Pauropsalta kobongoides, POPPLE, 2013

POPPLE, L. W., 2013, <p class = " HeadingRunIn " align = " left "> <strong> A revision of the <em> Pauropsalta annulata </ em> Goding & amp; Froggatt species group (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) based on morphology, calling songs and ecology, with investigations into calling song structure, molecular phylogenetic relationships and a case of hybridisation between two subspecies </ strong> </ p>, Zootaxa 3730 (1), pp. 1-102: 63-67

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Pauropsalta kobongoides

sp. nov.

Pauropsalta kobongoides   sp. nov.

( Figs 2L View FIGURE 2 , 4M View FIGURE 4 , 31D View FIGURE 31 , 35C–D View FIGURE 35 , 36 View FIGURE 36 , 39A View FIGURE 39 , 40–42 View FIGURE 40 View FIGURE 41 View FIGURE 42 )

Types: Holotype: ♂ ‘ AUSTRALIA / Qld’ , ‘ 27°32'01"S 148°50'25"E’, ‘ 65km NNE. of St George’, ‘ 9.i.2005 / Roadside’, ‘ L. Popple & R. MacSloy’, ‘443-0001’, ‘ QM Reg. No. T 1563269’ ( QM) GoogleMaps   ; Paratypes: QUEENSLAND: 1♂ 27°32'01"S 148°50'25"E, 65km NNE. of St George , 9.i.2005, Roadside, Popple & MacSloy, 443-0002 ( LWP) GoogleMaps   ; NEW SOUTH WALES: 1♂ 32°50'25" Ex 145°52'53"E, Mount Hope , 21.xi.2010, Popple & Emery ( LWP)   ; 1♀ Round Hill Nature Reserve , 27.xii.1976, Daniels ( MSM)   ; 1♀ Wagga [Wagga] N.S.W., 11.xii.1900, W.W. Froggatt's collection ( ANIC)   .

Description. Male ( Figs 4M View FIGURE 4 , 31D View FIGURE 31 , 35C View FIGURE 35 , 39A View FIGURE 39 ). Head. Dorsal surface black with a yellow-brown triangular depression between the lateral ocelli, pointing anteriorly, with flat side against posterior margin of head; long silver pubescence behind eyes, with shorter yellow pubescence over remainder. Genae black, with long silver pubescence; vertex black with contrasting yellow lobes. Mandibular plate black with an outer narrow pale marginal ridge, extending to suture between genae; long silver pubescence. Antennae dark brown to black. Ocelli pinkishred. Eyes bright red in live specimens, often darkening to dark red or reddish-brown in dried specimens; distinct furrow between eyes and pronotum. Postclypeus black anteriorly, with pinkish-brown margin and a small yellow dorsal spot on midline extending onto dorsal surface; short and long silver pubescence along ventral surface except down midline; short yellow pubescence along posterior ventral surface. Anteclypeus black, with long silver pubescence. Rostrum pale brown grading to black apically, with silver pubescence; extending to mid coxae.

Thorax. Pronotum black; central fascia yellow to yellow-brown, forming a smear that tapers posterior to head, but not extending to posterior or anterior margins; silver–yellow pubescence, especially along oblique fissures; pronotal collar yellow to yellow-brown, paler laterally. Mesonotum, including submedial and lateral sigilla, matte to slightly glossy black, with narrow, yellow to yellow-brown, dorsolateral fasciae present between submedial and lateral sigilla, never fused medially; narrow, yellow to yellow-brown elongate fasciae sometimes also present along lateral margins; cruciform elevation yellow-brown to orange-brown, black anteriorly and on surrounding posterior mesonotum; ridges between wing grooves orange-brown; silver–yellow pubescence, most evident around cruciform elevation.

Legs. Coxae black with yellow-brown apex; fore femora black with broad, dark yellow-brown longitudinal fasciae; mid and hind femora dark brown to black, yellow-brown apically; fore and mid tibiae medium to dark brown; hind tibiae pale to medium brown; tarsi and claws medium brown, pale brown on hind legs; spines dark brown.

Wings. Fore wing venation pale to dark brown, becoming darker towards apical cells and ambient veins; fore wing costal veins pale brown; slight angulation of fore wings at node; pterostigma pale yellow-brown; hind wing infuscation at the juncture of the anal lobe and wing margin, surrounding the distal termination of vein 2A, distinct.

Timbals. Long ribs 1–2 fused ventrally; long ribs 1–4 fused dorsally to basal spur. Long rib 5 fused to anterior cuticle; adjacent intercalary rib still present.

Opercula. Roughly sickle-shaped, obliquely elongated; central region domed, black; medial and lateral margins black; parallel to body axis.

Abdomen. Tergites mainly black with contrasting yellow-brown posterior margins on tergites 3 to 8; silver short pubescence conspicuous laterally. Sternites yellow to yellow-brown with discontinuous black medial fascia (weakly expressed or almost absent in some specimens).

Genitalia. Pygofer black anteriorly, grading to yellow-brown posteriorly; upper lobes prominent, erect, roughly terminally rounded with a slightly hooked appearance; lower lobes weakly distinct, bulbous, with an inner tooth strongly developed on each lobe; inner lobes enlarged, acute, posteriorly tapering; claspers with a pair of hooked processes; aedeagus with dorsal pseudoparameres that bifurcate and join theca near gonocoxite IX; pseudoparameres apically curved, tapering; theca gradually curved posteriorly, sclerotized, weakly tapering posteriorly; apex simple, with small spine ornamentation and two large spines giving the appearance of a ventral projection.

