Smeringopus carli Lessert, 1915

Huber, Bernhard A., 2012, 3461, Zootaxa 3461, pp. 1-138: 125-128

publication ID

publication LSID


persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Smeringopus carli Lessert, 1915


Smeringopus carli Lessert, 1915  

Figs. 748, 753–754, 761–763, 782–790, 801–804

Smeringopus carli Lessert 1915: 6–8   , pl. 1, figs. 1–2.

Smeringopus madagascariensis Millot, 1946: 150–153   , figs. 25b, 26a–d, 27, 28a–c. New synonymy.

Types. Smeringopus carli   : Male holotype from Uganda, Central Region, Entebbe [~ 0°03’N, 32°28’E], no date (J. Carl), in MHNG, examined GoogleMaps   .

Smeringopus madagascariensis   (all types collected by J. Millot, in MNHN, examined): ♂ paralectotype (designated herein) and 2♂ 1♀ 3 juvs. paralectotypes from Bas-Sambirano [13°36’S, 48°27’E]; 1♀ paralectotype from Anaborano [13°33’S, 48°49’E]; 1 juv. paralectotype from Andranoboka [15°38’S, 46°53’E]; 1♀ paralectotype from Ankarana [12°57’S, 49°06’E]; 2♀ 5 juvs. paralectotypes from Ankify [13°32’S, 48°21’E]; 1♀ paralectotype from Majunga [15°43’S, 46°19’E]; 1♀ 1 juv. paralectotypes from Nossi-Bé [13°24’S, 48°18’E]; 1♂ 1♀ 1 juv. paralectotypes from Nossi-Komba [13°28’S, 48°20’E].

Justifications of synonymy and lectotype designation. There is slight genital variation among Millot’s specimens, with some of them (including the lectotype) identical to the S. carli   holotype and others with a genital bulb that reminds of S. sambesicus   and a procursus that reminds of S. roeweri   . The identity of these latter specimens (especially those from Nossi-Komba, Ankify, and Anaborano) requires further collecting and study.

Diagnosis. Distinguished from similar species with proximal and distal cheliceral apophyses ( S. roeweri   , S. sambesicus   , S. lubondai   ) by shapes of procursus (distal blade-shaped apophyses, Figs. 782–784), bulb (processes of embolus, Figs. 785–787), cheliceral apophyses ( Figs. 788, 789); from S. roeweri   and S. lubondai   also by long frontal epigynal plate ( Figs. 761, 762, 801).

Male (Dar es Salaam). Total body length 7.4, carapace width 2.2. Leg 1: 49.6 (13.5 + 0.9 + 12.8 + 20.0 + 2.4), tibia 2: 9.3, tibia 3: 6.9, tibia 4: 9.6; tibia 1 L/d: 52. Habitus as in Fig. 748. Carapace ochre-yellow with brown median and indistinct lateral marks, clypeus with pair of brown stripes, sternum brown with light marks near coxae 2–4 and more medially, legs light brown, tips of femora and tibiae lighter, darker rings on femora and tibiae distally and in patella area, abdomen ochre-gray with distinct dorsal and ventral pattern. Distance PME-PME 150 µm, diameter PME 195 µm, distance PME-ALE 70 µm, distance AME-AME 45 µm, diameter AME 185 µm. Ocular area slightly elevated, secondary eyes with indistinct ‘pseudo-lenses’; deep thoracic pit. Chelicerae as in Figs. 788 and 789, with slender proximal apophyses and distal apophyses. Palps as in Figs. 753 and 754, coxa with distinct retrolateral apophysis and shallow wide furrow, trochanter barely modified, femur with retrolateral furrow with ventrally distinct rim ( Fig. 802), procursus with distinctive distal blade-shaped processes ( Figs. 782–784), bulb with distinctive complex embolus ( Figs. 785–787). Legs without spines, few vertical hairs, with curved hairs ventrally on tibiae and metatarsi 1 and 2, retrolateral trichobothrium on tibia 1 at 3%; prolateral trichobothrium present on tibia 1. Gonopore with two epiandrous spigots; ALS with eight spigots each ( Fig. 803).

Variation. Tibia 1 in 18 males: 8.1–12.7 (mean 10.7). In the holotype, the blade-shaped apophyses distally on the left procursus are broken and this artifact was illustrated by Lessert (1915, fig. 1) and used by Kraus (1957) in his identification key. Otherwise the holotype is in fair condition, all legs and both palps are detached, the carapace pattern is largely lost; tibia 1: 11.2.

