 5 , 6F View FIGURE 6 , 18A–B View FIGURE 18 , 19–21 View FIGURE 19 View FIGURE 20 View FIGURE 21 )

Pauropsalta sp.   nr annulata   435: Popple and Strange (2002).

Types: Holotype: ♂ ‘ Lake Broadwater , via Dalby /SE. Qld’, [27°21'S 151°05'E], ‘ 26–28.i.1985 ’, ‘ G. Monteith & G. Thompson’, ‘ Pauropsalta annulata   / det. A. Ewart 1997’, ‘ QM Reg. No. T 156322’ ( QM) GoogleMaps   ; Paratypes: QUEENSLAND: 1♀ " Allinga ", Lithgow Rd Chinchilla S. Qld, i.1994, [Ewart] ( AE)   ; 1♀ 3♂ 4♀ QLD: 26°26'S 150°31'E, Barakula, 330m, 17–18.xii.2001, Monteith & Wright, 10311 ( QM) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ Benarkin State Forest , 26°53'21"S 152°08'19"E, 5.xii.2006, Popple & McKinnon, m. v. lamp   , 435-0025 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; 2♀ Brigalow Creek ~ 5km N.E. [of] Goondiwindi, S. Qld, 17.i.2001, Ewart, 28°30.49' Ex 150°20.09'E, red-eyed ( AE)   ; 15♂ 14♀ Carnarvon Gorge Qld , 8–12.xii.1985, Moss & Ewart ( AE)   ; 1♂ Chinchilla S. Qld, i/ ii.1997, Lithgow ( AE)   ; 1♂ 2♀ Columboola Env. Centre nr Miles Qld , 26°40.23'S 150°20.39'E, 13.xii.1997, to light, [Ewart] ( AE) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ same data as previous, P. annulata   recorded (box) ( AE) GoogleMaps   ; 1♀ "Coo-ee yards", Red Hill Rd, Chinchilla S. Qld , 9.i.1994, [Ewart] ( AE)   ; 4♂ Cooyar park, 26°58'53"S 151°49'50"E, 7.xii.2006, Popple & McKinnon, 435-0021 to 435-0024 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; 4♂ Dunmore State Forest approx. 50km SW. of Derby [=Dalby] SE. Qld , 400m, 28.xii.1986, Hiller ( MSM)   ; 1♀ Kragra, Chinchilla Qld , 29.i.1986, Lithgow ( AE)   ; 3♂ 5♀ Lake Broadwater, via Dalby SE. Qld , [27°21'S 151°05'E], 26–28.i.1985, Monteith & Thompson, Pauropsalta annulata   det. A. Ewart 1997, ( QM) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ Lake Broadwater via Dalby SE. Qld, Cottage , 25.ii.1986, Thompson ( QM)   ; 1♀ same data as previous, 24.ii.1986, Monteith, m.v light ( QM)   ; 3♂ 4♀ L[ake] Broadwater [via] Dalby Qld , 12.ii.1984, [Ewart] ( AE)   ; 1♂ 9♀ L[ake] Broadwater S. [of] Dalby SE. Qld , 28–29.i.1985, Ewart ( AE)   ; 1♂ same data as previous, Genitalia prep. 435-01 [ LWP] ( AE)   ; 1♂ 2♀ L[ake] Broadwater 30km SW. [of] Dalby SE. Qld , 28.xi.1987, Reeves ( AE)   ; 4♂ Lake Broadwater nr Dalby Qld , site A, 27°21'S 151°06'E, 24.xii.1986, m. v. lamp, Daniels & Daniels (MSM)   GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ 3♀ same data as previous, 29.i.1987 ( MSM) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ same data as previous, site F, [not m. v. lamp   ], 25.xii.1986 ( MSM) GoogleMaps   ; 3♂ 1♀ Lake Broadwater via Dalby SE. Qld , 9.xii.1987, Monteith & Thompson ( MSM)   ; 1♂ 1♀ Lake Broadwater via Dalby SE. Qld , [27°21'S 151°05'E], [no date], Moss, m. v. lamp   , 435-0001 & 435-0002 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; 6♂ 6♀ Lake Broadwater via Dalby SE. Qld , 27°21'02"S 151°05'34"E, 14–16.xii.2005 Popple m. v. lamp   , 435-0007 to 435-0018 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ Hookswood Rd, 4.7km N. of Racecourse Rd Jct., Miles Qld , 14.xii.1997, Ewart , 26°35.88'S 150°12.54'E ( AE) GoogleMaps   ; 4♂ 2♀ Myall Park Botanic Gardens SE. Qld , [27°12'S 149°39'E], 27–29.xii.2001, Popple & Strange, m. v. lamp   , 407-0015 to 407-0016 & 435-0003 to 435-0006 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; 3♂ 1♀ Nine Mile Creek, 14km NW. of Miles Qld , 24.i.1990, Moulds & Moulds, red eyes ( MSM)   ; 5♂ 3♀ ' Possum Park', ~ 20km N. [of] Miles S. Qld, 20.i.2001, Ironbark-Lancewood woodland, 26°30.30'S 150°06.03'E, Ewart ( AE) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ 1♀ Possum Park 20km N. of Miles SE. Qld , 26°30'19"S 150°12'31"E, 25–26.xi.2005, Popple & Hando, m. v. lamp   , 435-0019 & 435-0020 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; 2♂ Qld : 26°04'S 150°49'E, ' Wonga Hills' site 3, 520m, 11.xii.2001, Monteith, Cook & Wright, m. v. light   , vine scrub ( QM) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂ 3km S. Wyseby Jct., Rolleston–Injune Rd Qld , 11.xii.1985, Ewart & Moss ( AE)   ; NEW SOUTH WALES: 1♂ AU.NSW.SBB c. 16km SE. of Boggabilla N.S.W., 28°44.673'S 150°25.050'E, 235m, 1.i.2005, Hill, Marshall & Moulds ( MSM) GoogleMaps   .

