Physocyclus mariachi, Nolasco & Valdez-Mondragón, 2022
Nolasco, Garduño & Valdez-Mondragón, Alejandro, 2022, Four new species of the spider genus Physocyclus Simon, 1893 (Araneae: Pholcidae) from Mexico, with updated taxonomic identification keys, European Journal of Taxonomy 813, pp. 173-206 : 185-192
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Males of Physocyclus mariachi sp. nov. resemble P. paredesi in the shape of LAC, and by absence of sclerotized cones in frontal part of chelicerae ( Figs 17–18 View Figs 14–19 , 24 View Figs 24–27 ; VM 2010: figs: 204, 205). In P. mariachi sp. nov. (1) two longer and more sclerotized LAC on each male chelicera ( Figs 17–19 View Figs 14–19 , 24–25 View Figs 24–27 ; VM 2010: figs 204–205; Valdez-Mondragón 2014: figs 21, 23–24); (2) LAC wider, more curved ( Figs 17–18 View Figs 14–19 , 24 View Figs 24–27 ); (3) distal-frontal apophyses of chelicerae longer, with some sclerotized ones ( Figs 17–18 View Figs 14–19 , 24 View Figs 24–27 ); (4) in retrolateral view, PR of male palp darker, straight ( Figs 21 View Figs 20–23 , 26 View Figs 24–27 ); (5) distal spine of PR harpoon-shaped; (6) in dorsal view, ES wide, sigmoid-shaped ( Figs 22–23 View Figs 20–23 , 27 View Figs 24–27 ); (7) in retrolateral view, E thinner but longer, with distal concavity between two small sclerotized spines ( Figs 21–23 View Figs 20–23 , 26–27 View Figs 24–27 ). Females of P. mariachi sp. nov. with (1) triangular epigynum ( Fig. 31 View Figs 28–33 ); (2) with small and conical apophyses on anterior part, located on two dark regions ( Figs 31–32 View Figs 28–33 ); (3) in dorsal view, PP long, thin, in convergent position to each other ( Fig. 33 View Figs 28–33 ); PP oval, almost circular in P. paredesi ( Valdez-Mondragón 2014: fig. 33).
The species name is a noun in apposition, and it refers to a genre of regional and popular Mexican music commonly known as “Mariachi”, from the state of Jalisco where the type locality of the species is located.
Holotype MEXICO • ♂; Jalisco, Municipality of Hostotipaquillo , 2 km SW of Hostotipaquillo; 21.0879° N, 104.0685°W; 1355 m a.s.l.; 9 Nov. 2020; A. Valdez, I. Navarro, A. Juárez and S. Nolasco leg.; daytime collection; CNAN-T01471 . GoogleMaps
Paratypes MEXICO • 1 ♀; same collection data as for holotype; CNAN-T01472 GoogleMaps • 1 ♀; Municipality of Plan de Barrancas , 2.5 km SE of Plan de Barrancas; 21.0239°N, 104.1907°W; 915 m a.s.l.; 9 Nov. 2020; A. Valdez, I. Navarro, A. Juárez and S. Nolasco leg.; daytime collection; CNAN-T01473 . GoogleMaps
MEXICO • 1 ♂, 1 ♀; Nayarit, Municipality of El Nayar, Arroyo Santiago ; AMNH • 1 immature; same collection data as for holotype; LATLAX GoogleMaps • 1 immature; same collection data as for second paratype; LATLAX GoogleMaps .
Male (holotype, CNAN-T01471)
MEASUREMENTS. Total length 2.5. Carapace 1.11 long, 1.3 wide. Clypeus 0.5 long. Diameter AME 0.08, ALE 0.12, PME 0.10, PLE 0.12. Distance ALE-PME 0.06, PME-PME 0.13. Leg lengths: I (total 23.5): femur 6.4/patella 0.5/tibia 6.7/metatarsus 8.5/tarsus 1.3; tibia II: 4.5; tibia III: 3.1; tibia IV: 5; tibia I L/d 40.5.
