Stellifer, Oken, 1817

Chao, Ning Labbish, Carvalho-Filho, Alfredo & Santos, Jonas De Andrade, 2021, Five new species of Western Atlantic stardrums, Stellifer (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) with a key to Atlantic Stellifer species, Zootaxa 4991 (3), pp. 434-466 : 460-461

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4991.3.2

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:2DE8BCED-7F34-4A5D-9F2D-16F442D8273A

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03F887AC-FFCD-6852-26F6-F92AFB1BF845

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Stellifer
status

 

Key to the Atlantic species of Stellifer

1a. Mouth moderate to small, subterminal to inferior; position of anterior tip of upper jaw ventral to lower eye margin....... 2

1b. Mouth large, terminal to strongly oblique; position of anterior tip of upper jaw horizontal to or dorsal to lower eye margin 11

2a. Scales on top of head cycloid, smooth to touch; underside of lower jaw with 6 mental pores.......................... 3

2b. Scales on top of head ctenoid, rough to touch; underside of lower jaw with 5 mental pores........................... 6

3a. Spinous dorsal fin with XII or XIII spines; roof of mouth and underside of gill cover jet black; total gill rakers 37–40 (Table 2)............................. S. cervigoni new species (Dominican Republica, Colômbia, Venezuela to Pará, Brasil)

3b. Spinous dorsal fin with X or XI spines (rarely XII); roof of mouth pale to dusky, never black; total gill rakers fewer than 32.. ................................................................................................... 4

4a. Dorsal profile strongly arched; top of head firm to touch; total gill rakers 27–32, longest raker longer than gill filament; second anal-fin spine stout, about equal length to first soft ray, 1.9–2.4 in HL; anterior gas bladder with a pair of small knob-like appendages ( Fig. 1B View FIGURE 1 , right)............ S. colonensis Meek & Hildebrand, 1925 ( Panama, Puerto Rico, Haiti and Venezuela)

4b. Dorsal profile smoothly arched; top of head cavernous soft to touch; gill rakers fewer than 24, longest raker shorter than gill filament; second anal-fin spine 2.2–3.0 in HL; anterior gas bladder with digital-like tubes or U-shaped appendages....... 5

5a. Second anal-fin spine strong, equal to length of the first ray, 2.2–2.5 times in HL; appendage on gas bladder in short digital-like tubes ( Fig. 1B View FIGURE 1 , left).............. S. microps ( Steindachner, 1864) (Caribbean coast from Colombia to Northeastern Brazil)

5b. Second anal-fin spine shorter than first ray, 2.4–3.0 times in HL; a pair of U-shaped tubular appendages on gas bladder ( Fig. 1C View FIGURE 1 , left)............ S. brasiliensis ( Schultz, 1945) (Endemic to Brazil from the Northeast region to the Southeast region)

6a. Pelvic fin short, 5.8 times or more in SL, its tip well anterior to tip of pectoral fin; anterior chamber of gas bladder with a pair of kidney-shaped appendages ( Fig. 1A View FIGURE 1 , right)............................................................... 7

6b. Pelvic fin moderately long, 5.8 times or less in SL, its tip reaching posteriorly to that of pectoral fin; anterior chamber of gas bladder with or without appendages, but never kidney-shaped.................................................. 8

7a. Eye large, 3.5–4.2 in HL, equal to or slightly longer than snout length; pelvic fin 5.8–6.8 times in SL; total gill rakers 21–25...................................................... S. naso ( Jordan, 1889) ( Venezuela to Northeastern Brazil)

7b. Eye moderate, 4.1–5.3 in HL, shorter than snout length; pelvic fin very short, 6.4–8.1 times in SL; total gill rakers 25–30......................................... S. venezuelae ( Schultz, 1945) ( Honduras, Colombia, Venezuela and Trinidad)

8a. Eye small, 6.3–6.4 in HL; a small fish, females mature at 60 mm SL; pelvic fin short, 5.2 to 5.8 times in SL, its filamentous tip ending posterior to vent; total gill rakers 25–29............. S. magoi Aguilera, 1983 (Known only from Gulf of Venezuela)

8b. Eye moderately large, 6.2 or less in HL; females mature greater than 100 mm SL; pelvic fin less than 5.2 in SL, its filamentous tip short ending anterior to vent; total gill rakers fewer than 23; no appendages on posterior margin of anterior chamber of gas bladder............................................................................................. 9