Female. In general similar to male; tibia 1 in 34 females: 7.7–11.2 (mean 9.1). Epigynum a simple, distinctively long plate, round pockets posteriorly deeper but also anteriorly with distinct rim ( Figs. 761, 762, 801); internal genitalia as in Figs. 763 and 790. ALS as in male ( Fig. 804).

Distribution. Apparently widely distributed in eastern Africa, the Comoros, and northern Madagascar ( Fig. 718), but all mainland localities are in urban areas. For Madagascar, Millot (1946) noted that this species is rather found in natural habitats (in forests, under large rocks, in caves and crevices, under bridges) suggesting that S. carli   may actually have originated from Madagascar.

Material examined. UGANDA: Central Region: Entebbe: 1♂ type above   .

TANZANIA: Dar es Salaam Region: Mbagala [6°52.6’S, 39°15.2’E], on outer wall of building, 1.ii.1952 (Knipper), 3♂ 2♀ in SMF (“ Knipper 44”) GoogleMaps   . Dar es Salaam, U.D.S.M. Campus [6°46.5’S, 39°12.5’E], grassland behind Science Faculty workshop, (K.M. Howell), 1♂ 1♀ in MRAC (159270 part) GoogleMaps   . Dar es Salaam, in botanical garden near museum [6°48.7’S, 39°17.6’E], at base of Ficus   tree, 19.i.1952 (Knipper), 2♀ in SMF (“ Knipper 18”) GoogleMaps   . Dar es Salaam, 2.vii.1980 (M. Stoltze, N. Scharff), 1♀ in ZMUC   . Zanzibar Urban / West Region: Zanzibar airport [6°14’S, 39°13’E], 21.xi.1975 (M. Saaristo), 1♂ in ZMT ( AA 3379 part). Unknown locality (Tanzania?, “ Knipper 117”), 1♂ 1♀ in SMF GoogleMaps   .

COMOROS: Grand Comore: Bahani-Koimbani [11°37’S, 43°20’E], Coulée, under stones, 31.v.2003 ( R. Jocqué, D. van den Spiegel), 1♂ 1♀ in MRAC (213150) GoogleMaps   . Anjouan: Bazimini [12°11’S, 44°27’E], under bridge, 6.xii.1983 ( R. Jocqué), 1♂ in MRAC (161080) GoogleMaps   . Mutsamudu [12°10’S, 44°24’E], xi.–xii.1983 (“recolté par élèves du lycée”, R. Jocqué), 3♂ 4♀ (2 vials) in MRAC (161021, 22) GoogleMaps   . Anjouan, no further locality data, v.2003 ( R. Jocqué, D. van den Spiegel), 1♀ in MRAC   (213430).

MADAGASCAR: 4♂ 8♀ + juvs types of S. madagascariensis   above. Ankarana , ix.1946 (J. Millot)   , 4♂ 5♀ 1 juv. in MNHN   . Ankarana , maison, 1946 (J. Millot)   , 1♀ in MNHN   . “ Mahilaka ”, ix.1946 (J. Millot)   , 8♂ 3♀ in MNHN   . Region de Diego [~ 12°17’S, 49°17’E], tronc d’arbre, 1946 (J. Millot) GoogleMaps   , 1♂ 1♀ in MNHN   . Hell-Ville , Nossi-Bé [13°24’S, 48°16’E], sous pierres, 1946 (J. Millot) GoogleMaps   , 1♀ in MNHN   . Majunga [= Mahajanga] Prov. : 9 km E Marovoay [~ 16°06’S, 46°44’E], 31.x.1962 (E.D. Cashatt) GoogleMaps   , 1♂ in USNM   . “NW Madagascar ”, Hildebrandt leg., no further data   , 16♂ 31♀ in ZMB   .


Museum d'Histoire Naturelle


Forschungsinstitut und Natur-Museum Senckenberg


Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale


Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen


Georgian State Museum, Zoological Section


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (Zoological Collections)














Smeringopus carli Lessert, 1915

Huber, Bernhard A. 2012

Smeringopus madagascariensis

Millot, J. 1946: 153

Smeringopus carli

Lessert, R. de 1915: 8