Stellifer musicki, Chao & Carvalho-Filho & Santos, 2021

Chao, Ning Labbish, Carvalho-Filho, Alfredo & Santos, Jonas De Andrade, 2021, Five new species of Western Atlantic stardrums, Stellifer (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) with a key to Atlantic Stellifer species, Zootaxa 4991 (3), pp. 434-466 : 455-458

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Stellifer musicki

new species

Stellifer musicki new species

( Figure 19 View FIGURE 19 )

Holotype: UFPB 1932 View Materials , 88.7 mm SL, Praia de Tambaú , João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil.

Paratypes: MZFS 17992 , 4 (67.2–73.5 mm SL), Praia do Malhado , Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, collected by P . R.D. Lopes , December 2006 . MZFS 18015 , 2 (66.6–86.2 mm SL), Praia do Malhado , Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, collected by P . R.D. Lopes , October 2013 . NMMBP 21570 View Materials , 97.7 mm SL, Bragança , Pará, Brazil, collected by N.L. Chao, 28 June 2010 . UFPB 11887 View Materials , 6 View Materials (62.5–81.5 mm SL), Praia de Tambaú , João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, collected with holotype . UFPB 0821 View Materials , 6 View Materials (66.9–86 mm SL), Praia do Cabo Branco , João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, collected by G. Melo, 08 July 1981 . UFPB 3108 View Materials , 85.4 mm SL, Lucena , Paraíba, Brazil, collected by NEPREMAR, 14 October 1994 . UFPB 3213 View Materials , 75.4 mm SL, Lucena , Paraíba, Brazil, collected by NEPREMAR, 19 January 1995 . UFPB 2001 View Materials , 7 View Materials (66.4–76.5 mm SL), Barra do Rio Mamanguape , Rio Tinto, Paraíba, Brazil, collected by J.C.C. Oliveira, 20 November 1988 . UFPB 1905 View Materials , 3 View Materials (47.91–64.03 mm SL), Praia do Cabo Branco , João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, collected by R.S. Rosa , 07 August 1987 . UFPB 1892 View Materials , 73.5 mm SL, Praia de Tambaú , João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, collected by J.C.C. Oliveira, 13 November 1986 . UFPB 3082 View Materials , 79.5 mm SL, Lucena , Paraíba, collected by NEPREMAR, 23 September 1994 .

Non-type specimens: MZFS 12125 , 70 mm SL, Ilhéus , Bahia, Brazil, December 2003 . MZFS 18091 , 2 (64.2– 72.4 mm SL), Praia do Malhado , Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, collected by P . R.D. Lopes , October 2004 . MZFS 18113 , 3 (58.1–75.6 mm SL), Praia do Malhado , Ilhéus, Bahia Brazil, collected by P . R.D. Lopes , October 2004 .

Diagnosis. Stellifer musicki can be distinguished from all other Atlantic species of the genus with a horizontal or inferior mouth by the large, oblique mouth and large eye (3.8–4.5 in HL). It can be differentiated from S. collettei and S. macallisteri by their smaller eye (5.0–7.1 and 4.4–5.4 in HL, respectively) and from other moderately large-eyed species as follows: from S. griseus by having fewer gill rakers (31–38 vs. 52–59); from S. cervigoni and S. rastrifer by their jet-black lining under gill cover, pale in S. musicki ; from S. stellifer by the several small, finely serrated spines instead of 3 to 4 distinct strong spines at the lower corner of preopercle.

