Trophoniella, HARTMAN, 1959

SALAzAR-Vallejo, Sergio I., 2012, Revision of Trophoniella Hartman, 1959 (Polychaeta, Flabelligeridae), Zoosystema 34 (3), pp. 453-519: 453-519

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5252/z2012n3a1

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5172431

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03F987D8-FF87-AE17-D32D-0214FBB8FAC3

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Trophoniella
status

 

KEY TO SPECIES OF THE GENUS TROPHONIELLA HARTMAN, 1959  

1. Anchylosed neurohooks starting between chaetigers 4-7, continued throughout the body ................................................................................................................................... 2

— Anchylosed neurohooks starting from chaetiger 14, or from posterior chaetigers ...... 15

2. Body with sediment particles ...................................................................................... 3

— Body almost without sediment particles, with very few, sparse sediment grains, or without sediment grains; anterior chaetigers sometimes with very few sediment particles, or with a thin, dark-brown or blackish crust ........................................................................... 6

3. Sediment particles present over the dorsal and ventral surfaces ................................... 4

— Sediment particles concentrated dorsally, sometimes extending laterally ..................... 7

4. Sediment grains small, very abundant ........................................................................ 5

— Sediment grains large; anterior chaetigers without dorsal tubercles or notopodial lobes; first neurohooks from chaetiger 5 ............................................................................... 9

5. Anterior chaetigers with dorsal tubercles but no notopodial lobes; first neurohooks from chaetiger 7 .............................................. T. grandis   (Blanchard in Gay, 1849) n. comb.

— Anterior chaetigers without dorsal tubercles or notopodial lobes; first neurohooks from chaetiger 5 .................................................................... T. ehlersi ( Day, 1973)   n. comb.

6. Neurohooks bifid; sediment particles mostly black .... T. rigida ( Caullery, 1944)   n. comb.

— Neurohooks entire; sediment particles mostly white ................... Trophoniella sp.   Brazil

7. Tunic with fine particles, difficult to be detected; notopodia with 6-7 chaetae per bundle; first neurohooks in chaetigers 5-6 .......................................................... T. lindae   n. sp.

— Tunic with larger particles, easily noticed individually ................................................ 8

8. Body wall pale or pinkish; few notochaetae (4-5) per bundle; anchylosed neurohooks from chaetigers 4-5 ........................................... T. americana ( Monro, 1928)   n. comb.

— Body wall grayish; abundant notochaetae (8-10) per bundle; anchylosed neurohooks from chaetigers 5-7 ........................ T. tumbensis (Hartmann-Schröder, 1962)   n. comb.

9. Some neurohooks bidentate; 7-9 notochaetae per bundle .............................................. ............................................................................. T. incerta ( Augener, 1918)   n. comb.

— All neurohooks entire, sometimes eroded ................................................................. 10

10. Body with few sediment particles over anterior chaetigers ........................................ 11

— Body without sediment particles .............................................................................. 12

11. Body dark pink, finely speckled with red spots, rarely pale; cephalic cage twice as long as body width; 6-8 notochaetae per bundle ................................................ T. reishi   n. sp.

— Body solid brown; cephalic cage 1.0-1.5 times as long as body width; 7-8 notochaetae per bundle ................................... T. rudis   (Grube & Müller in Grube, 1877) n. comb.

12. Parapodial papillae digitate or slightly capitate; notochaetae with regular articulation ..... 13

— Parapodial papillae markedly capitate (distally expanded); notochaetae with irregular articulation, several short articles followed by a medium-sized article, and then several short articles; with 5-6 notochaetae per bundle (body width 5 mm)............ T. havaica ( Kinberg, 1867)   n. comb.

13. Tunic smooth, transparent (at least in the anterior region); median chaetigers with about 10 notochaetae per bundle (body width 9 mm) .......... T. minuta   (Blanchard in Gay, 1849) n. comb.

— Tunic papillose, looking rugose or areolated, opaque or, if transparent, with fewer notochaetae .............................................................................................................. 14

14. Tunic grayish to reddish, finely speckled with tiny black spots; 5-8 notochaetae per bundle (body width up to 10 mm), each with short articles basally, medium-sized medially, longer distally .............................................................................................. T. salazarae   n. sp.

