Sulsula pauper, : Dalmas, 1916

Platnick, Norman I., Abrahim, Naiara, Álvarez-Padilla, Fernando, Andriamalala, Daniela, Baehr, Barbara C., Baert, Léon, Bonaldo, Alexandre B., Brescovit, Antonio D., Chousou-Polydouri, Natalia, Dupérré, Nadine, Eichenberger, Beata, Fannes, Wouter, Gaublomme, Eva, Gillespie, Rosemary G., Grismado, Cristian J., Griswold, Charles E., Harvey, Mark S., Henrard, Arnaud, Hormiga, Gustavo, Izquierdo, Matías A., Jocqué, Rudy, Kranz-Baltensperger, Yvonne, Kropf, Christian, Ott, Ricardo, Ramírez, Martín J., Raven, Robert J., Rheims, Cristina A., Ruiz, Gustavo R. S., Santos, Adalberto J., Saucedo, Alma, Sierwald, Petra, Szüts, Tamás, Ubick, Darrell & Wang, Xin-Ping, 2012, Tarsal Organ Morphology and the Phylogeny of Goblin Spiders (Araneae, Oonopidae), With Notes on Basal Genera, American Museum Novitates 2012 (3736), pp. 1-52 : 38-42

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1206/3736.2

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03FC1036-6D3E-DD67-FE3F-5281E20EF944

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Sulsula pauper
status

 

Sulsula pauper   (O. P.-Cambridge)

Figures 121–172 View FIGURES 121–133 View FIGURES 134–142 View FIGURES 143–157 View FIGURES 158–172

Oonops pauper   O. P.- Cambridge, 1876: 549 (juvenile holotype from Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt, in HDO; examined)   .

Sulsula longipes Simon, 1882: 237   (male holotype from Ramleh, Alexandria, Egypt, in MNHN; examined). First synonymized by Simon, 1910: 178.

Salsula longipes: Simon, 1893: 294   .

Salsula paupera: Simon, 1910: 178   .

Salsula pauper: Simon, 1911: 308   .

Sulsula pauper: Dalmas, 1916: 205   .

NOTE: Simon (1882) mentioned only a single male specimen, but the vial with that specimen includes also a female, which we suspect Simon erroneously considered to be juvenile.

DIAGNOSIS: With the characters of the genus, a male embolus with a relatively short, terminally curved tip (figs. 127–130), and female genitalia with a tubular, sclerotized anterior receptaculum (figs. 137–142) and an oval, unsclerotized posterior receptaculum (collapsed in those figures).

VARIATION: It is possible that more than one species is represented, but the few available specimens do not provide sufficient evidence to substantiate the description of additional species at this time. Females are available from three sites, but the one from Sudan (figs. 141, 142) has genitalia that seem more similar to that of a female from Algeria (figs. 137, 138) than to the geographically much closer one from Egypt (figs. 139, 140). Only two males are available, from Algeria and Egypt. Under a dissecting microscope, the Algerian male appears to have a bulb that extends farther toward the palpal patella (figs. 122–125), but under a compound microscope, that difference is not obvious (figs. 127–130; unfortunately, the bulb of the Egyptian male collapsed in clove oil under the compound microscope). The embolus shows differences under the compound microscope, but at least some of those differences reflect different positioning of the palps and consequent foreshortening in the photographs of the Algerian male.

