Clathria (Thalysias) repens, Galindo, Helcy, Hooper, John N. A. & Pinheiro, Ulisses, 2014

Galindo, Helcy, Hooper, John N. A. & Pinheiro, Ulisses, 2014, Clathria (Thalysias) (Poecilosclerida: Demospongiae: Porifera) from Brazil: New species and redescription of Clathria (Thalysias) basiarenacea (Boury-Esnault, 1973), Zootaxa 3878 (6), pp. 580-592: 587-591

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3878.6.5

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:07882734-4B2D-4703-9F90-19CE4300B4FF

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03F6AA05-FFB8-FF8C-FF35-15A5FCB3FDDC

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Clathria (Thalysias) repens
status

sp. nov.

Clathria (Thalysias) repens  sp. nov.

(Figs. 1, 5– 7) ( Tab. 1)

Holotype. UFPEPOR 1379, Ponta de Pedras, Goiana, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 0 7 o 37 ’00’’S, 34 o 48 ’ 51 ’’W, depth 0.7m, coll. Pinheiro, U. 07/VI/ 2012. (Fig. 1).

Type locality. Brazil, Northeast Region, Pernambuco State.

Paratype. Ponta de Pedras, Goiana, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 0 7 o 37 ’00’’S, 34 o 48 ’ 51 ’’W, depth 0.4m, free diving, 07/V/ 2012, coll. Pinheiro, U., UFPEPOR 1331.

Diagnosis. Orange sponge, massively encrusting, repent with lamellate folds and anastomosed projections. Three categories of structural styles, of which the two auxiliary styles with microspined heads.

Description of holotype. UFPEPOR 1379 – Sponge massively encrusting and repent with lamellate folds and anastomosed projections ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 a –c). Projections have 0.5–3 cm high, 0.2–1.3 cm wide. Size 10 x 40 cm, less than 8 cm high. Color orange in vivo and light-brown in 80 % ethanol ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 a –c). Surface slightly rugose with a thin detachable ectossome. Detritus present on surface. Oscules distributed on the apex of surface projections, with 0.2–0.5 mm diameter. Body soft and compressible. Megascleres. Principal styles I thick, slightly curved, smooth, sharply pointed (232–346.93 – 450 / 5–5.95 – 7.5 µm). Two categories of auxiliary styles: Auxiliary styles I straight, smooth with smooth and microspined heads (129 –246,65– 375 / 2.5–4.25 – 5 µm). Auxiliary styles II straight, smooth with microspined head (100–125.5 – 165 / 2.5–2.53 – 3 µm). Echinating acanthostyles straight, irregular spines distributed throughout the shaft and head with high concentration of spines (29–60.8 – 74 / 3–4.3 – 6 µm). Microscleres. Two categories of smooth toxas with shallow curvature, in a large size range: Toxas I (39–74.6 – 90 / 0.5 µm); Toxas II (103–137.8 – 241 / 1 µm). Two categories of palmate isochelae: one bigger with typical shapes, isochelae I (10–13.91 – 20 µm) and other with deformed shapes, isochelae II (2.5–4.6 – 7.5 µm).

