Smeringopus natalensis Lawrence, 1947

HUBER, BERNHARD A., 2012, Revision and cladistic analysis of the Afrotropical endemic genus Smeringopus Simon, 1890 (Araneae: Pholcidae), Zootaxa 3461 (1), pp. 1-138: 44-51

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.3461.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:0704C43A-73D8-4A28-915A-7FF8611C8606

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6418722

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03FBB532-FFAE-1731-FF6A-0F603934FECB

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Smeringopus natalensis Lawrence, 1947
status

 

Smeringopus natalensis Lawrence, 1947  

Figs. 243–244, 251 View FIGURES 243–255 , 256–257 View FIGURES 256–267 , 278–279 View FIGURES 278–297 , 300–304 View FIGURES 300–309 , 343–349 View FIGURES 343–356

Smeringopus natalensis Lawrence 1947: 14–15   , figs. 7a–b. Lawrence 1967: 299, figs. 3–5. Huber 2001: 136, figs. 430, 432–433, 437.

Type. Male holotype from South Africa, KwaZulu Natal , Verulam [29°39’S, 31°03’E], date and collector not given, in Naturhistoriska Museet, Göteborg, Sweden, not examined GoogleMaps   .

Diagnosis. Distinguished from similar congeners (other species of the natalensis   group, especially S. lesnei   , S. florisbad   , S. blyde   , S. koppies   , S. harare   , S. badplaas   ) by shapes of bulbal processes ( Figs. 302, 303 View FIGURES 300–309 ); from other close relatives by absence of process near palpal tarsal organ ( Fig. 300 View FIGURES 300–309 ), relatively straight procursus (ventrally), absence of prolateral process on procursus tip, and three black lines ventrally on abdomen (versus two; compare Fig. 244 View FIGURES 243–255 with Figs. 248 and 250 View FIGURES 243–255 ).

Male (Badplaas, ZFMK). Total body length 6.3, carapace width 2.2. Leg 1: 53.6 (14.0 + 0.8 + 14.1 + 22.0 + 2.7), tibia 2: 9.6, tibia 3: 7.2, tibia 4: 10.0; tibia 1 L/d: 66. Habitus as in Figs. 243 and 244 View FIGURES 243–255 . Carapace ochre-yellow with distinct dark pattern (median, lateral, and submarginal marks), clypeus with pair of dark marks widened distally, sternum brown with light marks near leg coxae, legs with dark rings subdistally on femora and tibiae, abdomen dorsally with distinct dark pattern, ventrally with three dark lines in median part (median line narrow but distinct). Distance PME-PME 160 µm, diameter PME 170 µm, distance PME-ALE 70 µm, distance AME-AME 45 µm, diameter AME 135 µm. Ocular area slightly elevated, secondary eyes with very indistinct ‘pseudo-lenses’; deep thoracic pit. Chelicerae as in S. badplaas   (cf. Figs. 314, 315 View FIGURES 310–316 ), each apophysis with modified hair at tip ( Fig. 345 View FIGURES 343–356 ). Palps as in Figs. 256 and 257 View FIGURES 256–267 , coxa without retrolateral apophysis, trochanter barely modified, femur with retrolateral furrow with distinct rim proximally ( Fig. 344 View FIGURES 343–356 ), cymbium without projection near tarsal organ, procursus ventrally almost straight, without prolateral process at tip ( Figs. 300, 301 View FIGURES 300–309 ), bulb with three distinctively shaped processes ( Figs. 302, 303 View FIGURES 300–309 ). Legs without spines, few vertical hairs, with curved hairs on tibiae and metatarsi 1 and 2, retrolateral trichobothrium on tibia 1 at 3.5%; prolateral trichobothrium present on tibia 1. Gonopore with two epiandrous spigots ( Fig. 347 View FIGURES 343–356 ); ALS with eight spigots each.

Variation. In males from Oudtshourn and from Tembe Elephant Park the median bulbal process is slightly shorter and thicker. Tibia 1 in 60 other males: 8.1–16.4 (mean 11.9).