MALE (PBI_OON 813, figs. 121–133, images of nonsexual characters based on female): Total length 2.16. Cephalothorax: Carapace white, without any pattern, piriform in dorsal view (figs. 134, 145), pars cephalica flat in lateral view (fig. 131), anteriorly narrowed to 0.49 times its maximum width or less, with rounded posterolateral corners, posterolateral edge without pits, posterior margin not bulging below posterior rim, anterolateral corners without extension or projections, posterolateral surface without spikes, surface of elevated portion of pars cephalica smooth, sides smooth, pars thoracica without depressions, fovea absent, without radiating rows of pits; lateral margin straight, smooth, without denticles; plumose setae near posterior margin of pars thoracica absent; marginal and nonmarginal pars cephalica and pars thoracica setae dark, needlelike. Clypeus margin unmodified, straight in front view (fig. 147), vertical in lateral view (fig. 146), high, ALE separated from edge of carapace by their radius or more, median projection absent; setae dark, needlelike. Chilum absent. Eyes six, well developed, PME largest, ALE oval, PME squared, PLE oval; posterior eye row recurved from above, straight from front; ALE separated by more than their diameter, ALE-PLE separated by less than ALE radius, PME touching throughout most of their length, PLE-PME separated by PME radius to PME diameter (figs. 121, 132, 135, 145). Sternum wider than long (fig. 156), white, uniform in coloration, not fused to carapace, median concavity absent, without radial furrows between coxae I–II, II–III, III–IV, radial furrow opposite coxae III absent, surface smooth, without pits, microsculpture absent, sickle-shaped structures absent, anterior margin unmodified, posterior margin not extending posteriorly of coxae IV, anterior corner unmodified, lateral margin without infracoxal grooves, distance between coxae approximately equal, extensions of precoxal triangles absent, lateral margins unmodified, without posterior hump; setae sparse, dark, needlelike, densest laterally, originating from surface, hair tufts absent (figs. 126, 133). Mouthparts yellow. Chelicerae straight, anterior face unmodified; without teeth on promargin or retromargin (figs. 148, 149); fangs without toothlike projections, directed medially, shape normal, without prominent basal process, tip unmodified; setae dark, needlelike, evenly scattered; paturon inner margin with scattered setae, distal region unmodified, posterior surface unmodified, promargin unmodified, inner margin unmodified, laminate groove absent. Labium triangular, not fused to sternum, anterior margin not indented at middle, same as sternum in sclerotization; with six or more setae on anterior margin, subdistal portion with unmodified setae (fig. 150). Endites distally not excavated, serrula present in single row (figs. 151, 152), anteromedian tip unmodified, posteromedian part unmodified, same as sternum in sclerotization. Abdomen: White, without scuta or color pattern, globular (figs. 136, 143, 144), without long posterior extension, rounded posteriorly; book lung covers large, ovoid, without setae, anterolateral edge unmodified; posterior spiracles connected by groove; pedicel tube short, unmodified, scutopedicel region unmodified, abdomen extending anteriad of pedicel, plumose hairs absent, matted setae on anterior ventral abdomen in pedicel area absent, cuticular outgrowths near pedicel absent; dorsal, epigastric, and postepigastric setae light, needlelike; dense patch of setae anterior to spinnerets absent. Spinnerets probably with unsclerotized strip crossing base of anterior lateral pair (fig. 158), all spinnerets with few spigots (fig. 159). Colulus small, with two setae. Legs: White, without color pattern; femur IV not thickened, same size as femora I–III, patella plus tibia I longer than carapace, tibia I unmodified, tibia IV specialized hairs on ventral apex absent, tibia IV ventral scopula absent, metatarsi I, II mesoapical comb absent, metatarsi III, IV weak ventral scopula absent. Leg spination (only surfaces bearing spines listed, legs in poor condition, most spines lost, their bases not detectable without scanning): tibia IV r1-0-0. Tarsi without inferior claw, superior claws with single row of teeth (figs. 160–167). Trichobothrial bases with arched ridge (fig. 157). Tarsal organ capsulate, with distal, semicircular groove and pair of laterally directed ridges (figs. 168–172). Genitalia: Epigastric region with sperm pore not visible; furrow without Ω-shaped insertions, without setae. Palp of normal size, not strongly sclerotized, proximal segments yellow; trochanter of normal size, unmodified; femur of normal size, two or more times as long as trochanter, without posteriorly rounded lateral dilation, attaching to patella basally; patella shorter than femur, slightly widened, without prolateral row of ridges, setae unmodified; cymbium yellow, narrow in dorsal view, not fused with bulb, not extending beyond distal tip of bulb, plumose setae, stout setae, distal patch of setae all absent; bulb yellow, more than 2 times as long as cymbium, stout, tapering apically; embolus dark, curved distally, without prolateral excavation; conductor absent (figs. 122–125, 127–130).

FEMALE (PBI_OON 813, figs. 134–172): Total length 3.19. Palpal tarsus without claws (figs. 153, 154); tibia with trichobothria (fig. 155); spines present, tibia p1-0-0; patella without prolateral row of ridges. Leg spination (only surfaces bearing spines listed, all spines longer than segment width): femora: I d0-0-2, p0-1-1; II d0-0-2; III, IV d0-0-1; patellae: III d1-0-0, p1-0-0, r1-0-0; tibiae: I p0-0-1, v0-0-1, r0-0-1; II p0-0-1, v0-0-1; III d1-1-0, p1-1-1, r1-0-1; IV d1-1-0, p1-1-1, v1-0-0, r1-1-1; metatarsi: I p1-1-0, r1-0-0; II p1-0-0, r1-0-0; III r1-0-0; IV d0-1-0, p1-1- 0, r1-0-1. Anterior receptaculum sclerotized, short, tubular, narrowed at about one-third its length; posterior receptaculum unsclerotized, oval (figs. 137–142).

MATERIAL EXAMINED: Algeria: Biskra   : Biskra ( MNHN 12281 View Materials , PBI _ OON 814 ), 1♂, 2♀   . Egypt: Alexandria: Alexandria, Apr. 1864, under stone (O. P.- Cambridge, HDO PBI _ OON 3012 ), 1 juv. (holotype); Ramleh (M. Letourneux, MNHN 3230 View Materials , PBI _ OON 813 ), 1♂ (holotype), 1♀   . Sudan: Red Sea: Port Sudan , July 1962 (J. Cloudsley-Thompson, MRAC 127163 View Materials , PBI _ OON 815 ), 1♀   .

DISTRIBUTION: North Africa ( Algeria, Egypt, Sudan).

SYNONYMY: It appears that Simon (1910, 1911) was able to borrow the holotype of Oonops pauper   , compared it directly to his material of Sulsula longipes   , and concluded that the specimens are conspecific. Although the holotype of O. pauper   is a juvenile, there is no evidence that disputes Simon’s conclusion. The specimens came from the same area (Ramleh is one of the beaches of Alexandria) and are clearly congeneric; it is unlikely that multiple species of Sulsula   occur within Alexandria.

Dalmasula Platnick, Szüts, and Ubick   , new genus

TYPE SPECIES: Dalmasula lorelei   , new species   .

ETYMOLOGY: The generic name is a contraction of “Dalmas’ Sulsula   ” and is feminine in gender. It honors Raymond de Dalmas and his pioneering study of Orchestina   , in which (after discussing the similarities of Sulsula   and Calculus   with that genus) he commented (1916: 205) that: “On peut ajouter que Sulsula parvimanus E. Simon (1910: 178)   , décrit du pays des Namaquas, dans le Sud-Ouest Africain, et dont le type unique est en Allemagne, deviendra peut-être le type d’un quatrième genre de cette série.” The existence of this genus in South Africa was discovered independently by Charles Griswold (in Platnick   and Brescovit, 1995: 6).

DIAGNOSIS: Members of this genus resemble those of Sulsula   in having a globose abdomen (fig. 173), but can be distinguished by the presence of a promarginal cheliceral tooth (fig. 176) and a very wide, hirsute colulus (fig. 274), and the absence of a distal, semicircular groove and laterally directed ridges on the tarsal organ (figs. 199–202, 237–241). Males typically have both an embolus and a conductor (figs. 275, 277), although they appear to have fused in D. tsumkwe   , new species (figs. 254, 255); the female genital area has peculiar, distinctive anterior sclerotizations that probably function as coupling ridges (figs. 215, 259–261, 293, 306). Males also have unusual modifications of the mouthparts; in those of D. lorelei   , D. parvimana   , and D. griswoldi   , the base of the endites bears a triangular projection directed toward the chelicerae (fig. 175). Males of D. tsumkwe   apparently lack those projections, but have a similar spur situated distally on the cheliceral paturon (figs. 250, 251).

