Smeringopus carli Lessert, 1915

HUBER, BERNHARD A., 2012, Revision and cladistic analysis of the Afrotropical endemic genus Smeringopus Simon, 1890 (Araneae: Pholcidae), Zootaxa 3461 (1), pp. 1-138 : 125-128

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.3461.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:0704C43A-73D8-4A28-915A-7FF8611C8606

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5256572

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03FBB532-FFF9-177C-FF6A-0E9B3BDBF9DF

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Smeringopus carli Lessert, 1915
status

 

Smeringopus carli Lessert, 1915

Figs. 748, 753–754 View FIGURES 745–756 , 761–763 View FIGURES 757–764 , 782–790 View FIGURES 782–790 , 801–804 View FIGURES 791–804

Smeringopus carli Lessert 1915: 6–8 , pl. 1, figs. 1–2.

Smeringopus madagascariensis Millot, 1946: 150–153 , figs. 25b, 26a–d, 27, 28a–c. New synonymy.

Types. Smeringopus carli : Male holotype from Uganda, Central Region, Entebbe [~ 0°03’N, 32°28’E], no date (J. Carl), in MHNG, examined GoogleMaps .

Smeringopus madagascariensis (all types collected by J. Millot, in MNHN, examined): ♂ paralectotype (designated herein) and 2♂ 1♀ 3 juvs. paralectotypes from Bas-Sambirano [13°36’S, 48°27’E]; GoogleMaps 1♀ paralectotype from Anaborano [13°33’S, 48°49’E]; GoogleMaps 1 juv. paralectotype from Andranoboka [15°38’S, 46°53’E]; GoogleMaps 1♀ paralectotype from Ankarana [12°57’S, 49°06’E]; GoogleMaps 2♀ 5 juvs. paralectotypes from Ankify [13°32’S, 48°21’E]; GoogleMaps 1♀ paralectotype from Majunga [15°43’S, 46°19’E]; GoogleMaps 1♀ 1 juv. paralectotypes from Nossi-Bé [13°24’S, 48°18’E]; GoogleMaps 1♂ 1♀ 1 juv. paralectotypes from Nossi-Komba [13°28’S, 48°20’E]. GoogleMaps

Justifications of synonymy and lectotype designation. There is slight genital variation among Millot’s specimens, with some of them (including the lectotype) identical to the S. carli holotype and others with a genital bulb that reminds of S. sambesicus and a procursus that reminds of S. roeweri . The identity of these latter specimens (especially those from Nossi-Komba, Ankify, and Anaborano) requires further collecting and study.

Diagnosis. Distinguished from similar species with proximal and distal cheliceral apophyses ( S. roeweri , S. sambesicus , S. lubondai ) by shapes of procursus (distal blade-shaped apophyses, Figs. 782–784 View FIGURES 782–790 ), bulb (processes of embolus, Figs. 785–787 View FIGURES 782–790 ), cheliceral apophyses ( Figs. 788, 789 View FIGURES 782–790 ); from S. roeweri and S. lubondai also by long frontal epigynal plate ( Figs. 761, 762 View FIGURES 757–764 , 801 View FIGURES 791–804 ).

Male (Dar es Salaam). Total body length 7.4, carapace width 2.2. Leg 1: 49.6 (13.5 + 0.9 + 12.8 + 20.0 + 2.4), tibia 2: 9.3, tibia 3: 6.9, tibia 4: 9.6; tibia 1 L/d: 52. Habitus as in Fig. 748 View FIGURES 745–756 . Carapace ochre-yellow with brown median and indistinct lateral marks, clypeus with pair of brown stripes, sternum brown with light marks near coxae 2–4 and more medially, legs light brown, tips of femora and tibiae lighter, darker rings on femora and tibiae distally and in patella area, abdomen ochre-gray with distinct dorsal and ventral pattern. Distance PME-PME 150 µm, diameter PME 195 µm, distance PME-ALE 70 µm, distance AME-AME 45 µm, diameter AME 185 µm. Ocular area slightly elevated, secondary eyes with indistinct ‘pseudo-lenses’; deep thoracic pit. Chelicerae as in Figs. 788 and 789 View FIGURES 782–790 , with slender proximal apophyses and distal apophyses. Palps as in Figs. 753 and 754 View FIGURES 745–756 , coxa with distinct retrolateral apophysis and shallow wide furrow, trochanter barely modified, femur with retrolateral furrow with ventrally distinct rim ( Fig. 802 View FIGURES 791–804 ), procursus with distinctive distal blade-shaped processes ( Figs. 782–784 View FIGURES 782–790 ), bulb with distinctive complex embolus ( Figs. 785–787 View FIGURES 782–790 ). Legs without spines, few vertical hairs, with curved hairs ventrally on tibiae and metatarsi 1 and 2, retrolateral trichobothrium on tibia 1 at 3%; prolateral trichobothrium present on tibia 1. Gonopore with two epiandrous spigots; ALS with eight spigots each ( Fig. 803 View FIGURES 791–804 ).