Female. In general similar to male; tibia 1 in 87 females: 8.4–16.4 (mean 12.6). Epigynum a simple plate without pockets ( Fig. 278 View FIGURES 278–297 ), variable in shape and coloration and thus possibly not clearly distinguishable from close relatives ( S. lesnei   , S. florisbad   , S. blyde   , S. koppies   , S. harare   , S. badplaas   ); internal genitalia as in Figs. 279 View FIGURES 278–297 , 304 View FIGURES 300–309 , and 348 (also very similar to close relatives). The four females from Bloemfontein (see below) are assigned tentatively to S. natalensis   rather than to S. florisbad   because of the long legs (tibia 1: 12.7–15.6).

Note: This is a very rare case among Pholcidae   where female legs are on average longer than male legs ( Fig. 15 View FIGURES 14–16 ) (cf. Huber 2005). The only other case known to me is Pholcus fragillimus   but in that species sample size was much smaller (seven males, eight females; Huber 2011b).

Distribution. Widely distributed in eastern South Africa and southern Mozambique, ranging further west along the coast ( Fig. 298 View FIGURE 298 ).

Material examined. SOUTH AFRICA: Mpumalanga: Badplaas, resort area [25°56.9’S, 30°33.9’E], 28.iii.2001 (B.A. Huber), 4♂ 2♀ in ZFMK ( Ar 8538). GoogleMaps   Badplaas , Embuleni Reserve [25°57.2’S, 30°33.2’E], 28.iii.2001 (B.A. Huber), 3♂ 7♀ (2 vials) in ZFMK ( Ar 8539-40); GoogleMaps   same locality, wooded areas in grassvelt savanna, 1100 m a.s.l., 28.iii.2001 (D. & S. Ubick), 1♂ 1♀ in CAS (9027114). GoogleMaps   Badplaas (25°56.8’S, 30°33.8’E), waste ground, 26.iii.2001 (P. Horak), 6♂ 9♀ (2 vials) in CPH. GoogleMaps   Songimvelo Nature Reserve , Kroomdraai (26°02.5’S, 31°00.1’E), 800 m a.s.l., secondary highveld forest, cabin area, 16.–23.iii.2001 (D. & S. Ubick), 2♂ 2♀ 6 juvs. in CAS (9027107). GoogleMaps   Croc Valley , Nelspruit [25°27’S, 30°59’E], 25.v.1999 (P. Stephen), 1♂ in NCP (921/66). GoogleMaps   Ogies [26°03’S, 29°03’E], “Tul.”, 19.iv.1987 (M. Ebersohn), 1♂ 1♀ in NCP (90/353) GoogleMaps   .

