Arachnura higginsii (L. Koch, 1872 ), L. Koch, 1872

Castanheira, Pedro De S., Didham, Raphael K., Vink, Cor J. & Framenau, Volker W., 2019, The scorpion-tailed orb-weaving spiders (Araneae, Araneidae, Arachnura) in Australia and New Zealand, Zootaxa 4706 (1), pp. 147-170: 155-164

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4706.1.6

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:55B57A7B-BD32-4F2B-8318-99CAE2C1411F

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03F53449-CA46-FF90-FF42-FF39FEDFE30D

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Arachnura higginsii (L. Koch, 1872 )
status

 

Arachnura higginsii (L. Koch, 1872)  

Australian scorpion-tailed spider

( Figs. 1C View FIGURE 1 ; 5–8 View FIGURE 5 View FIGURE 6 View FIGURE 7 View FIGURE 8 ; 13 View FIGURE 13 )

Epeira higginsii L. Koch, 1872: 120–122   , plate 11, figs. 1, 1a, b.

Arachnura higginsii (L. Koch)   .- Rainbow, 1911, 179, 180; Butler, 1933: 279, plate 17, fig. 1; Davies, 1988: 320, 324, fig. 41.

Arachnura higginsi (L. Koch)   .- Simon, 1895: 776, 777, fig. 848; Rainbow, 1909: 218, 219; Hickman, 1967, 60, figs. 104, 105.

Arachnura feredayi (L. Koch)   .- Hickman, 1926, 182–186, plate 15, fig. 7 (misidentification); Dondale 1966: 1160–1162, figs. 1G–J (misidentification).

Type material. Holotype female of Epeira higginsii L. Koch, 1872   , Darling Downs (27°32’S, 150°35’E, Queensland, AUSTRALIA), O. Pickard-Cambridge Collection, not examined; considered lost (see Remarks section below). GoogleMaps  

Other material examined. AUSTRALIA: no exact locality: 1988–1989, H. Manson coll. (1 ♀, NMV  

