Stellifer menezesi, Chao & Carvalho-Filho & Santos, 2021

Chao, Ning Labbish, Carvalho-Filho, Alfredo & Santos, Jonas De Andrade, 2021, Five new species of Western Atlantic stardrums, Stellifer (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) with a key to Atlantic Stellifer species, Zootaxa 4991 (3), pp. 434-466: 452-455

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4991.3.2

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:2DE8BCED-7F34-4A5D-9F2D-16F442D8273A

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5042399

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/FAC15843-74C0-49A5-B4CC-A29D6DD4EBB0

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:FAC15843-74C0-49A5-B4CC-A29D6DD4EBB0

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Stellifer menezesi
status

new species

Stellifer menezesi   new species

( Figure 16 View FIGURE 16 )

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:FAC15843-74C0-49A5-B4CC-A29D6DD4EBB0

Holotype: MZUSP 123409, 102 mm SL, Ponta Grande Beach , Porto Seguro, Bahia, Brazil, collected by Moraes, L.E. and Costa, V.F., 10 May 2016.  

Paratypes: AZUSC 5950, 56 mm SL, Maracaípe , Pernambuco, Brazil, 8°31'31"S, 34°59'37"W, trawl, 11 m, collected by Flores, F.G., 26 November 2011 GoogleMaps   . AZUSC 5963, 4 (72–101 mm SL), Ponta Grande , Porto Seguro, Bahia, Brazil, 16°22'40"S, 39°00'56"W, trawl, 12 m, collected by Moraes, L.E. and Costa GoogleMaps   , V.F., 29 August 2016   . AZUSC 6060, 5 (98–129 mm SL), Barra Nova , Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil, 9°43'58"S, 35°47'11"W, trawl, 15 m, collected by Gardeni, M. GoogleMaps   R., 29 October 2016   . AZUSC 6087, 2 (136–153 mm SL), Barra do Una , Peruíbe, São Paulo, Brazil, 24°29'18"S, 47°05'49"W, trawl, 20., collected by Souza GoogleMaps   , T. R., 15 December 2016   . MZUSP 123405 View Materials , 63.0 mm SL, and   MZUSP 123406 View Materials , 6 View Materials (63.8–81.2 mm SL), Praia de Ponta da Ilha – Ilha de Itaparica (Baía de Todos os Santos – Bahia), collected by Lopes, P.   R.D, Oliveira-Silva, J   . T., 3 March 2010   . MZUSP 123407 View Materials , 39.5 mm SL, Praia do Malhado , Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, local fishermen, October 2008   . MZUSP 123408 View Materials , 2 View Materials (54.6–67.1 mm SL), Praia de Berlinque , Ilha de Itaparica, Bahia, Brazil, collected by Lopes, P.   R.D, Oliveira-Silva, J   . T. and Moraes , L.E., 27 June 2002   . MZFS 17125, 108 mm SL, Praia de Ponta da Ilha , Ilha de Itaparica, Bahia, Brazil, collected by Santos, J.A., Moura, P.E.S. and Bucheni, F., 14 December 2016   . MZFS 18131, 84.9 mm SL, collected with the holotype   . MZFS 16961, 6 (70.5–90.4 mm SL), Praia de Ponta da Ilha – Ilha de Itaparica (Baía de Todos os Santos – Bahia), collected by Lopes, P.   R.D, Oliveira-Silva, J   . T., 3 March 2010   . UFPB 3228 View Materials , 2 View Materials (40.9–87.7 mm SL), Lucena, Paraíba   . NMMBA 27623, 3 (59.4–78.9 mm SL) Praia do Malhado , Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, local fishermen, November 2013   . MNRJ 50825 View Materials , 2 View Materials (61.2–69.5 mm SL), Praia de Ponta da Ilha , Ilha de Itaparica, Bahia, Brazil, collected by Santos, J.A. and M. Carvalho-Junior, 28 October 2015   . MNRJ 50824 View Materials , 4 View Materials (75–78.8 mm SL), Praia de Ponta da Ilha , Ilha de Itaparica, Bahia, Brazil, 11 September 2010   . MNRJ 50823 View Materials , 8 View Materials (35.0– 45.2 mm SL), Praia de Berlinque , Ilha de Itaparica, Bahia, Brazil, collected by P   . R.D. Lopes, J   . T. Oliveira-Silva and L.E. Moraes, 27 June 2002   . MZFS 17734, 3 (62.9–70.7 mm SL), Praia de Ponta da Ilha , Ilha de Itaparica, Bahia, Brazil, 3 October 2010   . MZFS 18169, 2 (85.7–91.5 mm SL), Praia de Ponta da Ilha , Ilha de Itaparica, Bahia, Brazil, December 2009   . MZFS 2100, 78.8 mm SL, Praia de Ponta da Ilha , Ilha de Itaparica, Bahia, Brazil, collected by Lopes, P.   R.D, Silva, J   . T.O. and Silva , I.S., 21 June 1997   . MZFS 17650, 4 (64.6–73.5 mm SL) collected with the holotype   . MZFS 9998, 2 (51.1–55.6 mm SL), Ilhéus , Bahia, Brazil, November 2003   . ZUEC 147672 View Materials , 5 View Materials (59.1–82.1 mm SL), Praia de Ponta da Ilha – Ilha de Itaparica (Baía de Todos os Santos – Bahia), collected by Lopes, P.   R.D, Oliveira-Silva, J   . T. 3 March 2010   . ZUEC 147671 View Materials , 56.8 mm SL, Praia de Ponta da Ilha , Ilha de Itaparica, Bahia, Brazil, collected by J.A. Santos et al., 26 December 2015   . ZUEC 147673 View Materials , 88.0 mm SL, Caravelas , Bahia, Brazil, collected by CEPENE team, 06 January 2015   .