Gauteng: Melville [26°10’S, 28°00’E], “Kopjes N Jo’burg”, under stones, 6.iv.1976 (F. Wanless, A. Russell-Smith) GoogleMaps   , 1♂ 1♀ in BMNH. Pretoria [25°45’S, 28°12’E], in corner of garage, 20.iv.1987 (M. Voster), 1♂ in NCP (88/ 316) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, in garage, iv.1987 (M. Prinsloo), 1♀ in NCP (88/339) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, 1987 (P. Lombaard), 1♂ 1♀ in NCP (91/598) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, no date, leg. E.R. Rossouw, 1♂ in NCP (91/230) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, “in hoek v. motorhuis   ”, 10.iv.1988 (A. van Rensburg), 1♀ in NCP (88/869) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, 29.iv.1987 (B.L. Veeremans), 1♀ in NCP (88/348) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, in building, 2.iv.1987 (E. Opperman), 1♂ in NCP (91/669) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, “in tuin”, 3.iii.1976 (L. Harley), 2♀ 2 juvs in NCP (76/959) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, 24.i.1983 (J. Bruijns), 1♀ in NCP (83/146) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, in dark corner, iv.1987 (M. Swart), 1♀ in NCP (88/353) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, in house, 10.iii.1967 (A.S. D.), 1♂ in NCP (36/2022) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, dark corner of building, 23.iv.1987 (J.C. de Klerk), 1♂ 1♀ in NCP (88/838) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, in building, 28.iii.1987 (L. Lerwill), 1♂ in NCP (88/835) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, in garage, 15.iv.1980 (C.J. Cilliers), 1♀ in NCP (81/637) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, in garage, 20.iii.1987 (G. Gelderblom), 1♀ in NCP (88/867) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, in garage, 19.iii.1987 (T.T. Vreede), 1♀ in NCP (88/831) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, Astor Court, CSIR Water Res., 6.iv.1959, collector not given, 1♂ in TMP (12844) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, 1956 (L. Vari), 1♂ 3♀ + juvs in TMP (12849) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, 8.i.1919 (G.P.F. van Dam), 1♀ in TMP (12932) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, 31.x.1984 (S. Nkosi), 1♀ in TMP (21041) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, Brooklyn, in bird cage, 20.iii.1991 (C. Maree), 1♂ 1♀ in NCP (92/392) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, Hatfield, on outbuilding, ceiling, 26.iv.1987 (M. Kroese), 1♀ in NCP (88/836) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, Irene, 23.vii.1972 (C.K. Brain), 1♀ in TMP (10575) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, Les Marais, 3.iii.1987 (A. Koch), 1♂ in NCP (91/1140) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, Makapan , no date (E. Simon), 1♀ in MNHN ( AR 10364 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, Monument Park, in garden, 16.iv.1987 (C. Strydom), 1♀ 1 juv. in NCP (91/613) GoogleMaps   ; same locality, in house, 16.iv.1988 (C. Strydom), 1♂ in NCP (90/334) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, Pierneef, in house, x.1990 (V. Gouws), 1♀ in NCP (91/25) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, Rietardale, pit traps, 6.ix.1988 (A. Biggs), 1♀ in NCP (89/18) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, Sunnyside, 14.ii.1984 (L. von Heerden), 1♂ 1 juv. in NCP (88/833) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, Waverly, in outside room, 21.iv.1987 (J.P. Coetzee), 1♀ in NCP (88/257) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, Welgegund, “in tuin”, x.1982 (T. Marren), 2♀ in NCP (83/108) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, Willow Glen, iii.–iv.1987 (L. Vari), 1♀ in NCP (87/856) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria, Wonderboom, in house, date not given, leg. C. Craemer, 1♂ in NCP (92/158) GoogleMaps   ; Pretoria-Noord, Ninapark, 15.x.1990 (D. v. Heerden), 1♂ in NCP (90/507) GoogleMaps   .