K13827 View Materials   ); ROF 29832 View Materials (4 ♀, NMV K13816 View Materials ); Australian Capital Territory: Ginninderra, 35º12’S, 149º05’E, 07.iii.1963, C. R. MacLellan coll. (2 ♀, AM KS32601); Higgins, Canberra, 35º14’S, 149º01’E (1 ♀, QM S87776 View Materials ); Kaleen, Canberra, 35º17’S, 149º13’E (1♀, SAM). New South Wales : 10 km SE Bowral, 30º13’S, 152º18’E, ii.1997, J. Lemann & C. Lemann coll. (1 ♀, AM KS51919); 30 miles E of Guyra, 30°13’S, 152°18’E (1 ♀, AM KS115564 View Materials ); Barrington Tops Reserve , Gummi Rd, Manning River Crossing, 31°51’42” S, 151°33’08” E, 19.iii.2008, G. Milledge & A. Hegedus coll. (2 ♀, 1 immature, AM KS103272 View Materials ); Bathurst, 33º25’S, 149º35’E, 04.iii.1974, J. B. Keewan coll. (1 ♀ AM KS32619); Beecroft, 33º45’S, 151º04’E, 18.xii.1992, J. Noble coll. (1 ♀, AM KS56734); Caringbah, 34º02’S, 151º08’E, 25.i.1965, C. Rieger coll. (1 ♀, AM KS32622); 1 female, near Cessnock, 32º50’S, 151º21’E ( QM S87783 View Materials ); Coogee, 33º55’S, 151º15’E, 16.i.1931, G. P. Whitley coll. (1 ♀, AM KS33098); Cordeaux Dam, 34º20’S, 150º45’E, 01.iv.1967, R. Mascord coll. (1 ♀, AM KS32632); Cowan, 33°34’55” S, 151°10’05” E, 11.xii. 19 ??, S. Maddick coll. (1 ♀, AM KS105943 View Materials ); Cowan, 33º36’S, 151º10’E, 04.xi.1961, J. Walsh & R. Wilkin- son coll. (1 ♀, AM KS33994); Dorrigo, 1a Mahogany St, 30º20’37”S, 152º42’18”E, 7.iii.2019, S. O’Connor coll. (5 ♀, HBI15480-1); East Bankstown , 33º55’S, 151º03’E, 16.i.1956, Mrs. L. Armstrong coll. (1 ♀, AM KS32613); Eastwood, 33º47’S, 151º06’E, 24.v.1971, E. O. Bensen coll. (1 ♂, 1 ♀, AM KS15771); Griffith, 34º17’S, 146º02’E, 08.iii.1976, E. L. Jones coll. (2 ♀, AM KS32623); Hanging Rock Swamp, 34°37’59” S, 150°11’56” E, 660m, 23.i.2008, D. Britton & L. Kampen coll. (1 ♀, AM KS104710 View Materials ); Harwood Island , Clarence River , 29º25’S, 153º15’E, A. N. Cameron coll. (1 ♀, AM KS128067 View Materials ); Hazelbrook, Blue Mountains , 33º44’S, 150º27’E, 05.iii.1971, M. Gray coll. (1 ♀, AM KS32620); Jenolan Caves, 33º49’S, 150º01’E (1 ♀, AM KS32618); Katoomba, 33º43’S, 150º19’E, 28.iv.1943, Ms. Thornley coll. (1 ♀, AM KS33996); Lane Cove River , 33º47’S, 151º08’E, 12.xii.1965, R. Mascord coll. (1 ♀, AM KS32604); 1 female, 1 juv., Lane Cove River Park, Sydney, 33º46’S, 151º9’E ( SAM); Lawson, 33º43’S, 150º26’E, 16.i.1933, J. M. McDonald coll. (1 ♀, AM KS33991); Linden, 33º43’S, 150º29’E, 20.iii.1971, M. Gray coll. (1 ♂, AM KS128065 View Materials ); same locality, 28.ii.1971, M. Gray & G. Gray coll. (2 ♀, AM KS32614); same locality, 20.iii.1971, M. R. Gray coll. (1 ♀, AM KS753); Malabar, 33º58’S, 151º15’E, 03.vi.1966 (2 ♀, KS 32628); same locality, 04.xii.1966 (2 ♀, AM KS32626); same locality, 26.xii.1965, R. Mascord coll. (1 ♀, AM KS32606); Manly, 33º48’S, 151º17’E, 03.xi.1931, B. L. James coll. (1 ♀, AM KS33997); Medlow Bath, Blue Mountains , 33º41’S, 150º17’E, M. Ward coll. (1 ♀, AM KS 121074 View Materials ); Milbrodale, via Singleton, 32º42’S, 151º00’E, 26.iii.1931, S. L. Bignall coll. (1 ♀, AM