Female ( Fig. 35D View FIGURE 35 ). Similar colouration and patterning to male. Head similar in colour to that of male with eyes red to dark red. Pronotum black; central fascia yellow-brown, forming a smear that tapers proximally and distally, not reaching anterior or near posterior margins. Mesonotum similar in colour to that of male, with conspicuous yellow-brown dorsolateral fasciae between the median and lateral sigilla and additional fasciae along lateral margins; dorsolateral fasciae vaguely triangular, not fused medially; lateral fasciae narrow. Legs similar in colour to those of male. Abdomen with tergites similar in colour to those of male, with posterior tergite margins typically yellow-brown to medium brown; abdominal segment 9 medium brown to yellow-brown with a pair of longitudinal, near-dorsal, black fasciae that extend to the anterior edge and ventrolaterally to some extent; sternites with a broad, black fascia distributed medially along sternites II to VII, and which tapers posteriorly; margins of sternites yellowbrown to medium brown; ovipositor sheath extending up to 0.5 mm beyond termination of abdominal segment 9.

Distinguishing features. Males of P. kobongoides   can be distinguished from all other species in the P. annulata   group by their unique timbal morphology. The timbal has only four functional long ribs, with long rib 5 fused with the anterior cuticle. They also have entirely black opercula, which is unique within the group, with the exception of P. decora   . Females can be distinguished from all other taxa in the P. annulata   complex, apart from P. decora   and P. tremula   , by a combination of their yellow-brown and black colouration, including conspicuous dorsolateral fasciae extending between the submedian and lateral sigilla, and their ovipositor sheath, which extends only slightly beyond the termination of the abdomen. They differ from P. decora   , by the abdominal sternites being mostly black, and from P. tremula   , by the colouration of the mesonotum on the lateral side, adjacent to the lateral sigilla, being mostly black with pale yellow-brown lateral margins, rather than mainly brown to yellow-brown.

Measurements. N= 3 ♂ 2 ♀. Ranges and means (in parentheses), mm; BL: ♂ 12.6–13.2 (12.9); ♀ 11.9–12.5 (12.2); FWL: ♂ 14.6–15.5 (15.1); ♀ 15.1–16.4 (15.8); FWB: ♂ 5.1–5.5 (5.3); ♀ 5.5–6.0 (5.8); HW: ♂ 4.2–4.4 (4.3); ♀ 4.4–4.7 (4.6); PW: ♂ 3.6–4.0 (3.8); ♀ 3.5–3.8 (3.7); AW: ♂ 3.6–3.8 (3.7); ♀ 3.4–3.9 (3.7); OL: ♀ 4.2–4.8 (4.5).

Etymology. The epithet refers to the close similarity between the calling song and this species and members of the Kobonga umbrimargo (Walker)   species complex.

Distribution and Ecology ( Figure 36 View FIGURE 36 ). Scattered throughout the southern half of inland Queensland from south of Augathella south-east to Weengallon near Moonie, and inland New South Wales from Pilliga State Forest and near Narromine south to Wagga Wagga and west to Mount Hope. It is most prevalent to the north and east of St George in inland southern Queensland and with a population of moderate size to the east of Goolgowi in southern inland New South Wales. Populations occur in association with mixed woodland, acacia woodland and scrub, with several individuals recorded on Acacia salicina   . Adults typically occur high on the upper limbs of trees. They are present from November to February.

Geological and Pedological Associations. Adults generally associated with plants that occur on sand plains and in alluvial areas where soils are derived from weathered sandstone, siltstone, or mudstone, including sandy loams and clay loams, especially those with little profile development.

Calling Song ( Figs 2L View FIGURE 2 , 40–42 View FIGURE 40 View FIGURE 41 View FIGURE 42 ). Pauropsalta kobongoides   apparently produces the most complex song of all in the P. annulata   species complex. The calling song is dominated by a buzzing component that includes a long initial rattle (0.007 – 0.009 s single syllables, punctuated by 0.009 – 0.018 s silences) that is followed by an extended single echeme (2.782 – 7.771 s) (all statistics, n=7 individuals). The buzzing component may be repeated many times before the lilting component is produced. The lilting component is emitted only after production of the single echeme at the end of the buzzing component. It comprises a rattle (11–36 single syllables, punctuated by 0.009 – 0.024 s silences; 0.190 – 1.044 s total duration) followed by a silence (0.042 – 0.084 s), a brief rattle or single syllable (1–3 (rarely 4) syllables, punctuated by 0.020 – 0.038 s silence; 0.042 – 0.109 s total duration) and finally another silence (0.040 – 0.155 s). The phrase repetition rate of the lilting component ranges between 0.314 – 1.190 s. No instances of male–female duetting have been recorded for this species to date. Nevertheless, the lilting component is expected to play an active role in duetting, with the regular silences at the end of each lilting component phrase providing a cue for the female to respond. The calling song of P. kobongoides   has a syllable repetition rate 110–140 Hz increasing up to 166 Hz in the extended single echeme that is produced during the buzzing component. The frequency plateau ranges from 7.5–13.0 kHz and a highest amplitude dominant frequency from 8.2–9.8 kHz. The lower end of the plateau modulates by 0.5 kHz during production of the extended single echeme in the buzzing component.


Queensland Museum


Marine Science Museum, Tokai Univ.


Australian National Insect Collection