PROSOMA. Carapace light beige with Y-shaped light gray pattern around fovea and posterior part of carapace. Fovea longitudinal. Carapace with three irregular spots on each side ( Figs 14–15 View Figs 14–19 ). Clypeus wide, with dark brown irregular mark lengthwise ( Fig. 17 View Figs 14–19 ). Chelicerae pale, with two lateral apophyses on each side, with triangular tip and pointing down ( Figs 17–19 View Figs 14–19 , 24–25 View Figs 24–27 ). Anterior apophyses of chelicerae wide, dark, sclerotized, with small cones, in lateral view looks like a sawn surface. Posterior apophyses of chelicera small and thinner than anterior apophyses, with 4–5 sclerotized cones on each side ( Figs 17–19 View Figs 14–19 , 24–25 View Figs 24–27 ). Chelicerae with stridulatory files. Sternum light beige, with small and inconspicuous light brown spots. Labium brown, wider than long. Endites brown prolaterally, beige retrolaterally, longer than wide ( Fig. 16 View Figs 14–19 ).
LEGS. All segments with beige coloration. Tibiae and femora with brown rings distally. Trochanters light brown ( Figs 14–16 View Figs 14–19 ).
PALP. DAP wide and dark ( Fig. 21 View Figs 20–23 ). PR entirely dark, with notch in middle part, ending in long thin spine ( Figs 21–23 View Figs 20–23 , 26 View Figs 24–27 ). ES small and short, with oval shape in prolateral and retrolateral views ( Figs 20–21 View Figs 20–23 , 26 View Figs 24–27 ), wide, long and sinuous in dorsal view ( Figs 22–23 View Figs 20–23 , 27 View Figs 24–27 ). E small and short in retrolateral view, ending in a small tip. SO positioned in distal part of E ( Fig. 26 View Figs 24–27 ).
Female (paratype, CNAN-T01472)
Similar to the male, differences:
PROSOMA. Carapace clearer, almost white, with darker dorsal pattern ( Fig. 28 View Figs 28–33 ). Carapace with small protuberance on posterior part ( Fig. 29 View Figs 28–33 , red arrow). Sternum brown, with beige region in middle part ( Fig. 30 View Figs 28–33 ). Clypeus darker than in male, beige region in central part. Chelicerae with brown coloration, without LAC or sclerotized cones ( Fig. 29 View Figs 28–33 ).
OPISTHOSOMA. With dorsal patch in anterior part ( Fig. 28 View Figs 28–33 , red arrow). This structure might be a functional complex (with the protuberance of prosoma).
LEGS. Femora and tibiae with darker rings distally ( Figs 28–30 View Figs 28–33 ). EPIGYNUM. Wider than long, bell-shaped, with VAE small, conical, pointing forward, surrounded by dark spot, with clear stripe across epigynum longitudinally ( Figs 31–32 View Figs 28–33 ). PP small and elongated, ovalshaped, located in perpendicular position ( Fig. 33 View Figs 28–33 ).
MEASUREMENTS. Total length 3.7. Carapace 1.2 long, 1.2 wide. Clypeus 0.4 long. Diameter AME 0.08, ALE 0.12, PME 0.11, PLE 0.11. Distance ALE-PME 0.06, PME-PME 0.12. Leg lengths: I (total 16.8): femur 4.4/patella 0.5/tibia 4.6/metatarsus 6.1/tarsus 1.1; tibia II: 3.3; tibia III: 2.4; tibia IV: 3.6; tibia I L/d: 24.6.
Female collected in Plan de Barrancas is bigger than female collected at type locality. With an ocher coloration. The coloration of the dorsal pattern of the carapace and chelicerae is darker in this female. (N =1): Tibia I: 5.7; tibia II: 3.9; tibia III: 2.9; tibia IV: 4.4; tibia I L/d: 26.2.
Mexico: Jalisco ( Fig. 78 View Fig ).
This new species was previously recorded by W. J. Gertsch from Arroyo Santiago, Nayarit, Mexico, who tentatively named the species as Physocyclus “ nayaritus ”. The species was never described, however, Gertsch drew some sketches consulted by A. Valdez-Mondragón at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) (year 2008). Those sketches are shown herein ( Figs 34–37 View Fig ).
The specimens were collected among boulders on the ground. The male type and one female were collected close together during copulation. The vegetation of the type locality was disturbed deciduous forest ( Figs 70–71 View Figs 70–73 ).
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