Description. Sponge massively encrusting and repent with lamellate folds and anastomosed projections ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 a –c). Projections have 0.2–3 cm high, 0.2–2 cm wide. Size 10–18 x 25 –40 cm, less than 8 cm high. Color orange in vivo and light-brown in 80 % ethanol ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 a –c). Surface slightly roughened with a thin detachable ectosome. Oscules distributed on the apex of the surface projections, with about 0.1– 0.7 mm diameter. Body soft and compressible. Ectosomal skeleton detachable formed by bouquets of ectosomal auxiliary styles ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 b). Choanosomal skeleton plumoreticulate with dense and multi-spicular bundles (about 96 µm thick) ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 a) terminating as bouquets of subectosomal auxiliary styles at the surface ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 d). Subectosomal auxiliary styles are included in spongin fibres and echinating accessory acanthostyles are straight or at inclined angles to the principal bundle ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 c). Megascleres. Principal styles I thick, slightly curved, smooth, sharply pointed (200–333.8 – 483 / 3–4.9 – 8 µm) ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 a –c). Two categories of auxiliary styles: Auxiliary styles I straight, smooth with microspined heads, and rounded pointed spines distributed throughout the shaft and head with high concentration of spines (29–61.6 – 113 / 2–3.9 – 6 µm) ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 j). Microscleres. Two categories of smooth toxas with shallow curvature and large range size: Toxas I (22–65.6 – 90 / 0.5 µm) ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 k); Toxas II (103–142.2 – 241 / 1 µm) ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 l). Two categories of palmate isochelae: one bigger with typical shapes, isochelae I (10–13.9 – 20 µm) ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 n) and other with deformed shapes, isochelae II (2.5–5 – 7.5 µm) ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 o) ( Tab. 1).

Etymology. Repens  (L.) means ‘creep’ or ‘crawl’, referring to the repent growth form of this species. Ecology. On rocks, less than 1 m deep, near to the sediment and under poor light. Presence of algae, polychaetes and brittle stars.

Remarks. Clathria (Thalysias) repens  sp. nov. is allocated in the subgenus by having two categories of auxiliary styles forming a specialized ectosomal skeleton, the smaller usually forming discrete bundles, and having echinating megascleres.Comparing Clathria (Thalysias) repens  sp. nov. had a unique combination of spicules compared to other species in the Atlantic ( Tab. 1).

This new species differs by having two categories of auxiliary (subectosomal and ectosomal) spicules from C. (T.) amabilis ( Thiele, 1905)  , C. (T.) cullingworthi Burton, 1931  , C. (T.) delaubenfelsi ( Lévi, 1963)  , C. (T.) fascicularis Topsent, 1889  , C. (T.) hechteli Hooper, 1996  , C. (T.) minuta  , C. (T.) minutoides Van Soest, Beglinger & De Voogd, 2013  , C. (T.) oxitoxa Lévi, 1963  , C. (T.) vacata Van Soest, Beglinger & De Voogd, 2013  , C. (T.) venosa ( Alcolado, 1984)  and C. (T.) virgultuosa ( Lamarck, 1814)  . By the possession of acanthostyles this species also differs from C. (T.) jolicoeuri ( Topsent, 1892)  , C. (T.) membranacea ( Thiele, 1905)  , C. (T.) nervosa ( Lévi, 1963)  , C. (T.) venosa  , and C. (T.) virgultosa  . By the presence of toxas it differs from C. (T.) amabilis  , C. (T.) chelosigmoidea Zea, Rodriguez & Martinez, 2014  , C. (T.) cullingworthi  , C. (T.) lissoclada (Burton, 1934)  , C. (T.) nervosa  , C.(T.) opalina Zea, Rodriguez & Martinez, 2014  , C. (T.) sulfocleistochela Zea, Rodriguez & Martinez, 2014  , and C. (T.) vacata  . By the presence of chelae it differs from C. (T.) amabilis  , C. (T.) fascicularis  , C. (T.) oxeota ( Van Soest, 1984)  , C. (T.) oxitoxa  and C. (T.) vacata  . And differs from C. (T.) collosclera Van Soest, 2009  which has unique collosclera-type chelae. Finally, by the absence of oxeas it differs from C. (T.) oxitoxa  , and of acanthotrongyles from C. (T.) fascicularis  .

The most similar species of Clathria (Thalysias) repens  sp. nov. is C. (T.) basiarenacea  . However, it differs from the latter by having three categories of toxas, one accolada type, while C. (T.) repens  sp. nov. has only two categories and lacks the accolada toxa. Furthermore, the acanthostyles of C. (T.) repens  sp. nov., present a high concentration of spines, and the styles II are smaller with microspined head, against the styles II that are bigger with smooth and deformed heads from C. (T.) basiarenacea  .