Diagnosis. Stellifer menezesi   can be distinguished from other Atlantic species of the genus with a terminal or oblique mouth by the inferior mouth and elongated body. The absence of diverticula on the posterior margin of anterior gas bladder chamber distinguishes it from S. microps   , S. naso   and S. venezuelae   ( Fig. 1A View FIGURE 1 , right). Stellifer punctatissimus   has a strongly arched back, body depth much greater than HL and black pectoral and pelvic fins ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 ). S. gomezi   has a body depth equal to or shorter than HL and a protruding snout greater than the eye diameter ( Fig. 21 View FIGURE 21 ), while in S. menezesi   the body depth is slightly greater than HL ( Fig. 16 View FIGURE 16 ) and the snout length is shorter than the eye diameter; also, in S. menezesi   the anterior nostril is slightly oval and forward directed, and the posterior nostril is bean-shaped forming an angle between them, which differs from S. gomezi   that has rounded nostrils and almost of the same height ( Fig. 18 View FIGURE 18 ).

Description. Dorsal-fin rays X+I, 23–24; anal-fin rays II, 7 (6–8); pectoral-fin rays 17–18; gill rakers 6–8 + 11–13 = 17–21; preopercular spines 8–10; pored lateral-line scales 48–51; 4–5 transverse scale rows from lateral line to dorsal fin origin and 6–8 rows to anal fin origin. Anterior chamber of gas bladder smooth without appendages ( Fig. 1A View FIGURE 1 , left); posterior tip of posterior chamber terminating anterior to base of first anal spine. Drumming muscles in males only ( Fig. 1B View FIGURE 1 , hatched area). Sagitta ( Fig. 17 View FIGURE 17 ) thick with notch anterodorsally; sulcus with small ovoid ostium, deeply grooved L-shaped cauda, and shallow groove along dorsal margin; outer surface with crest-like elevations. Lapillus ovoid, with thin anterior flange; inner surface smoothly convex, outer surface roughly concave. Asteriscus triangular, thin, with lanceolate groove near ventral margin of inner surface.