Diagnosis ( Figs 4F View FIGURE 4 , 5F View FIGURE 5 , 6F View FIGURE 6 , 18A–B View FIGURE 18 ). Pauropsalta tremula   differs from P. annulata   as follows. Eyes red (live specimens) to brown (dried specimens), never white or grey. Mesonotum with apparent yellow-brown to reddishbrown fasciae surrounding the submedian sigilla and adjacent to the lateral sigilla, along the lateral margin; submedian sigilla, lateral sigilla and area posterior to lateral sigilla, black; dorsolateral fasciae meeting medially, or occasionally separated with black colouration extending along sagittal plane. Abdominal sternites mainly black with thin areas of pale brown to medium brown colouration on lateral margins of sternites II–V (rarely VI) and on extreme lateral posterior margins of remaining sternites. Theca apex relatively blunt when viewed laterally, without obvious dorsal and ventral posterior projections; fine to medium sized spine ornamentation present. Females similar in appearance to males, with mesonotum generally showing more extensive yellow-brown to brown colouration apart from submedian and lateral sigilla and areas surrounding scutal depressions, which are black. Ovipositor sheath does not extend significantly beyond the apex of the abdomen (<0.5mm).

Distinguishing features: Males and females can be distinguished from all others in the P. annulata   group except for P. blackdownensis   , in having the unique combination of distinct dorsolateral and lateral mesonotal fasciae surrounding the lateral sigilla, with abdominal sternites that are black apart from the lateral edges of sternites II–V (rarely VI) and extreme posterior lateral margins of remaining sternites. Males differ from P. blackdownensis   in having a rather blunt apex of the theca, when viewed laterally (rather than an apex with apparent dorsal and ventral projections). Females differ from P. blackdownensis   by their ovipositor sheath, which does not extend significantly beyond the apex of the abdomen.

Notes on Geographical Variation. Specimens recently collected from Mount Moffatt section in Carnarvon National Park by A. Ewart could represent another population of this species. They key out to this species morphologically, but appear melanistic. The calling song has yet to be recorded from these insects, so their species status remains unclear.

Measurements. N= 30 ♂ 30 ♀. Ranges and means (in parentheses), mm; ♂ BL: 11.5–14.7 (13.2); ♀ 12.0–15.0 (13.7); FWL: ♂ 14.5–18.1 (16.0); ♀ 15.8–18.9 (17.0); FWB: ♂ 4.5–6.1 (5.62); ♀ 5.5–6.1 (5.8); HW: ♂ 3.7–4.8 (4.3); ♀ 4.1–4.9 (4.5); PW: ♂ 2.9–3.8 (3.4); ♀ 3.2–3.9 (3.6); AW: ♂ 3.1–4.4 (3.7); ♀ 3.0–4.0 (3.6); OL: ♀ 3.8–4.8 (4.2).

Etymology. From the Latin word tremulum meaning 'to shake', referring to the simple, maraca-like calling song produced by this species.

Distribution and Ecology ( Figure 19 View FIGURE 19 ). This species occurs in southern Queensland from Carnarvon National Park east to Cooyar, Benarkin near Blackbutt and Eidsvold, and south to Boggabilla in far northern inland New South Wales. These cicadas are associated with eucalypts of the subgenus Symphyomyrtus   , including Eucalyptus populnea   (section Adnataria) and E. camaldulensis   (section Exsertaria). Adults occur high on the upper branches from where the males sing. They do not fly between calling sites as actively as some of the other Pauropsalta species   dealt with here, but do fly if approached closely.

Geological and Pedological Associations. Found in association with sandy loam soils on flats derived from highly weathered sandstone, granite and occasionally laterite.

Calling Song ( Figs 2E View FIGURE 2 , 20–21 View FIGURE 20 View FIGURE 21 ). This species typically produces only the lilting song component, but individuals occasionally emit a brief succession of short echemes that could be interpreted as a brief buzzing component. The lilting component includes a long echeme (6–13 syllables, 0.043 –0.104 s) followed by a silence (0.043 –0.098 s), then a short echeme (2–3 syllables, 0.018 –0.034 s) and another silence (0.051 –0.104 s) (all statistics, n=47 individuals). phrase repetition rates vary between 0.160 –0.340 s, and typically fall within the range of 0.200 –0.300 s. The rhythm of the calling song is characterised by silences of about equal duration between each long and short echeme and vice versa, giving it a maraca-like quality. Two cases of male–female duets have been recorded, with females responding only during the silence at the end of each lilting phrase, 0.021 –0.030 s after production of the short echeme. The calling song has a frequency plateau between 7.0–12.0 kHz, with a highest amplitude dominant frequency between 7.2–9.2 kHz and a syllable repetition rate of approximately 90–110 Hz.

QM

Queensland Museum

MSM

Marine Science Museum, Tokai Univ.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hemiptera

Family

Cicadidae

Genus

Pauropsalta