KS32611); Minnamurra Falls , 34º38’S, 150º44’E, 14.i.1966, R. Mascord coll. (1 ♀, AM KS32607); Mittagong, 34º27’S, 150º27’E, 28.iii.1974, B. Collins coll. (1 ♀, AM KS32616); same locality, iii.1990, M. Alcock coll. (1 ♀, AM KS22757); Moss Vale, 34º33’S, 150º23’E, 17.ii.1989, L. Cooper coll. (2 ♀, AM KS20285); Mount Annan Botanical Gardens , 34°03’ S, 150°46’ E, 25.iii.2008, L. von Richter coll. (1 ♀, AM KS109242 View Materials ); Mt. Colah , 33º40’S, 151º07’E, 15.ii.2004 (1 ♀, AM KS91109); Mt Druitt , 33º46’S, 150º49’E, 13. ii.1969, D. Grant coll. (2 ♀, 1 immature, AM KS32629); Mt Irvine ,, 33º29’S, 150º28’E M. Ward coll. (1 ♀, AM KS 121341 View Materials ); Myall Lakes National Park , 32º34’46’’S, 152º17’27’’E, 16.xi.1996, L. Wilkie coll. (1 ♂, AM KS65316); Narara, 33º24’S, 151º21’E (1♀, AM KS32615); Narrabeen, 33º43’S, 151º17’E, 17.i.1969, M. Gray coll. (1 ♀, AM KS33992); Newnes State Forest : Birds Rock Flora Reserve , 0.6 km from Sunnyside Ridges Rd, 33°19’43” S, 150°11’33” E, 1105m, 23.ii.2006, G. Milledge, J. Tarnawski & M. Beatson coll. (3 ♀, AM KS94501); Newnes State Forest , Sunnyside Ridge Rd. , 2.5 km N of Blackfellows Hand Rd, 33°22’04” S, 150°11’12” E, 1172m, 20.ii.2006, G. Milledge, J. Tarnawski & M. Beatson coll. (2 ♀, AM KS94575); Newnes State Forest , Waratah Ridge Rd. , 3.2 km from Glowworm Tunnel Rd, 33°23’50” S; 150°15’06” E, 1090m, 22.ii.2006, G. Milledge, J. Tarnawski & M. Beatson coll. (1 ♂, 6 ♀, AM KS94595); North Ryde , 33º48’S, 151º07’E, 07.xii.1966 (1 ♀, AM KS32627); North- mead, 33º47’S, 150º59’E 18.v.1969, M. Gregg & J. Gregg coll. (2 ♀, AM KS42003); Parramatta, 33º48’S, 151º01’E, 04.ii.1929, W. A. Marsh coll. (1 ♀, AM KS32617); Peakhurst, 33º58’S, 151º03’E, 10.v.1933, Ms Saunders coll. (1 ♀, AM KS33990); Port Hacking , 34º04’S, 151º07’E, 20.iv.1969, N. Allen coll. (3 ♂, AM KS15772); Riverstone, 33º41’S, 150º52’E, 07.ii.1934, Badnidge coll., (2 ♀, AM KS23314); Roseville, 33º47’S, 151º12’E, 03.xii.1930, M. Milne & S. Milne coll. (1 ♀, AM KS33995); Royal National Park , 34º07’S, 151º03’E, 06.xii.1969, A. E. Speechley coll. (1 ♀, AM KS32630); Ryde, 33º49’S, 151º06’E, 02.iv.1967 (1 ♀, AM KS32634); Schofields, 33º42’S, 150º52’E, 05.iii.1972, R. McDonald coll. (1 ♂, 1 ♀, AM KS128066 View Materials ); South West Rocks , 30º53’S, 153º02’E, 27.v.1992, J. Noble coll. (1 ♀, AM KS45487); Sunny Corner, 33°24’S, 149°53’E, 24-27.i.1997, S. J. Fellenberg coll. (1 ♀, AM KS86672); Swan Bay , Karuah, 32º42’S, 151º58’E, 12.v.1953, R. Griffiths coll. (15 ♀, 2 immature, AM KS32612); Sydney, 33º53’S, 151º13’E (1 ♀, AM KS32621; 1 ♀, AM KS32625; 1 ♀ BMNH 1915.3.5.443; 1 ♀, BMNH 1915.3.5.740); Timur View Holiday Park, 11 km W Coonabarabran, 31°16’ S, 49°09’ E, 02.i.2000, G. Milledge & H. Smith coll. (1 ♀, AM KS62879); Towlers Bay , 33º37’S, 151º17’E, 02.xii.1972, M. Gray coll. (1 ♀, AM KS109409 View Materials ); Turramurra, 33°45’S, 151°07’ E, ii.1967, J. Child coll. (1 ♀, AM KS70840); Warrumbungles National Park , Camp Pincham carpark, 31°16’ S, 148°55’ E, 09.xi.2001, M. Gray & G. Milledge