Preopercular spines short, sharp, usually 10, more prominent at the angle; upper spines progressively shorter and weaker, the uppermost appearing as flat points, lower margin of preopercle weakly serrated. Head conical, interorbital region slightly convex, not cavernous in appearance. Snout conical, 4.0– 4.4 in HL, projecting beyond upper lip, its tip with three upper and five marginal pores. Eye moderate to large, 3.3–4.3 in HL, orbit rounded, its diameter equal to interorbital width, 3.1–4.4 (3.8 in HL), and snout length. Mouth inferior, moderately large, upper jaw 3.0–4.0 in HL; jaws subequal with nearly horizontal gap. Anterior tip of upper lip, horizontally, passing below ventral margin of orbit. Posterior maxilla ends below anterior half of eye. Underside of lower jaw with six sensory pores, medial pair set in common pit, often difficult to observe with naked eye ( Fig. 6C View FIGURE 6 ). Teeth thin and short on both jaws set in villiform bands, longest not exceeding one third of pupil diameter. Tooth band on upper jaw slightly broader than lower jaw. No teeth on mandibular symphysis area. Gill rakers moderately short and slender, longest at corner shorter than filament at angle of arch, less than one third of eye diameter. Nostrils below middle of eye, anterior slightly oval and forward directed, horizontally aligned with the larger oblong, bean-shaped posterior nostril, distance between them about the same as height of posterior nostril; angle of about 60° between them ( Fig. 18A View FIGURE 18 ). Anal fin truncate, second spine long and strong, 1.5–1.8 in HL, slightly shorter than first ray. Caudal fin rhomboidal, much shorter than HL. Tip of pectoral fin vertically short or equal to pelvic-fin tip when depressed. Pelvic fin filamentous prolongation very short. Scales moderately large, strongly ctenoid on body and head; small cycloid scales on preorbital, infraorbital, and embedded under skin of lachrymal bones; tip of snout not scaled. Spinous dorsal with four or five rows of reduced cycloid scales along base, basal sheath not well-defined. Inter-spine membrane naked, soft dorsal and anal fins uniformly covered by small cycloid scales on membrane behind each soft ray, extending distally to at least half fin height. Pectoral fin base with small cycloid scales. Pelvic fin base with four or five rows of ctenoid scales, moderate in size. Caudal, pectoral, and pelvic fins finely scaled. Lateral line pored scales ctenoid, indented in middle of posterior margin, and much smaller than scales of adjacent rows. Lateral line canal system arborescent.

Coloration. Fresh specimens have silvery gray to brownish body with dusky pectoral fin; pelvic, anal, and lower part of caudal fins darker. Some concentration of chromatophores on snout, around orbit and at pectoral fin base. Margin of upper lip and lower jaw with slightly conspicuous dark band, few chromatophores scattered posteriorly. Tongue and inside of mouth pale. Inside of opercle black dorsally around the pseudobranchiae, variably dusky elsewhere. Skin covering cleithrum heavily dusted with large chromatophores. Spinous dorsal fin covered with large chromatophores, concentrated distally, apex of fin slightly dark. Soft dorsal similarly but less densely dusted. Pectoral fins densely covered with chromatophores, pale distally, and with oval dusky patch extending from axilae dorsally to upper end of gill cover. Pelvic fins pale at base, densely punctuated distally. Caudal fin evenly dusted with small chromatophores, lower half often darker. Peritoneum membrane silvery. Preserved specimens pale brown overall, fin-rays blackish, fin-spines pale.

Distribution. From Paraíba to São Paulo on the Brazilian coast, uncommon south of Bahia.

Ecological Notes. This species is rather common in inshore waters, from the surf zone to estuaries along the northeastern Brazilian coast. It is found near beaches with accumulations of detached macrophytes, mostly between September and February, feeding on amphipods and other crustaceans. Females mature at about 70 mm SL.

Etymology. In honor of Dr. Naércio A. Menezes, Professor Emeritus, Museum of Zoology, University of São Paulo, for his contributions to neotropical ichthyology and his mentorship of numerous students.

MZUSP

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics