Clathria (Thalysias) basiarenacea,

Galindo, Helcy, Hooper, John N. A. & Pinheiro, Ulisses, 2014, Clathria (Thalysias) (Poecilosclerida: Demospongiae: Porifera) from Brazil: New species and redescription of Clathria (Thalysias) basiarenacea (Boury-Esnault, 1973), Zootaxa 3878 (6), pp. 580-592: 582-586

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3878.6.5

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:07882734-4B2D-4703-9F90-19CE4300B4FF

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03F6AA05-FFBD-FF81-FF35-11CEF8BAF90F

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Clathria (Thalysias) basiarenacea
status

 

Clathria (Thalysias) basiarenacea  (Boury- Esnault, 1973)

(Fig. 1–4) ( Tab. 1)

Rhaphidophlus basiarenacea Boury-Esnault 1973  , p. 287; Hechtel, 1976, p. 252. Clathria (Thalysias) basiarenacea, Hooper, 1996  , p. 408; Santos et al., 2002, p. 392; Moraes et al., 2006, p. 166; Muricy et al., 2011, p. 147.

Type locality. Brazil, Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Pernambuco States.

Type specimens. Lectotype. MNHN. LBIM.D.NBE 972, Santo Antônio Bay, Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Pernambuco State, Brazil, depth 6-10m, Calypso est. 14, ( Hooper, 1996). (Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris) (Fig. 1).

Redescription. Massively encrusting sponge. It has a maximum thickness of 1.5 cm and 5 cm of diameter. Color light-brown after fixed in ethanol 80 % ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2). Surface rugose with a thin detachable ectosome. Presence of incorporated detritus. The oscules scattered over the surface. Body is soft and compressible. Ectosomal skeleton detachable forming discrete bundles of auxiliary ectosomal styles ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 c). Choanosomal skeleton plumoreticulate multi-spicular forming erect brushes in a continuous palisade tangential to surface ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 a –b). Presence of accessory styles included in spongin fibres and echinating acanthostyles in straight or inclined angles present in the principal bundle ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 d). Megascleres. Principal choanosomal styles are thick, slightly curved, smooth shaft and with smooth heads, also usually asymmetrically pointed (161–258.7 – 344 / 3–5.8 – 9 µm) ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 a –c). Two categories of auxiliary styles: Auxiliary subectosomal styles I are thin slightly curved, smooth with deformed heads and rounded points (206–318.5 – 375 / 3 µm) ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 d –f). Auxiliary ectosomal styles II are thin, smooth with smooth heads and rounded points (100–164.2 – 202 / 3 µm) ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 g –i). Echinating acanthostyles are straight (22–51.9 – 67 / 3 µm), with few spines (about 28 per spicule) ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 j). Microscleres. Three categories of smooth toxas: two with shallow curvature, in a large size range; Toxas I are rare (9–16.1 – 25 / 0.5 µm) ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 k) and toxas II (32–46.9 – 68 / 0.5 µm) ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 l) and one accolada type, long thin with slightly and shallow median curve; Toxas III (129–203.6 – 306 / 1 µm) ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 m). Palmate isochelae, typical shaped (12–12.5 – 13 µm) ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 n) ( Tab. 1).

Distribution. So far only known from to Fernando de Noronha Archipelago (Pernambuco State, Brazil).

Remarks. We present here the first images of the spicules of the lectotype using SEM ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4), which revealed features not reported in the original description. The species is so far known only from a single specimen (the lectotype), which Boury-Esnault (1973) did not report there was two categories of auxiliary styles and described as being characterized by a style II with a microspined head. We, on the other hand, observed a deformed and bluntly pointed head. Furthermore, we did not observe asymmetry at the tip of principal style. The acanthostyle presents few spines (about 28) with a microspined head. Although Boury-Esnault (1973) mentions three categories of toxas in the original description, she provided measurements for only two of them. Here we provided measurements of all categories. However, we did not observe the deformed isochelae reported by Boury-Esnault (1973).

TABLE 1. Records and measurements of the spicules of subgenus Clathria (Thalysias) Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864  for Atlantic Ocean. Values measured in µm, expressed as lower-largest lowest –median –largest, for spicules length / width.

Species Localization Choanosomal Subectosomal Ectosomal Echinating Toxa Chelae Otherspicules

principal auxiliary auxiliary Acanthostyle

spicules spicules spicules

C. (T.) repens  sp.nov. Brazil 200-313.4 - 483 / 110-245.2 - 375 / 100-133.6 - 29-61.6 - 113 / I 22 -65.6- 90 / I 10 -13.9 -

3-4.9 - 8 a 2-4.2 - 9a 230 / 1-2.4 - 5 a 2-3.9 - 6 0.5 - 20 II 103-142.2 II 2.5-4.6 - 7. 241 / 1

available C. (T.) hechteli Hooper, Caribbean  , Colombia 106-410 / - - 50-100 / I 48 -413/ 1-2 10-18 - 1996 and Jamaica 2-10 b 5- 8 II 5-13 / 1-2

