Physocyclus sikuapu, Nolasco & Valdez-Mondragón, 2022
Nolasco, Garduño & Valdez-Mondragón, Alejandro, 2022, Four new species of the spider genus Physocyclus Simon, 1893 (Araneae: Pholcidae) from Mexico, with updated taxonomic identification keys, European Journal of Taxonomy 813, pp. 173-206 : 192-198
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Males of Physocyclus sikuapu sp. nov. resemble P. globosus in having LAC short, by shape of distal spine of PR, pointing to the base of palp femora, and by the half-moon shape of the EE ( Figs 42– 44 View Figs 38–43 View Figs 44–47 , 48–49; VM 2010: figs 42–44). In P. sikuapu sp. nov. (1) chelicerae completely flat, without sclerotized cones, with uniform beige coloration ( Figs 42–43 View Figs 38–43 , 48–49); (2) LAC short, conical, pointing down, with SF occupying entire length of chelicerae ( Figs 41–43 View Figs 38–43 , 48–49); (3) ES wider, shorter ( Figs 44, 46–47 View Figs 44–47 , 50–51 View Figs 48–51 ). Females of P. sikuapu sp. nov. with (1) bell-shaped epigynum in frontal view, with stretch marks transversally in posterior part ( Figs 55–56 View Figs 52–57 ); (2) VAE small, slightly curved in lateral view ( Fig. 56 View Figs 52–57 ); (3) in dorsal view, PP long, oval, with two bag-shaped structures below them ( Fig. 57 View Figs 52–57 , red arrow).
The species name is a noun in apposition that means spider (sïkuapu = spider) in the Purépecha language from the pre-Columbian Purépecha state, which existed from the early 14 th century until 1530, and today is known as the state of Michoacan, where the type locality is found.
Holotype MEXICO • ♂; Michoacan, Municipality of Aquila, cave at the viewpoint of Costa Aquila ; 18.5634° N, 103.6471°W; 160 m.a.s.l.; 19 Nov 2020; A. Valdez, I. Navarro, A. Juárez and S. Nolasco leg; daytime collection; CNAN-T01474 . GoogleMaps
MEXICO • 8 immatures; same collection data as for holotype; LATLAX GoogleMaps .
Male (holotype, CNAN-T01474)
MEASUREMENTS. Total length 3.8. Carapace 1.7 long, 1.6 wide. Clypeus 0.6 long. Diameter AME 0.08, ALE 0.12, PME 0.11, PLE 0.12. Distance ALE-PME 0.06, PME-PME 0.13. Leg lengths: I (total 38.7): femur 9.8/patella 0.6/tibia 10.6/metatarsus 15.9/tarsus 1.7; tibia II: 7.5; tibia III: 5.3; tibia IV: 7.4. tibia I L/d: 61.2.
PROSOMA. Carapace light brown, with a Y-shaped mark around fovea and posterior part of ocular region. Fovea longitudinal. Carapace with three conspicuous irregular spots, barely visible on each side ( Fig. 38 View Figs 38–43 ). Clypeus wide, with same color of carapace ( Fig. 41 View Figs 38–43 ). Chelicerae light beige, without sclerotized cones, with short and conical lateral apophyses, pointing down ( Figs 42 View Figs 38–43 , 48). SF laterally occupying total length of chelicerae ( Figs 42–43 View Figs 38–43 , 48–49). Sternum pale grey, with four pale marks on each side. Labium brown, wider than long. Endites brown, longer than wide ( Fig. 40 View Figs 38–43 ).
LEGS. All segments with light beige coloration. Trochanters light brown, darker than in female. Femora and tibiae with barely visible ring-shaped marks distally.
OPISTHOSOMA. Globular, longer than wide, with inconspicuous irregular marks. Spinnerets light beige ( Figs 38–40 View Figs 38–43 ).
PALP. DAP thin and conical. In retrolateral view, PR slightly sinuous, with basal half light brown and distal half dark, ending in a long, curved, distal spine ( Figs 44 View Figs 44–47 , 50 View Figs 48–51 ). PR with a notch in basal half. In retrolateral view, ES short, square-shaped ( Figs 44 View Figs 44–47 , 50 View Figs 48–51 ); in dorsal view curved, C-shaped ( Figs 46– 47 View Figs 44–47 , 51 View Figs 48–51 ). E short, square-shaped distally in prolateral view ( Figs 44 View Figs 44–47 , 20 View Figs 20–23 ), long and semi-conical in dorsal view ( Figs 46–47 View Figs 44–47 , 51 View Figs 48–51 ).
Female (paratype, CNAN-T01475)
Similar to the male, differences:
PROSOMA. Carapace with pale coloration ( Fig. 52 View Figs 52–57 ). With a Y-shaped mark darker than in male. Clypeus slightly darker than in male. Chelicerae brown, without sclerotized cones or lateral apophyses ( Fig. 53 View Figs 52–57 ).
OPISTHOSOMA. With numerous and irregular grey, white and brown marks ( Figs 52–54 View Figs 52–57 ).
EPIGYNUM. Wider than long, bell-shaped, VAE small and slightly curved in lateral view ( Figs 55–56 View Figs 52–57 ). Anterior part of epigynum has a central gray spot, between the VAE ( Fig. 55 View Figs 52–57 ). Posterior part of epigynum darker than anterior part and seems to have stretch marks transversally ( Figs 55–56 View Figs 52–57 ). PP oval, with a pair of bag-shaped structures below them, which have an oval shape ( Fig. 57 View Figs 52–57 ).
MEASUREMENTS. Total length: 3. Carapace 1.3 long, 1.3 wide. Clypeus: 0.5. Diameter AME 0.06, ALE 0.11, PME 0.08, PLE 0.12. Distance ALE-PME 0.08, PME-PME 0.12. Leg lengths: I (total 27.7): femur 6.8/patella 0.6/tibia 7.8/metatarsus 11/tarsus 1.6; tibia II: 5.3; tibia III: 3.8; tibia IV:5.5; tibia I L/d: 52.3.
Male paratype collected at the same locality as male holotype is smaller, with a light beige coloration. Sternum with same color as carapace, with irregular darker marks in the periphery. The marks in the opisthosoma are slightly darker. (N =1): tibia I: missing; tibia II: 7.6; tibia III: 5.4; tibia IV: 7.6.
The other female paratype is a little bigger, with the VAE coloration clearer. (N =1): tibia I: 8.6; tibia II: 6; tibia III: 4.5; tibia IV: 6.3.
The specimens were collected among big boulders in a disturbed tropical deciduous forest, and inside of a small karstic cave on walls and in the ground ( Figs 72–73 View Figs 70–73 ).
Mexico: Michoacan ( Fig. 78 View Fig ).
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