KwaZulu Natal: Bonamanzi Reserve [28°04’S, 32°18’E], overhang in dry riverbed, 31.iii.2001 (B.A. Huber), 2♂ 2♀ in ZFMK (Ar 8541). GoogleMaps   Kosi Bay [27°00.5’S, 32°50.8’E], camping site, 29.x.1984 (M. Filmer), 1♀ in NCP (88/282). GoogleMaps   Natal Midlands, Ladysmith [28°34’S, 29°47’E], 3500 ft a.s.l., Klip river , “Dawn Pride”, x.1980 (H.D. Shaw-Copeland), 17♂ 34♀ in MRAC (166446) GoogleMaps   ; same data but xii.1981, 3♂ 5♀ GoogleMaps   ; i.1982, 2♂ 3♀ GoogleMaps   ; and ii.1982, 4♂ 10♀ in NHMW. GoogleMaps   10 km W Ladysmith, Klip river , Farm Dawn Pride, 1200 m a.s.l., ix.–x.1980 (H.D. Shaw-Copeland), 10♀ in MRAC (166492). GoogleMaps   Durban [29°51’S, 31°01’E], “7.2. Zwickelt”, further data unreadable, 9♂ 9♀ in BMNH. GoogleMaps   Durban, “9.7. Leigh”, 3♂ 3♀ in BMNH (03.7.20-188–195). GoogleMaps   Pinetown (Durban) [29°49’S, 30°50’E], iii.1979 (M.E. Baddeley), 2♂ 1♀ 2 juvs in MRAC (152175). GoogleMaps   Pinetown , under stones and bricks, 16.vi.1987 (C.J. Smit), 1♀ 1 juv. in NCP (87/367). GoogleMaps   Pietermaritzburg [29°36’S, 30°23’E], 6.ii.1964 (Lamoral), 2♀ in MCZ (34050). GoogleMaps   “Maritzburg” [= Pietermaritzburg], leg. Zwickelt, 2♀ in BMNH (03.7.12.41a–b). GoogleMaps   Pietermaritzburg , Scottsville, ii.1965 (R.F. Lawrence), 2♂ 4♀ in NMP (9427). GoogleMaps   Pietermaritzburg , Bisley, iv.1961 (R. F. Lawrence), 1♀ in NMP (8084). GoogleMaps   Pietermaritzburg, 1917 (C. Akerman), 1♀ in NMP (1901) GoogleMaps   ; same data but x.1927, 1♀ in NMP (1493). GoogleMaps   Pietermaritzburg , in Museum, xi.1945 (R.F. Lawrence), 1♂ (chelicerae missing) in SMF (9835/1). GoogleMaps   Umkomaas River [30°11.6’S, 30°46.9’E], “9.7. Leigh”, 6♂ 4♀ in BMNH (03.7.20–29.34). GoogleMaps   Manderston [29°44’S, 30°26’E], iv.1963 (H. Buston), 1♂ 1♀ in NMP (8830). GoogleMaps   Mntunzini [28°57’S, 31°46’E], on wall in house, 19.ii.1977 (P. Reavell), 1♂ 3♀ 1 juv. in NCP (84/889). GoogleMaps   Pongola [27°23’S, 31°37’E], 27.vi.1968 (H. van Ark), 2♂ 3♀ + juvs in NCP (76/2016). GoogleMaps   Nagle Dam [29°35’S, 30°37’E], 10.v.1998 (A. Heeres), 1♀ in DNSM (329). GoogleMaps   St. Lucia [28°22’S, 32°25’E], 14.iv.1987 (R. Travis), 1♀ in NCP (91/200) GoogleMaps   ; St. Lucia, in corners, 16.xii.1980 (M. Bruton), 1♂ 3♀ + juvs in NCP (82/146). GoogleMaps   Tembe Elephant Park , sand forest near viewing tower (27°01.7’S, 32°24.6’E), 8.i.2002 (C. Haddad), 1♂ 1♀ in ZFMK (Ar 8542). GoogleMaps   Ubombo Mtn. foothills near Mkuze [27°36’S, 32°04’E], 530 m a.s.l., i.1982 (H. Shaw-Copeland), 1♂ 1♀ in NHMW. GoogleMaps   Umzinto , Vernon Crookes Nat. Res. (30°16’S, 30°36’E), 15.i.1992 (L.N. Lotz), 1♀ in NMBA (5949). GoogleMaps  

Free State: Farm Lusthof, Edenville [27°32’S, 27°39’E], 12.vi.1969 (J. Viljoen), 10♂ 24♀ in NCP (76/2020). GoogleMaps   Bloemfontein (29°08’S, 26°10’E), in house, 20.iv.1989 (C.A. van Ee), 1♀ 1 juv. in NMBA (3216) GoogleMaps   ; Bloemfontein , in house, 22.viii.1985 (Museum Staff), 1♀ in NMBA (981) GoogleMaps   ; Bloemfontein , in house, 17.xi.1995 (L.N. Lotz), 1♀ in NMBA (8279) GoogleMaps   ; Bloemfontein , 5.iv.1991 (L. Grobler), 1♀ in NMBA (5726) GoogleMaps   .