......continued on the next page TABLE 1. (Continued)

Species Localization Choanosomal Subectosomal Ectosomal Echinating Toxa Chelae Other

principal auxiliary auxiliary Acanthostyle spicules

spicules spicules spicules

C. (T.) hooperi Samaai  & South Africa 491-599 - 745 / 118-124 - 142 / 4a 436 - 458-491 73-96 - 118 / I 327-382 - I 18-19 - 20 - Gibbons, 2005 30-36 - 44 a / 11 a 11-16 - 16 445 / 0.5 II 11-14 - 16

191-230 - 291 / II 82 -111-

7a 136 / 0.5

III 45 / 0.5

. (T.) isodictyoides (Van Caribbean and 314-488.9 - 608 / 160-214.7 - 274 / 276-401.6 - 84-92.6 - 99 / 145-195.8 - 15-16.9 - 19 - Soest, 1984) Netherlands Antilles 7-8.4 - 10 a 1-1.9 - 3 b 500 / 3-3.8 - 4.5 b 5-7.6 - 8 268

84-92.6 - 99 /

5-7.6 - 8 d

. (T.) jolicoeuri  (Topsent, Adriatic Sea, 315-330 / 45 / 0,003- 335 - 360 / 4 b - 30 -330 12 - 1892) Aegean Sea, 13-15 a 0,0 0 35 c

France, Gulf of

Guinea Islands,

Levantine Sea,

Mediterrenean Sea,

North Atlantic

. (T.) minutoides Van  Cape Verde, St. 201-321.6 - 483 / - 171-259.4 - 370 / 42-88.8 - 135 / 54-79.3 - 96 13-15.8 - 19 - Soest, Beglinger & De Helena, and 4-6.9 - 9 a 1.5-2.7 - 4 b 3-5.4 - 8 Voogd, 2013 Ascension Islands 123-137.7 - 153 /

1-1.4 - 2.5 b

. (T.) nervosa  (Lévi, South Africa 300-475 / 400-500 / 8-10 a 250-300 / - - I 14 - 1963) 6-16 a 125-250 / 4-5 a 10 a II 11

III 7

. (T.) opalina Zea, Caribbean  , and 219–356.3 – 584 286–368.1 – 418 / 152 –200.0– 261 / 90–112.1 – 128 / - 12.7–20.7 - Rodriguez & Martinez, Colombia / 5.7–10.9 – 14.3 a 2.4–5.7 – 8.6 b 2.4–3.3 – 4.8 b 3.8–5.2 – 7.6 2014

......continued on the next page Species Localization Choanosomal Subectosomal Ectosomal Echinating Toxa Chelae Other spicules

principal auxiliary auxiliary Acanthostyle

spicules spicules spicules

. (T.) oxeota  (Van Soest, Caribbean Gulf of 228-328.7 - 456 312-404.5 - 125-204.7 - 43-49.6 - 57 / I 530-711 - - -

1984) Mexico, and 5.5-8.1 - 9.5a 488 / 262 / 4-4.2 - 5 995 / 1.5-2.8 - 4 Netherlands Antilles 3-4.1 - 5 b 1-1.9 - 3.5 b II 125-305.6 - 390

. (T.) oxitoxa Lévi, 1963 Agulhas Bank  450-800 / 35-40 - 350-500 / 9a 75 - 90 / 10 I 750-1300 / - Oxea:

100-150 / 4 a 4-7 2400 -3000/ 10 -

II 170-250 / 11

0.5-1

III 35-40 / 0.5

. (T.) rarechaela (Van Caribbean and 268-354.6 - 408 271-316.3 - 98-156.2 - 212 / 42-52.9 - 65 / 48-115 - 152 7.5-11.2 - 14 - Soest, 1984) Netherlands Antilles 5.5-6.4 - 8a 415 / 1-1.8 - 2.5 b 4 - 4-5

2-3.8 - 5 b

. (T.) schoenus (de Caribbean, Greater 45-375 / 0.5-5 c Not available c Not available c 43 / 3 I Not I Not available - Laubenfels, 1936) Antilles, and Cuba available II Not II Not available available

Mexico, United States, and

Virgin Islands

Legend: (a) Styles; (b) Subtylostyle; (c) Tylostyle; (d) Acanthostyles. (1) Toxas in Boury-Esnault, 1973; (*) Present spicule, but the author does not provide dimensions.

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Porifera

Class

Demospongiae

Order

Poecilosclerida

Family

Microcionidae

Genus

Clathria

Loc

Clathria (Thalysias) basiarenacea

Galindo, Helcy, Hooper, John N. A. & Pinheiro, Ulisses 2014
2014
Loc

C. (T.) vacata

Van Soest, Beglinger & De Voogd 2013
2013
Loc

Clathria (Thalysias) basiarenacea

Hooper 1996
1996
Loc

C.(T.) venosa

Alcolado 1984
1984
Loc

Rhaphidophlus basiarenacea

Boury-Esnault 1973
1973
Loc

C.(T.) virgultuosa

Lamarck 1814
1814