Smeringopus peregrinus Strand, 1906

HUBER, BERNHARD A., 2012, Revision and cladistic analysis of the Afrotropical endemic genus Smeringopus Simon, 1890 (Araneae: Pholcidae), Zootaxa 3461 (1), pp. 1-138 : 93-100

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.3461.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:0704C43A-73D8-4A28-915A-7FF8611C8606

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6418241

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03FBB532-FFD9-1760-FF6A-0BC03ED6FD5E

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Smeringopus peregrinus Strand, 1906
status

 

Smeringopus peregrinus Strand, 1906

Figs. 8–10 View FIGURES 2–13 , 558–559 View FIGURES 558–571 , 572–573 View FIGURES 572–583 , 592–593 View FIGURES 592–607 , 609–625 View FIGURES 609–616 View FIGURES 617–625

Smeringopus peregrinus Strand 1906b: 47–49 . Strand 1907b: 569–571. Tullgren 1910: 122–123, pl. 2, fig. 34a-d. Berland 1920: 129–130.

Misidentifications: Strand (1913) and Lessert (1915), see S. peregrinoides ; Kraus (1957), see S. kalomo .

Types. Unspecified number of juvenile specimens from Tanzania, Kilimanjaro Region, Moshi   GoogleMaps [3°20’S, 37°20’E], date not given (Wiedemann), apparently lost.

Notes. Since S. peregrinus as circumscribed herein and S. peregrinoides have overlapping distributions in northeastern Tanzania ( Fig. 608 View FIGURE 608 ), the identity of S. peregrinus may never be clarified beyond doubt. I follow Berland (1920) in considering the largely Kenyan species as S. peregrinus and I follow Kraus (1957) in separating it from the more western S. peregrinoides . However, the species treated by Kraus (1957) as S. peregrinus has a much more southern distribution, far from the type locality of S. peregrinus (see S. kalomo ).

Diagnosis. Distinguished from similar congeners by tip of procursus (distinctive membranous and sclerotized structures; Figs. 609, 610 View FIGURES 609–616 ), by shape of embolus ( Figs. 611–613 View FIGURES 609–616 ; prolateral view distinctive; similar S. butare and S. katanga ), and by strongly curved ‘valve’ in internal female genitalia ( Fig. 593 View FIGURES 592–607 ); from S. peregrinoides also by longer and more downward directed cheliceral apophyses ( Figs. 614, 615 View FIGURES 609–616 ) and absence of v-shaped or u-shaped structure frontally in female internal genitalia ( Figs. 592 View FIGURES 592–607 ; females externally not distinguishable from S. butare ).

Male (Wundanyi). Total body length 7.6, carapace width 2.3. Leg 1: 46.6 (12.4 + 1.1 + 12.0 + 18.4 + 2.7), tibia 2: 9.1, tibia 3: 7.1, tibia 4: 9.6; tibia 1 L/d: 47. Habitus as in Figs. 558 and 559 View FIGURES 558–571 . Carapace ochre-yellow with brown median and lateral marks, clypeus with pair of dark stripes, sternum brown with irregular light marks, legs light brown, femora and tibiae with lighter tips and subdistal dark rings, abdomen ochre-gray with distinct dorsal and ventral pattern. Distance PME-PME 160 µm, diameter PME 170 µm, distance PME-ALE 70 µm, distance AME-AME 45 µm, diameter AME 170 µm. Ocular area slightly elevated, secondary eyes with ‘pseudo-lenses’; deep thoracic pit. Chelicerae as in Figs. 614 and 615 View FIGURES 609–616 , with downward directed distal apophyses. Palps as in Figs. 572 and 573 View FIGURES 572–583 , coxa with distinct retrolateral apophysis and shallow wide furrow, trochanter barely modified, femur with retrolateral furrow with distinct rim proximally, procursus with distinctive distal structures ( Figs. 609, 610 View FIGURES 609–616 ), without prolateral membranous projection, bulb with distinctively shaped prolateral process on embolus ( Figs. 611–613 View FIGURES 609–616 , 617 View FIGURES 617–625 ). Legs without spines, few vertical hairs, with curved hairs on tibiae and metatarsi 1 and 2, retrolateral trichobothrium on tibia 1 at 3%; prolateral trichobothrium present on tibia 1. Gonopore with two epiandrous spigots ( Fig. 618 View FIGURES 617–625 ); ALS with eight spigots each ( Fig. 619 View FIGURES 617–625 ).