coll. (1 ♀, AM KS75163); Werrikimbe National Park , Fenwicks Creek , 31º15’S, 152º14’E, 21.ii.1999, H. M. Smith coll. (1 ♂, 1 ♀, AM KS56272); Willoughby, 34º48’S, 151º12’E, 01.xi.1998, D. Hain coll. (1 ♂, 1 ♀, AM KS56273); same locality, S. Sippe coll. (1 ♀, AM KS18439); Yancannia, NNE Broken Hill, 30º15’S, 142º46’E, ix.1989, H. Manson coll. (2 ♀, NMV K13812 View Materials ); same locality, ix.1999, H. Manson coll. (1 ♀, NMV K13826 View Materials ). Queensland: no exact locality (1 ♀, QM); Annerley, 27º30’S, 153º02’E, 27.iv.1959, H. Barrons coll. (1 ♀, QM S87770 View Materials ); same locality, 10.x.1941, I. Hall coll. (1 ♀, QM W1428); Arana Hills, 27º23’S, 152º57’E, D. Richardson coll. (1 ♀, QM S87771 View Materials ); Belmont, 27º28’S, 153º01’E, 30.viii.1966 (1 ♀, AM KS32631); Brisbane, 27º28’S, 153º01’E (1 ♀, AM KS33998); same lo- cality, A. T. Meton coll. (1 ♀, QM W3); same locality (1♀, QM); Bulimba Creek , Carindale, 27º30’S, 153º07’E, 3.xi.2003, QM Museum party coll. (2 ♀, QM S72426 View Materials ); Capalaba, Brisbane, 27º33’S, 153º12’E, 9.i.1987, A. Keita- anpaa coll. (1 ♀, QM S87778 View Materials ); Chermside, Brisbane, 27º23’S, 153º02’E, 7.ix.1983, D. Prior coll. (1 ♀, QM S87772 View Materials ); Crestmead, Brisbane, 27º41’S, 153º05’E, 20.xi.1997, L. Haggtt coll. (1 ♀, QM S35694 View Materials ); Eidsvold, 25º22’S, 151º07’E, ii.1915, T. L. Bancroft coll. (1 ♀, QM S87784 View Materials ); Eukey, via Stanthorpe, 28º40’S, 151º56’E (3 ♀, QM S87777 View Materials ); Fassifern Valley , 27º58’S, 152º24’E, Smith coll. (1 ♀, QM S87773 View Materials ); Flinders Peak, S Ipswich, 27º49’S, 152º49’E, 30.vi.1979, A. Rozefelds coll. (2 ♀, QM S87769 View Materials ); Fortitude Valley , Brisbane, 27º28’S, 153º01’E, iii.1993, D. McCarthy coll. (1 ♀, QM S21159 View Materials ); Goomeri, 26º11’S, 152º04’E (1 ♀, QM S48029 View Materials ); Highgate Hill, Brisbane, 27º29’S, 153º01’E, xii.1945, Harington coll. (1 ♀, QM W1663); Indooroopilly, 27º30’S, 152º58’E, 11.vi.1987, W. McKenzie coll. (1 ♀, QM S87779 View Materials ); Kroombit Tops, 24º23’S, 150º57’E, 25.ii.1982, R. J. Raven coll. (1 ♀, QM S78781 View Materials ); Lake Broadwater , SW Dalby, 27º21’S, 151º06’E, 6.v.1984, M. Bernie coll. (1 ♀, QM S87780 View Materials ); Leichardt Highway, 2.6 km S of Banana, 24º29’36’’S, 150º07’10’’E (1 ♀, AM KS106462 View Materials ); Mitchelton, 27º24’S, 152º58’E, 10.i. 962, H. M. Hall coll. (1 ♀, QM S87768 View Materials ); Mt Barney , camping ground, 28º17’S, 152º42’E, 3.x.1998, per Logan City council (1 ♀, QM S60454 View Materials ); Mt Coot-Tha , 27º28’S, 152º57’E, 12.i.1974, R. J. Raven coll. (1 ♀, QM S87774 View Materials ); Mt Edwards , 28º01’S, 152º33’E, 5.ix.1992, N. Cotsell coll. (1 ♀, QM S95250 View Materials ); Neurum, 26º58’S, 152º42’E, 18.i.1960, R. A. Vanohr coll. (1 ♀, QM W1034); Red Hill, 27º27’S, 153º00’E, 8.iv.1935 (1 ♀, QM S87775 View Materials ); Rock- lea, Brisbane, 27º32’S, 153º00’E, 17.iv.1984, R. Wands coll. (1 ♀, QM S87782 View Materials ); Warwick, 28º13’S, 152º03’E, viii.1947, Mrs. Miller coll. (1 ♀, AM KS34359); Windsor, 27º26’S, 153º01’E, 20.ii.1945, M. Crawford coll. (1 ♀, QM W1660). South Australia : Adelaide, 34º55’S, 138º36’E, i.19080 (3 ♀, SAM NN24100–2 View Materials ); Aldgate, 35º01’S, 138º44’E, 9.iii.1975, P. A. Clarke coll. (1 ♀, SAM NN24134 View Materials ); Balhannah, 35º00’S, 138º50’E, H. N. Wicks coll. (4 ♀, SAM NN24113–6 View Materials ); 1 male, Big Swamp, near Port Lincoln , 34º39’S, 135º42’E, ii.1993, L. Bebbington coll. (1 ♀, SAM NN24128–9 View Materials ); Brownlow, 2 km SW Kingscote, Kangaroo Island , 35º40’S, 137º37’E, 20.i.1991, T. Dennis (NPWS) coll. (1 ♀, SAM NN24126 View Materials ); 1 ♀, Ceres, near Furner, 37º25’S, 140º20’E, 28.ii.1999, A. Andre coll. (1 ♀, SAM NN24144 View Materials ); Coffin Bay Caravan Park, 34º36’S, 135º28’E, 28.iii.1987, D. C. Lee & D. B. Hirst coll. (1 ♀, SAM NN24130 View Materials ); Dog Lake Road, SE Langhorne Creek , 35º20’S, 139º07’E,i–vi.1990, J. Eckert coll. (1 ♀, SAM NN24123 View Materials ); Flagstaff Hill, 35º03’S, 38º34’E, 24.iii.1979, M. Zimmermann coll. (2 ♀, SAM NN24107–8 View Materials ); Humbug Scrub, 34º42’S, 138º43’E, pre-1978, N. Berks coll. (4 ♀, SAM NN24117–20 View Materials ); Lobethal, 34º54’S, 138º52’E, 19.ii.1953, G. F. Gross coll. (1 ♀, SAM NN24109 View Materials ); 2 km N Meadows, on Kondoparinga Road, 35º11’S, 138º45’E, 25.ii.1994, L. N. Nicholson coll. (1 ♀, SAM NN24133 View Materials ); Minnawarra Survey, 35º26’S, 138º31’E (1 ♀, SAM); Min- nawarra, 2 km W Spring Mount, 35º26’05’’S, 138º31’07’’E, 27.iv.2005 (1 ♀, SAM); Morphett Vale, 35º08’S, 138º31’E, 20.i.1976, W. Pook coll. (1 ♀, SAM NN24110 View Materials ); near Mt Bold Reservoir , 35º07’S, 138º43’E, iv.1974, A. F. Lees coll. (1 ♀, SAM NN24121 View Materials ); Mt Gambier , 37º50’S, 140º47’E, i.1991, M. N. Bartetzk coll. (1 ♀, SAM NN24122 View Materials ); Mt Lofty , 34º59’S, 138º43’E, ii.1937, Rev. H. Wood coll. (1 ♀, SAM NN24111 View Materials ); same locality, 34º59’S, 138º43’E, v.1911, Prof. Sterling coll. (1 ♀, SAM NN24112 View Materials ); Mt Osmond , Adelaide, 34º57’S, 138º39’E, 4.iv.1987, P. Weinstein coll. (3 ♀, ZMUC); Sinclairs Gap, Middle Back Ranges, Corunna Station , 33º08’S, 137º08’E, 25.i.1976 (1 ♀, SAM NN24131 View Materials ); South Adelaide , 34º55’S, 138º36’E, ii.1965 (3 ♀, SAM NN24103–5 View Materials ); Stirling, Mt Lofty Ranges , 35º00’S, 138º42’E, 3.iii.1984, B. Guerin coll. (1 ♂, SAM NN24135 View Materials ); Underdale, 34º55’S, 138º32’E, 19.iii.1962 (1 ♀, SAM NN24106 View Materials ). Tasmania: no exact locality (3 ♀, SAM NN24145–7 View Materials ); 24 Thompson Crescent, Launceston, 41º27’S, 147º10’E, 11.ii.1963, Mrs. P. Williams coll. (1 ♀, QVMAG 13:43351); Alanvale, Launceston, 41º23’S, 147º07’E, 1957, C. Archer coll. (2 ♀, QVMAG 13:43348); Ansons Bay , 41º02’S, 148º16’E, 01.i.1929, V. V. Hickman coll. (2 ♀, 2 immature, AM KS28686); Betsey Island , 43º03’S, 147º29’E, 18.iii.1940, D. C. Pearse coll. (2 ♀, TMAG J235 View Materials ); Cape Barren Island , 40º23’S, 147º59’E, 10.iii.2005 (1 ♂, QVMAG 