Variation. Tibia 1 in 18 males: 8.1–12.7 (mean 10.7). In the holotype, the blade-shaped apophyses distally on the left procursus are broken and this artifact was illustrated by Lessert (1915, fig. 1) and used by Kraus (1957) in his identification key. Otherwise the holotype is in fair condition, all legs and both palps are detached, the carapace pattern is largely lost; tibia 1: 11.2.

Female. In general similar to male; tibia 1 in 34 females: 7.7–11.2 (mean 9.1). Epigynum a simple, distinctively long plate, round pockets posteriorly deeper but also anteriorly with distinct rim ( Figs. 761, 762 View FIGURES 757–764 , 801 View FIGURES 791–804 ); internal genitalia as in Figs. 763 View FIGURES 757–764 and 790 View FIGURES 782–790 . ALS as in male ( Fig. 804 View FIGURES 791–804 ).

Distribution. Apparently widely distributed in eastern Africa, the Comoros, and northern Madagascar ( Fig. 718 View FIGURE 718 ), but all mainland localities are in urban areas. For Madagascar, Millot (1946) noted that this species is rather found in natural habitats (in forests, under large rocks, in caves and crevices, under bridges) suggesting that S. carli may actually have originated from Madagascar.

Material examined. UGANDA: Central Region: Entebbe: 1♂ type above .

TANZANIA: Dar es Salaam Region: Mbagala [6°52.6’S, 39°15.2’E], on outer wall of building, 1.ii.1952 (Knipper), 3♂ 2♀ in SMF (“ Knipper 44”) GoogleMaps . Dar es Salaam, U.D.S.M. Campus [6°46.5’S, 39°12.5’E], grassland behind Science Faculty workshop, 30.vi.1978 (K.M. Howell), 1♂ 1♀ in MRAC (159270 part) GoogleMaps . Dar es Salaam, in botanical garden near museum [6°48.7’S, 39°17.6’E], at base of Ficus tree, 19.i.1952 (Knipper), 2♀ in SMF (“ Knipper 18”) GoogleMaps . Dar es Salaam, 2.vii.1980 (M. Stoltze, N. Scharff), 1♀ in ZMUC . Zanzibar Urban / West Region: Zanzibar airport [6°14’S, 39°13’E], 21.xi.1975 (M. Saaristo), 1♂ in ZMT ( AA 3379 part). GoogleMaps Unknown locality (Tanzania?, “ Knipper 117”), 1♂ 1♀ in SMF GoogleMaps .

COMOROS: Grand Comore: Bahani-Koimbani [11°37’S, 43°20’E], Coulée, under stones, 31.v.2003 (R. Jocqué, D. van den Spiegel), 1♂ 1♀ in MRAC (213150) GoogleMaps . Anjouan: Bazimini [12°11’S, 44°27’E], under bridge, 6.xii.1983 (R. Jocqué), 1♂ in MRAC (161080) GoogleMaps . Mutsamudu [12°10’S, 44°24’E], xi.–xii.1983 (“recolté par élèves du lycée”, R. Jocqué), 3♂ 4♀ (2 vials) in MRAC (161021, 22) GoogleMaps . Anjouan, no further locality data, v.2003 (R. Jocqué, D. van den Spiegel), 1♀ in MRAC (213430).

MADAGASCAR: 4♂ 8♀ + juvs types of S. madagascariensis above. Ankarana , ix.1946 (J. Millot) , 4♂ 5♀ 1 juv. in MNHN. Ankarana , maison, 1946 (J. Millot), 1♀ in MNHN. “ Mahilaka ”, ix.1946 (J. Millot) , 8♂ 3♀ in MNHN. Region de Diego [~ 12°17’S, 49°17’E], tronc d’arbre, 1946 (J. Millot), GoogleMaps 1♂ 1♀ in MNHN. Hell-Ville , Nossi-Bé [13°24’S, 48°16’E], sous pierres, 1946 (J. Millot), GoogleMaps 1♀ in MNHN. Majunga [= Mahajanga] Prov. : 9 km E Marovoay [~ 16°06’S, 46°44’E], 31.x.1962 (E.D. Cashatt), GoogleMaps 1♂ in USNM. “NW Madagascar ”, Hildebrandt leg., no further data GoogleMaps , 16♂ 31♀ in ZMB .

MHNG

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle

SMF

Forschungsinstitut und Natur-Museum Senckenberg

MRAC

Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale

ZMUC

Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen

ZMT

Georgian State Museum, Zoological Section

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

ZMB

Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (Zoological Collections)

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Pholcidae

Genus

Smeringopus

Loc

Smeringopus carli Lessert, 1915

HUBER, BERNHARD A. 2012
2012
Loc

Smeringopus madagascariensis

Millot, J. 1946: 153
1946
Loc

Smeringopus carli

Lessert, R. de 1915: 8
1915