Variation. The ventral abdominal bands may be undivided or divided into many spots; the ventral process of the embolus may be slightly wider (in prolateral view; male from Kilifi); in some specimens the retrolateral pointed process on the embolus (arrow in Fig. 613 View FIGURES 609–616 ) is very indistinct (males from Ol Donyo Sabuk and Tana River). Tibia 1 in 37 males: 6.9–15.7 (mean 10.6).

Female. In general similar to male; tibia 1 in 42 females: 6.9–15.1 (mean 10.1). Epigynum a simple trapezoidal to triangular plate with pair of semicircular pockets ( Figs. 592 View FIGURES 592–607 , 620 View FIGURES 617–625 ); internal genitalia as in Figs. 593 View FIGURES 592–607 , 616 View FIGURES 609–616 , and 621, with strongly curved frontal ark.

Distribution. Widely distributed in Kenya, eastern Uganda, and northeastern Tanzania ( Fig. 608 View FIGURE 608 ); the two records from Madagascar are from Antananarivo (one of them explicitly from a building), suggesting that the species has been introduced to Madagascar by humans.

Material examined. KENYA: Coast Prov.: Taita Hills , Wundanyi , in hotel (3°24.2’S, 38°21.8’E), 1405 m a.s.l., 18.–19.i.2010 (B.A. Huber), 2♂ 1♀ in ZFMK (Ar 8553) GoogleMaps ; same data, 2♂ 3♀ in pure ethanol in ZFMK (Ken 92) GoogleMaps . Taita Discovery Center [~ 3.0°S, 38.4°E], 8.–15.i.2002 (E. Selempo), 1♀ in MRAC (212939) GoogleMaps . Kilaguni Camp [~ 2°54’S, 38°03’E], 23.vi.1979 (N. Scharff), 2♀ in ZMUC GoogleMaps . Tsavo West, Kasigau [3°49’S, 38°39’E], 645–1100 m a.s.l., forest, 6.xii.2000 (R. Jocqué), 1♀ in MRAC (209968) GoogleMaps . Tsavo West, Mzima Springs [2°59’S, 38°01’E], under rocks, 15.iv.1989 (F. Coyle, R. Bennett), 1♀ in AMNH GoogleMaps . “ Région côtière, Kiwi ” (Mombasa, according to Berland 1920), st. n o 3, 28.-30.x.1911 (Alluaud, Jeannel), 1 juv. prosoma, in MNHN ( AR 10473 ) . Watamu [3°20’S, 40°01’E], beach litter, 12.ix.1984 (Murphy), 1♂ in CJFM (12395) GoogleMaps . Kilifi [3°38’S, 39°52’E], coastal scrub, 10 m a.s.l., 2.ix.1977 (Murphy), 2♂ 1♀ in CJFM (5980) GoogleMaps ; same data but coconut grove, 1♀ in CJFM (6299) GoogleMaps ; Kilifi, garden scrub, 4./ 5.ix.1977 (2 vials) (Murphy), 3♀ in CJFM (6023, 6068) ; Kilifi, beach litter, viii.1980 (Murphy), 1♀ in CJFM (9164) . Malindi [3°13’S, 40°07’E], 19.ii.1982 (R.R. Jackson), 1♂ 1♀ + juvs in BMNH GoogleMaps . 15 km S [SW] Malindi, Gedi Ruins [3°18.5’S, 40°01.0’E], 30.vi.1979 (N. Scharff), 1♀ in ZMUC GoogleMaps ; Gedi Forest near Gedi ruins (3°18.5’S, 40°01.1’E), 30 m a.s.l., under stone, 22.i.2010 (B.A. Huber), 1♂ 1♀ in pure ethanol in ZFMK GoogleMaps ( Ken 103) .