— Tunic whitish (transparent in juveniles), without any dark spots; 4-5 notochaetae per bundle (body width 3 mm), each with long articles only ............... T. jareckiorum   n. sp.

15. Tunic with sediment grains on dorsal and ventral surfaces ........................................ 16

— Tunic without sediment grains ................................................................................. 25

16. Sediment grains large, completely covering the tunic ................................................ 17

— Sediment grains variable, often small; if large, often embedded in the tunic, without concealing it ............................................................................................................. 20

17. Sediment particles completely immersed in the tunic; first short neurohooks from chaetiger 5; anchylosed neurohooks bidentate, slightly expanded subdistally, from chaetiger 25 ....................................................... T. chilensis ( Hartman, 1967)   n. comb.

— Sediment particles partially immersed in the tunic ................................................... 18

18. Anterior chaetigers with dorsal tubercles .................................................................. 19

— Anterior chaetigers without dorsal tubercles; anchylosed neurohooks from chaetigers 18-20; neurohooks with accessory tooth about as long as fang ..... T. avicularia Caullery, 1944  

19. Anchylosed neurohooks from chaetiger 14; neurohooks with accessory tooth longer than fang .............................................................. T. indica ( Fauvel, 1928)   n. comb., n. stat.

— Anchylosed neurohooks from chaetiger 40; neurohooks with accessory tooth about as long as fang .................................................................................... T. enigmatica   n. sp.

20. Sediment particles often small, completely covering the tunic or dispersed throughout it .................................................................................................................................. 21

— Sediment particles larger, dispersed throughout the tunic ......................................... 24

21. Anterior chaetigers with both notopodial and dorsal tubercles .................................. 22

— Anterior chaetigers with notopodial tubercles; dorsal tubercles absent ............. T. eliasi   n. sp.

22. Dorsal tubercles extending through a short anterior region, up to chaetiger 10 (body 5 mm wide); anchylosed neurohooks from chaetiger 32 ................... T. orensanzi   n. sp.

— Dorsal tubercles extending through a larger anterior, over at least 20 chaetigers ........ 23

23. Anchylosed neurohooks from chaetiger 25; dorsal tubercles extending up to chaetiger 25 (body 5 mm wide) ............................................... T. hospita ( Fauchald, 1972)   n. comb.

— Anchylosed neurohooks from chaetiger 20; dorsal tubercles extending up to about chaetiger 40 (body 10 mm wide) ........................................................ T. harrisae   n. sp.

24. Anterior chaetigers with notopodial lobes, without dorsal tubercles; first short neurohooks from chaetiger 10; anchylosed neurohooks from chaetiger 40 ............... T. fauveli   n. sp.

— Anterior chaetigers without notopodial or dorsal tubercles; first short neurohooks from chaetiger 5; anchylosed neurohooks from chaetiger 28 ..................... T. capitata ( Nonato, 1966)   n. comb.

25. Tunic smooth, papillae barely visible dorsally, median chaetigers almost without emerging papillae; anterior chaetigers with notopodial tubercles .............................................. 26

— Tunic papillose or velvety, not smooth ...................................................................... 27

26. Chaetigers 2-5 with large notopodial lobes, larger in chaetigers 3-5; all neurohooks anchylosed from chaetiger 26; 6-7 notochaetae per bundle ................. T. bastidai   n. sp.

— Chaetigers 2-3 with large notopodial lobes, not visible in other anterior chaetigers; all anchylosed neurohooks from chaetiger 32; 7-8 notochaetae per bundle ............ ........................................................................... T. borealis ( Hartman, 1965)   n. comb.

27. Median chaetigers with 6-9 transversal rows of papillae per segment; anchylosed neurochaetae slightly expanded medially, starting from chaetiger 50; tunic appearing smooth ............ ............................................................................................................... T. fiegei   n. sp.

— Median chaetigers with about 15 transversal rows of papillae per segment; anchylosed neurohooks markedly medially expanded, starting from chaetiger 45; tunic velvety or rugose .......................................... T. fernandensis ( Augener, 1918)   reinstated, n. comb.