DESCRIPTION: Total length of males 1.7–2.8, of females 2.2–3.1. Cephalothorax: Carapace yellow or pale orange, without any pattern, ovoid to piriform in dorsal view (fig. 218), pars cephalica usually flat or slightly elevated in lateral view in males (fig. 175), slightly elevated in females (fig. 219), anteriorly narrowed to 0.49 times its maximum width or less, with rounded posterolateral corners, posterolateral edge without pits, posterior margin not bulging below posterior rim, anterolateral corners without extension or projections, posterolateral surface without spikes, surface of elevated portion of pars cephalica smooth, sides smooth, pars thoracica without depressions, fovea absent, without radiating rows of pits; lateral margin straight, smooth, without denticles; plumose setae near posterior margin of pars thoracica absent; pars cephalica and pars thoracica setae dark, needlelike. Clypeus margin unmodified, curved downwards in front view, vertical in lateral view, high, ALE separated from edge of carapace by their radius or more (figs. 174, 220), median projection absent; setae dark, needlelike. Chilum absent. Eyes six, well developed, PME largest, ALE oval, PME squared, PLE oval; posterior eye row recurved from above, straight or slightly procurved from front; ALE separated by more than their diameter, ALE-PLE separated by less than ALE radius, PME touching throughout most of their length, PLE-PME separated by PME radius to PME diameter. Sternum yellow, wider than long (figs. 181, 227), uniform, not fused to carapace, median concavity absent, without radial furrows between coxae I-II, II-III, III-IV, radial furrow opposite coxae III absent, surface smooth, without pits, microsculpture absent, sickle-shaped structures absent, anterior margin unmodified, posterior margin not extending posteriorly of coxae IV, anterior corner unmodified, lateral margin without infracoxal grooves, distance between coxae approximately equal, extensions of precoxal triangles present, lateral margins unmodified, without posterior hump; setae sparse, dark, needlelike, densest laterally, originating from surface; hair tufts absent. Mouthparts yellow. Chelicerae straight; promargin with one tooth (figs. 176, 221), retromargin without teeth; fangs without toothlike projections, directed medially, slightly sinuous at tip (figs. 177, 222), without prominent basal process, tip unmodified; setae dark, needlelike, evenly scattered; paturon inner margin with scattered setae, distal region unmodified (except in males of D. tsumkwe   , figs. 250, 251), posterior surface unmodified, promargin unmodified, inner margin unmodified, laminate groove absent. Labium not fused to sternum, slightly narrowed in front, anterior margin, slightly indented at middle (figs. 178, 223), with six or more setae, same as sternum in sclerotization, subdistal portion with unmodified setae. Endites distally not excavated, serrula present in single row (figs. 179, 180, 224–226), anteromedian tip unmodified, posteromedian part unmodified, same as sternum in sclerotization; males (except in D. tsumkwe   ) with triangular process situated at base of dorsal surface, directed toward chelicerae (fig. 175). Female palp without claw, sometimes with spines; patella without prolateral row of ridges; tarsus unmodified. Abdomen: White, globular, without long posterior extension, rounded posteriorly, interscutal membrane without rows of small sclerotized platelets; dorsum soft portions without color pattern; book lung covers large, ovoid, without setae, anterolateral edge unmodified; posterior spiracles connected by groove; pedicel tube short, unmodified, scutopedicel region unmodified, plumose hairs absent, matted setae on anterior ventral abdomen in pedicel area absent, cuticular outgrowths near pedicel absent; dorsal, epigastric, postepigastric, and spinneret scuta absent; dorsal, epigastric, and postepigastric setae light, needlelike, epigastric setae not basally enlarged; dense patch of setae anterior to spinnerets absent. Spinnerets (scanned only in D. lorelei   ) with conspicuous unsclerotized strip crossing base of anterior lateral pair (figs. 188, 230, 262, 272); anterior laterals large (figs. 187, 231), with one major ampullate gland spigot and five piriform gland spigots in male (fig. 189), three in female (fig. 232); posterior medians with two long spigots in males (fig. 190), one in females (fig. 233); posterior laterals with three long spigots in males (fig. 191) and females (fig. 234). Colulus extremely wide, hirsute (figs. 188, 273, 274). Legs: Yellow or pale orange, without color pattern; femur IV not thickened, same size as femora I–III, patella plus tibia I longer than carapace, tibia I unmodified, tibia IV specialized hairs on ventral apex absent, tibia IV ventral scopula absent, metatarsi I, II mesoapical comb absent, metatarsi III, IV weak ventral scopula absent. Leg spines present, longer than segment width. Tarsal proclaws and retroclaws with inner face striate, with single row of nine or more teeth; inferior claw absent (figs. 192–198, 235). Trichobothria base rounded, aperture internal texture not gratelike, hood covered by numerous low, closely spaced ridges (fig. 236). Tarsal organ capsulate (figs. 199–202, 237–241). Genitalia: Male epigastric region with sperm pore not visible; furrow without Ω-shaped insertions, without setae. Male palp yellow or pale orange, of normal size, not strongly sclerotized, right and left palps symmetrical; embolus dark, prolateral excavation absent; trochanter of normal size, unmodified; femur of normal size, two or more times as long as trochanter, without posteriorly rounded lateral dilation, attaching to patella basally; patella shorter than femur, not enlarged, without prolateral row of ridges, setae unmodified; tibia with trichobothria (fig. 184); cymbium not fused with bulb, not extending beyond distal tip of bulb, narrow to ovoid in dorsal view, without plumose setae, stout setae, or distal patch of setae; bulb more than twice as long as cymbium, stout, tapering apically; embolus accompanied by conductor, conductor sometimes partially fused with embolus (figs. 182, 183, 185, 186). Female genitalia with gonopore region swollen (fig. 228), bearing distinctive sclerotizations, probably functioning as coupling ridges, situated anteriorly on epigastric area (figs. 215, 259–261, 293, 306); internal genitalia with long anterior projection (fig. 229).