Description. Dorsal-fin rays X to XII+II to III, 19–21; anal-fin rays II, 8 (rarely 9); pectoral-fin rays 18–20; gill rakers 12–15 + 19–23 = 32–38; preopercular spines small, finely serrated, 6–9; lateral-line scales 48–50; 6–7 transverse scale rows from lateral line to dorsal fin origin and 9–11 rows to anal fin origin. Anterior chamber of gas bladder with short, knob-like diverticula pair ( Fig. 20 View FIGURE 20 ). Posterior tip of posterior chamber reaching base of first anal spine. Drumming muscles in both sexes ( Fig. 1B View FIGURE 1 , hatched area). Otoliths similar to other Stellifer species ( Fig. 3C View FIGURE 3 ), with thick and broad sagitta, deep notch on antero-dorsal margin; sulcus with narrow ostium, deeply grooved L-shaped cauda, and marginal groove along dorsal margin; outer surface rough, with crest-like projections. Lapillus ovoid, with thin antero-ventral flange; inner surface smooth, outer surface with irregular grooves. Asteriscus triangular, with lanceolate groove near ventral margin of inner surface. Preopercular margin finely serrated with (6–9) slightly distinct spines at lower angle; upper spines often reduced to thin, flat, flexible points. Head smoothly arched, dorsal profile rather straight; interorbital broad, more than 2.8 times in HL; top of head cavernous but with rather strong frontal bone arches and ridges, not spongy to touch. Snout short, not projecting beyond upper lip, tip with three upper and five marginal pores; rostral fold slightly indented below marginal pores. Eye large, 3.8–4.7 in HL, orbit rounded. Mouth large, oblique, upper jaw 2.1–2.5 in HL; jaws subequal gape forming angle of about 45 o. Anterior tip of upper lip, horizontally, passing through middle of orbit. Posterior end of maxilla reaching vertical between posterior borders of pupil and orbit. Underside of lower jaw with six pores, medial pair minute and separated by symphyseal ridge ( Fig. 6D View FIGURE 6 ). Teeth in upper jaw subequal, in 2–3 narrow rows, outer row with slightly enlarged teeth, the longest not exceeding one quarter of pupil diameter. Teeth in lower jaw minute in 2–3 rows ridge; inner row teeth slightly enlarged. Gill-rakers long and slender, longest much longer than filament at angle of arch, shorter than eye diameter. Anal fin truncate, the second spine long and strong, 1.6 in HL and exceed about three-quarters of first ray length. Caudal fin rhomboid, slightly shorter than HL. Pectoral fin long, vertical from its tip passing much tip of pelvic fin. Tip of pelvic fin, exclusive of filamentous prolongation, reaching to vent. Scales large, thin, and strongly ctenoid everywhere on body, except for one or two rows of cycloid scales beneath opercular flap. Head squamation cycloid, except for patch of ctenoid scales on opercle; scales reduced and somewhat embedded on snout. Spinous dorsal with three or four rows of reduced cycloid scales at base, basal sheath not well-defined. Interspinous membrane naked except for row of minute, elongated scales along posterior border of each spine. Soft dorsal and anal fins uniformly covered by small cycloid scales. Caudal, pectoral, and pelvic fins finely scaled. Lateral line pored scales ctenoid, indented in middle of posterior margin, and much smaller than scales of adjacent rows. Lateral line pored scale with arborescent canal.

Coloration. Fresh specimens with silvery color, becoming darker dorsally through dense stippling of chromatophores, dorsal fin dusky, pectoral fin and anal fin dusky with yellowish hue, pelvic fins slightly dusky. Caudal fins often darker. Inside gill cover pale to reddish yellow. Preserved specimens with body uniformly pale to brownish slightly darker above. Upper edge of opercle sprinkled with large chromatophores. Some concentration of chromatophores on snout and around orbit. Dorsal margin of anterior half of upper lip with conspicuous dark band, few chromatophores scattered posteriorly. Anterior part of lower lip sprinkled with chromatophores. Tongue and inside of mouth pale. Inside gill cover pale with scattered chromatophores, no distinctly darker area. Spinous dorsal covered with large chromatophores, concentrated distally, apex of fin dark; soft dorsal similar but less densely dusted. Upper half of pectoral fins sprinkled with chromatophores, anal fin punctuated, becoming dark toward trailing edge. Caudal fin evenly dusted with small chromatophores. Peritoneum silvery.

Distribution. Endemic to Brazil, south of Amazon River delta from Bragança, Pará, to Bahia.

Etymology. This species is named in honor of the late Dr. Jack A. Musick, formerly at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary. Jack was the major professor of N.L. Chao and many students, including several Brazilian ichthyologists.


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile