Sánchez-Monge, Alcides, Flores, Lorena, Salazar, Luis, Hockland, Sue & Bert, Wim, 2015, An updated list of the plants associated with plant-parasitic Aphelenchoides (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) and its implications for plant-parasitism within this genus, Zootaxa 4013 (2), pp. 207-224: 213-215

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Main Plant-Parasitic Aphelenchoides   spp. ( MPPA): A. besseyi   , A. fragariae   and A. ritzemabosi  

A. besseyi   , A. fragariae   and A. ritzemabosi   are the most important species of foliar and bulb nematodes in terms of both, host range and economic yields. In Spermatophyta, these three species are present in 98 out of 99 families within 36 of 37 orders of plants associated with PPA. Only the order Sapindales Dumortier   has no associations with the MPPA but only with A. sphaerocephalus   on Evodia roxburghiana   ( Rutaceae   ) ( Goodey 1953). Flowering plants are the most important group in terms of associations (83 % of the reports; see Tables 1 and 2) and within them, dicots hosts are almost five times the number of monocots ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ). Ferns (Pteridophyta) also represent an important group with 25 families having at least one plant species associated, especially for A. fragariae   as 25 % of its reports belong to the latter group ( Table 1, Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ).

Remarkably, despite the high number of reported associations and their unspecialized feeding behaviour, it is not common for a plant species to have more than one MPPA. From a total of 925 plant species/varieties only six have reports of the three species, i.e. Dahlia pinnata   Cav., Zinnia elegans Jacq.   , and Z. violacea Cav.   ( Asteraceae   ), Fragaria   x ananasa ( Rosaceae   ), Saintpaulia ionantha H. Wendl.   ( Gesneriaceae Rich. & Juss.   ) and the fern Asplenium nidus   L. ( Aspleniaceae Newm.   ) on which their inter-specific and host-related interactions have not been documented. In addition to those species, the MPPA have been reported on unidentified species of the genera Begonia   , Chrysanthemum   and Fragaria   L. (see online database). Plant and nematode distribution aside from environmental factors could be affecting potential associations, unfortunately the number of studies on such topic and Aphelenchoides   spp. is limited and focused on selected species on specific hosts e.g. A. fragariae   in Lantana ( Kohl et al. 2010)   , A. ritzemabosi   in Alfalfa ( Williams-Woodward & Gray 1999).

According to the compiled data, A. fragariae   and A. ritzemabosi   are more likely to be found on the same plant species than any other combination of MPPA (65 species, Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 ). A. fragariae   and A. besseyi   have only 6 plant species in common; Impatiens balsamina   L. ( Balsaminaceae Rich.   ), Ficus elastica Roxb.   ( Moraceae Gaudich.   ), Allium cepa   L. ( Amaryllidaceae   ), Pinus massoniana   ( Pinaceae   ) and the ferns Asplenium jamaicense Jenman   ( Aspleniaceae   ) and Lygodium circinatum   (Burm.f.) Sw. ( Lygodiaceae C.Presl.   ). A. fragariae   and A. besseyi   have also been found on Lemna   sp. ( Asteraceae   ). Finally, A. besseyi   and A. ritzemabosi   record 10 hosts from 6 families in common; Calendula officinalis   L., Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.   , Chrysanthemum maximum   L., Lactuca sativa   L. and Leucanthemum maximum (Ramond)   DC. ( Asteraceae   ), Phaseolus vulgaris   ( Fabaceae   ), Solenostemon scutellarioides   (L.) R.Br. ( Lamiaceae Martinov   ), Fragaria vesca   L. ( Rosaceae   ), Nicotiana tabacum   L. ( Solanaceae Juss.   ) and Polianthes tuberosa   L. ( Asparagaceae   ). The two species were also detected on Tagetes   sp. ( Asteraceae   ). However, new associations of Aphelenchoides   on non-reported plant species as well as new combinations on already reported associations are plausible.

The following plant families have reported associations with the MPPA on different plant species: the dicots Asteraceae   , Balsaminaceae   , Begoniaceae   , Brassicaceae Burnett   , Caryophyllaceae Juss.   , Convolvulaceae Juss.   , Fabaceae   , Gesneriaceae   , Hydrangeaceae Dumort   , Lamiaceae   , Oleaceae Hoffmanns. & Link   , Plantaginaceae Juss.   , Rosaceae   and Solanaceae   and the monocots Amaryllidaceae   , Asparagaceae   and Poaceae   (see online database).