9a. Back strongly arched; body depth 2.7–2.9 in SL; interorbital wide, 3.5 or less in HL; pectoral and pelvic fins black........................................................................ S. punctatissimus ( Meek & Hildebrand, 1925) (From Panama and Porto Rico through Caribbean and Northern South America and along Atlantic coast to Southeastern Brazil, at least São Paulo)

9b. Body elongate; body depth more than 3.3 in SL; interorbital narrow, 3.6 or more in HL; pectoral and pelvic fins pale or black only distally........................................................................................ 10

10a. Body depth equal to or less than HL; eye 4.2–5.6 in HL, slightly shorter than snout length; nostrils rounded and almost the same height ( Fig. 18B View FIGURE 18 ); tip of pectoral fin posterior to tip of pelvic fin; second anal spine slightly longer than first soft ray; all fins pale to dusky.................................................................... S. gomezi ( Cervigón, 2011) (Caribbean coast from Colombia to Venezuela and along Atlantic coast to Southeastern Brazil, at least to São Paulo)

10b. Body depth slightly greater than HL; eye 3.6–4.6 in HL, equal to or slightly greater than snout length; anterior nostril slightly oval and forward-directed forming an angle with the bean-shaped posterior nostril ( Fig. 18A View FIGURE 18 ); tip of pectoral fin reaching to or posterior to tip of pelvic fin; second anal spine slightly shorter than first soft ray; distal portion of pectoral, pelvic and anal fins blackish...... S. menezesi new species (From Paraíba to São Paulo state, uncommon south of Bahia, on the Brazilian coast)

11a. Preopercular margin with two or three prominent spines..................................................... 12

11b. Preopercular margin with four or more prominent spines..................................................... 14

12a. Preopercular margin with three prominent spines (occasionally four on one side); total gill rakers 33–39; dorsal-fin rays 18– 20............................. S. stellifer ( Bloch, 1790) ( Venezuela to Southern Brazil, one record from Puerto Rico)

12b. Preopercular margin with two prominent spines; total gill rakers 36 or more; dorsal-fin rays 20–24.................... 13

13a. Nape and pre-dorsal region with one to several median rows of ctenoid scales; total gill rakers 36–52; inside of gill cover jet black; anterior chamber of gas bladder with a pair of long tubular appendages ( Fig. 1C View FIGURE 1 , right)........................................................................ S. rastrifer ( Jordan, 1889) ( Venezuela to Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil)

13b. Scales on nape and pre-dorsal region cycloid; total gill rakers 52–59; inside of gill cover dusted with melanophores; anterior chamber of gas bladder with a pair of small knob-like appendages ( Fig. 1B View FIGURE 1 , right).................................................................................... S. griseus Cervigón, 1966 ( Venezuela, Honduras, and Trinidad)

14a. Eye large, greater than snout length, 3.4–4.5 in HL; anal-fin rays 9 (rarely 8); total gill rakers 29–36....................................................................... S. musicki new species (Found in Brazil, from Pará to Bahia)

14b. Eye moderate to small, shorter than snout, 4.4 times or more in HL; anal-fin rays 8 (rarely 9); total gill rakers 28–48..... 15

15a. Underside of lower jaw with four mental pores; eye small, 5.1–6.4 in HL........................................ 16

15b. Underside of lower jaw with six mental pores; eye moderately large, 4.4–5.5 in HL................................ 17

16a. Head scales all cycloid, scales on body ctenoid; total gill rakers 41–48................................................................................... S. chaoi Aguilera, Solano & Valdez, 1983 ( Colombia and Gulf of Venezuela)

16b. Head scales mostly ctenoid, cycloid in interorbital region; total gill rakers 28–37............................................................ S. collettei new species (Southeast Venezuela, Surinam, French Guyana to Southeastern Brazil)

17a. Top of head extremely cavernous, spongy to touch; total gill rakers 29–33, longest raker about equal to filament length at the angle; gas bladder appendage knob-like ( Fig. 1B View FIGURE 1 , right).................................................................................................... S. lanceolatus ( Holbrook, 1855) ( Chesapeake Bay to Gulf of Mexico)

17b. Head not spongy to touch; total gill rakers 28-31, longest raker longer than filament length at the angle; gas bladder without appendages..................................................................... S. macallisteri new species (Carribean sea from Canal zone Panama, Colombia to Gulf of Venezuela, also in Dominican Republic)