DISTRIBUTION: Known only from Namibia and South Africa.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Oonopidae

Genus

Sulsula

Loc

Sulsula pauper

Platnick, Norman I., Abrahim, Naiara, Álvarez-Padilla, Fernando, Andriamalala, Daniela, Baehr, Barbara C., Baert, Léon, Bonaldo, Alexandre B., Brescovit, Antonio D., Chousou-Polydouri, Natalia, Dupérré, Nadine, Eichenberger, Beata, Fannes, Wouter, Gaublomme, Eva, Gillespie, Rosemary G., Grismado, Cristian J., Griswold, Charles E., Harvey, Mark S., Henrard, Arnaud, Hormiga, Gustavo, Izquierdo, Matías A., Jocqué, Rudy, Kranz-Baltensperger, Yvonne, Kropf, Christian, Ott, Ricardo, Ramírez, Martín J., Raven, Robert J., Rheims, Cristina A., Ruiz, Gustavo R. S., Santos, Adalberto J., Saucedo, Alma, Sierwald, Petra, Szüts, Tamás, Ubick, Darrell & Wang, Xin-Ping 2012
2012
Loc

Sulsula pauper: Dalmas, 1916: 205

Dalmas, R. de 1916: 205
1916
Loc

Salsula pauper:

Simon, E. 1911: 308
1911
Loc

Salsula paupera:

Simon, E. 1910: 178
1910
Loc

Salsula longipes:

Simon, E. 1893: 294
1893
Loc

Sulsula longipes

Simon, E. 1910: 178
Simon, E. 1882: 237
1882
Loc

Oonops pauper

Cambridge, O. P. 1876: 549
1876