Rift Valley: Kitale, Kaipos [1°12’N, 35°08’E], house, 2000 m a.s.l., 30.vi.1972 (Murphy) 1♂ in CJFM (1412) GoogleMaps . Lake Naivasha [~ 0°45’S, 36°20’E], shrubs, 1900 m a.s.l., 3.viii.1974 (Murphy), 1♀ in CJFM (3873) GoogleMaps . Lake Naivasha, Fisherman’s Camp (~ 0°45’S, 36°20’E), 19.x.1992 (V. & B. Roth), 1♀ in CAS GoogleMaps . Naivasha, st. n o 14, 1.xii.1911 (Alluaud, Jeannel ), 2♂ 4♀ 7 juvs. (2 vials) in MNHN ( AR 10480 , 10487 View Materials ). GoogleMaps Longonot crater [0°55’S, 36°27’E], st. n o 26, xii.1911 ( Alluaud , Jeannel ), 1♂ 1♀ in MNHN ( AR 10489 ). GoogleMaps Hell’s Gate N.P., Lower Gorge (0°53.6’S, 36°19.2’E), 1850 m a.s.l., 5.ii.2010 (B.A. Huber), 3♂ 1♀ in ZFMK (Ar 8554) GoogleMaps ; same data, 1♂ 2♀ in pure ethanol in ZFMK (Ken 147) GoogleMaps . Kajiado [1°50’S, 36°47.5’E], road culverts, v.1973, collector not given, 3♂ 2♀ in BMNH GoogleMaps . Mpala Ranch [0°18’N, 36°51’E], 19.iv.2002 (R. Jocqué, C. Warui), 1♂ in MRAC (212190) GoogleMaps ; same locality, near river in litter and under dead logs, 20.iv.2002 (R. Jocqué, C. Warui), 1♀ in MRAC (212221) GoogleMaps . Between Nanyuki and Nyahururu , under bridge (0°02.1’N, 36°41.8’E), 1940 m a.s.l., 30.i.2010 (B.A. Huber), 2♂ 2♀ in pure ethanol in ZFMK GoogleMaps ( Ken 129) .

Nairobi: Nairobi [~ 1°16’S, 36°49’E], coll. C.S. Belton, date not given, 6♂ 4♀ in BMNH (99.1215-713) GoogleMaps . Forêt de Nairobi , st. n o 11, 22.-27.xi.1911 (Alluaud, Jeannel), 3♂ 2♀ in MNHN ( AR 10495 ) .

Eastern Prov.: Athi River [1°27’S, 36°59’E], 1530 m a.s.l., 19.x.1957 (E.S. Ross, R. E. Leech), 1♂ in CAS GoogleMaps . 15 mi SW of Nairobi [~ 1°23’S, 36°55’E], 5400’ a.s.l., 15.i.1970 (M.E. Irwin, E.S. Ross), 1♂ 4♀ in CAS GoogleMaps . 25 mi SW of Nairobi [~ 1°27’S, 36°59’E], under rocks, 20.xi.1969 (M.E. Irwin, E.S. Ross), 1♂ in CAS GoogleMaps . Gonkonyi River, at slopes and in tunnel under road (1°56.8’S, 37°18.2’E), 1340 m a.s.l., 25.i.2010 (B.A. Huber), 2♂ 2♀ in ZFMK (Ar 8555) GoogleMaps ; same data, 3♀ in pure ethanol in ZFMK ( Ken 106) GoogleMaps . Machakos Distr., “ Mokweni ” [1°49’S, 37°47’E?], 3500’ a.s.l., iv.1965 (D.M. Sillou), 1♂ in MRAC (128381) GoogleMaps . Tsavo National Park East, Education Center [2°46’S, 38°47’E?], 4.vi.1975 (A.J. Penniman), 2♀ 1 juv. in AMNH GoogleMaps . Murera, near gate of Meru National Park [0°18’N, 38°07’E], riverine forest, 24.iv.2004 (R. Jocqué, C. Warui, van den Spiegel), 1♂ in MRAC (215395) GoogleMaps . Ol Donyo Sabuk N.P., under stone at roadside (1°08.1’S, 37°15.1’E), 2070 m a.s.l., 26.i.2010 (B.A. Huber), 1♂ in ZFMK (Ar 8556) GoogleMaps ; Ol Donyo Sabuk N.P., in buffalo sculls at main gate (~ 1°06.2’S, 37°16.4’E), ~ 1400 m a.s.l., 26.i.2010 (B.A. Huber), 1♂ 1♀ in pure ethanol in ZFMK (Ken 115) GoogleMaps . 4 km S Isiolo [0°19’N, 37°34’E], 1250 m a.s.l., 26.xi.1957 (E.S. Ross, R. E. Leech), 1♀ in CAS GoogleMaps . Kiboko, Hunter’s Lodge [2°16.5’S, 37°49.5’E], “Grotte à Otomops”, 27.ix.1975 (P. Strinati, V. Aellen), 2♀ in MHNG GoogleMaps .