Eastern Cape: Transkei, Port St. Johns [31°37’S, 29°32’E], iii.1979 (M.E. Baddeley), 1♂ 4♀ in MRAC (152115) GoogleMaps   ; same locality, xi.1980 (M.E. Baddeley), 1♀ in MRAC (166577). GoogleMaps   Transkei Coast, Lusikisiki Distr. , Mzimhlava [= Umzimhlava] River [31°18’S, 29°14’E], river mouth, coastal evergreen forest, ii.1980 (M.E. Baddeley) 2♀ in MRAC (166620). GoogleMaps   Transkei Coast, Lusikisiki Distr. , Ntafufu River [31°33’S, 29°38’E], ii.–iii.1980 (M.E. Baddeley) 1♂ 5♀ in MRAC (166726). GoogleMaps   Oos London [East London, 33°00’S, 27°53’E], 2.xii.1977 (G. Petty), 1♂ 6♀ in NCP (37/1099) GoogleMaps   ; same locality, v.–vi.1979 (G. Petty, O. Keetch), 2♂ 1♀ in NCP (81/490). GoogleMaps   70 km N Port Elizabeth near Addo [33°32’S, 25°42’E], in cottage, 24.x.2003 (J. Altmann), 2♀ 2 juvs in SMF. GoogleMaps   Bathurst [33°29’S, 26°50’E], 17.iii.1974 (P. Croeser), 1♀ in NCP (87/711) GoogleMaps   .

Western Cape: Oudtshourn [33°34’S, 22°12’E], at campground, 5.x.1999 (D. Ubick, S. Prinsloo), 1♂ 1♀ in CAS. GoogleMaps   Bellville, Welgemoed [33°52.3’S, 18°36.9’E], wasteland, 9.i.1989 (R. Jocqué), 1♂ 1♀ 1 juv. in MRAC (169767). GoogleMaps   Bellville , in and around house, 6.–25.i.1989 (R. Jocqué), 1♂ 3♀ in MRAC (169690). GoogleMaps   Calendon, Hermanus (34°25’S, 19°15’E), 14.xii.1989 (L.N. Lotz), 1♀ in NMBA (3328). GoogleMaps   Hermanus , 16.x.2003 (J. Altmann), in house, 1♂ in SMF. GoogleMaps   Fishershaven [34°22’S, 19°08’E; not 26°14’E as on label], 19.iii.2004 (C. Haddad), 1♀ in ZFMK ( Ar 8543) GoogleMaps   .

Limpopo: Dendron [23°22’S, 29°19’E], v.1970 (J. Viljoen), 28♂ 40♀ in NCP (76/2010); GoogleMaps   same data but xii.1969, 3♂ 14♀ in NCP (76/2011), and xi.1970, 4♂ 4♀ in NCP (74/2012). GoogleMaps   Pietersburg [=Polokwane, 23°54’S, 29°27’E], grass, 13.iii.1998 (C. Spies), 1♂ in NCP (98/342) GoogleMaps   .

Northwest Province: Vryburg [26°57’S, 24°44’E], E. Simon collection 15278, 2♀ in MNHN ( AR 10367 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   .

SWAZILAND: Mlilwane Game Reserve [~ 26°26.5’S, 31°11.0’E], at houses, 31.iii.2001 (B.A. Huber), 2♂ 2♀ in ZFMK (Ar 8544) GoogleMaps   .

MOZAMBIQUE: Bilene , Praia do Bilene (25°15.6’S, 33°17.7’E), 27 m a.s.l., leaf litter, coastal forest, 20.xii.2007 (C. Haddad, R. Lyle, R. Fourie), 1♀ in ZFMK (Ar 8545). GoogleMaps   Inhaca Island, Village Hotel [26°00’S, 32°55’E], 20.xii.1992 ( T. Steyn), 4♂ 4♀ in NCP (93/194) GoogleMaps   .

ZFMK

Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

CSIR

Council for Scientific and Industrial Research

TMP

Transvaal Museum

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

MRAC

Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale

NHMW

Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien

MCZ

Museum of Comparative Zoology

NMP

National Museum (Prague)

SMF

Forschungsinstitut und Natur-Museum Senckenberg

NMBA

National Museum, Bloemfontein

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Pholcidae

Genus

Smeringopus

Loc

Smeringopus natalensis Lawrence, 1947

HUBER, BERNHARD A. 2012
2012
Loc

Smeringopus natalensis

Lawrence, R. F. 1967: 299
Lawrence, R. F. 1947: 15
1947