Central Prov.: Mount Kenya, Naro-Moru track [~ 0°10’S, 37°10’E], 25.vii.1975 (R. Bosmans), 1♂ in MRAC (161804) GoogleMaps . Mount Kenya, vii.1975 (R. Bosmans), 1♀ in MRAC (161926) . Thika , Fourteen Falls [1°04’S, 37°15.5’E], 4.viii.1969 (R. D. Charles), 3♀ 1 juv. in MRAC (136458). GoogleMaps

Unidentified localities in Kenya: “Ngunga”, 29.viii.1909 (G.M. Allen), 1♂ in MCZ (34029) . “ Tana River ”, Chanier Exp., date not given, 1♂ in USNM . “ Fort Hall ”, st. n o 30, 4.i.1912 (Alluaud, Jeannel), 1♂ 1 juv. in MNHN ( AR 10472 ) .

TANZANIA: Arusha Region: Arusha [3°22’S, 36°41’E], 4.ix.1972 (P.L.G. Benoit), 1♂ 2♀ 2 juvs in MRAC (141744). GoogleMaps Meru, Sjöstedt leg., date not given, 1♀ in ZMB [this might be the female studied by Tullgren (1910), originating from “Meru: Ngare na nyuki” = Ngare Nanyuki, 3°08’S, 36°53’E] GoogleMaps . Kilimanjaro, Meru-Expedition, 1905-1906 (Y. Sjöstedt), material identified and described by Tullgren (1910), 1♂ 1♀ in MNHN ( AR 10492 ) [these might be Tullgren’s specimens from Kibonoto=Kibongoto, ~ 3°11’S, 37°06’E]. GoogleMaps West flank of Ngorongoro Crater [~ 3°12’S, 35°29’E], 1750 m a.s.l., 23.x.1957 (E.S. Ross, R. E. Leech), 1♀ in CAS GoogleMaps . Tanga Region: Amani [5°06’S, 38°38’E], iv.1905 ( Vosseler ), 1♂ in ZMB [this is the male studied by Strand (1907b)]. GoogleMaps Mkomazi [4°38’S, 38°05’E], thick grass below Commiphora trees, 25.i.1996 (A. Russell-Smith), 3♂ 1♀ in ZFMK (Ar 8557) GoogleMaps .

UGANDA: Eastern Region: Bukedi Distr., Tororo Hill [0°41’N, 34°11’E], 17.xii.1968 (R. D. Charles), 3♂ (2 vials) in MRAC (136448, 136450) GoogleMaps .

MADAGASCAR: Antananarivo [~ 18°55’S, 47°31’E], in building, 16.iii.1992 (V. Roth), 2♂ 4♀ in CAS GoogleMaps . Antananarivo, Manakambahini [18°56.0’S, 47°32.2’E], 18.iii.1990 (W.E. Steiner), 2♂ 1♀ in USNM GoogleMaps .

ZFMK

Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig

MRAC

Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale

ZMUC

Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

MHNG

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle

MCZ

Museum of Comparative Zoology

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

ZMB

Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (Zoological Collections)

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Pholcidae

Genus

Smeringopus

Loc

Smeringopus peregrinus Strand, 1906

HUBER, BERNHARD A. 2012
2012
Loc

Smeringopus peregrinus

Berland 1920: 129
Tullgren, A. 1910: 122
Strand, E. 1907: 569
Strand, E. 1906: 49
1906