13:47682); same locality, 07.iii.2005 (2 ♀, QVMAG 13:47683); Cascades, 42º55’S, 147º16’E, 01.iii.1938, D. Turner coll. (1 ♀, TMAG J236 View Materials ); Colebrook, 42º32’S, 147º22’E, 10.vi.1938 (1 ♀, TMAG J234 View Materials ); Cressy, 41º40’S, 147º05’E, 08.iv.1988, M. Dowling coll. (1 ♀, QVMAG 13:42327); same locality, 01.v.1962 (1 ♀, QVMAG 13:43347); East Risdon , 42º50’S, 147º21’E, 10.vi.1957, V. V Hickman coll. (2 ♀, AM KS28659); same locality, iii.1961, V. V. Hickman coll. (4 ♀, AM KS28565); Ellendale, 42º37’S, 146º43’E, 07.ii.1961 (2 ♀, TMAG J138 View Materials ); Evandale, 41°34’S, 147°15’E, 06.iii.1985, K. Smith coll. (1 ♀, QVMAG 13:11002); Gretna, 42º40’S, 146º56’E, ii.1971, Oakley coll. (1 ♀, TMAG J759 View Materials ); Hobart, 42º52’S, 147º19’E, 18, iv.1947, D. C. Pearse coll. (1 ♀, TMAG J136 View Materials ); Hobart Airport, 42º50’S, 147º30’E, 25.ii.1984, L. Walker coll. (3 ♀, TMAG J1903 View Materials ); Launceston, 41º27’S, 147º10’E (6 ♀, AM KS15773; 5 ♂, AM KS15774); same locality, 19.iii.1992, C. A. Stuart coll. (1 ♀, QMAG 13:0108); same locality, 05.ii.1962, C. Williams coll. (5 ♀, QVMAG 13:11193); same locality, 1980, C. Williams coll. (1 ♀, QVMAG 13:11195); same locality (3 ♀, BMNH 1931.4.30.19–21); Lenah Valley , 42º52’S, 147º17’E, 25.iv.1973, H. Van Der Staay coll. (1 ♀, TMAG J884 View Materials ); Lindisfarne, 42º51’S, 147º21’E, iv.1929, Al Mesbon coll. (1 ♀, AM KS28702); Longford, 41º35’S, 147º07’E, 04.iv.1969, C. Chugg coll. (1 ♀, QVMAG 13:43346); Lucaston, 42º59’S, 147º03’E, 19.xii.1990, Ms. Erika Talbot coll. (2 ♀, TMAG J2993 View Materials ); New Town , 42º53’S, 147º19’E, 28.ii.1957, V. V. Hickman coll. (1 ♂, ♀, AM KS28868); North East River , Flinders Island , 39º45’S, 147º57’E, 19.i.1976, J. S. Whinay coll. (3 ♀, 1 immature, TMAG J1094 View Materials ); Paper Beach, 41º14’S, 146º58’E, 18.xi.2007, R. Swan coll. (1 ♀, QVMAG 13:48404); Pipers Head, 41º00’S, 147º08’E, 28.i.1974, R. Upson coll. (3 ♀, QVMAG 13:42883); Punchbowl, 41º27’S, 147º10’E, 02.ii.1928, V. V. Hickman coll. (2 ♂, 1 ♀, AM KS28689); same locality, i. 1936, V. V. Hickman coll. (1 ♂, AM KS28703); Remarkable Cave , via Port Arthur , 43º15’S, 147º50’E (1 ♀, QM S11668 View Materials ); Richmond, 42º44’S, 147º26’E, 21.iii.1971, Mrs. Stanford coll. (2 ♀, TMAG J757 View Materials ); Round Hill, 41º04’S, 145º57’E, 04.i.1972, J. G. Simmons coll. (1 ♀, QVMAG 13:43349); Sandford, 42º56’S, 147º29’E, 28.iv.1963, A. Morrisby coll. (3 ♀, TMAG J232 View Materials ); Sandy Bay , Hobart, 42º54’S, 147º19’E, 16.ii.1946, D. C. Pearse coll. (1 ♂, TMAG J137 View Materials ); Seven Mile Beach, 42º52’S, 147º30’E, 14.ii.1974, D. Trenham coll. (2 ♀, TMAG J924 View Materials ); St. Helens , 41º20’S, 148º14’E, 13.iv.1989, L. Gregson coll. (1 ♀, QVMAG 13:42863); same locality, 02.iii.1962, M. Osbourne coll. (1 ♀, QVMAG: 13:11196); Swansea area , 42º08’S, 148º04’E, 08.iv.1990, M. Gray coll. (1 ♀, AM KS53336); Trevallyn, 41º27’S, 147º10’E, 18.iv.1931, V. V. Hickman coll. (1 ♀, AM KS28663); Ulverstone, 41º10’S, 146º11’E (4 ♀, 1 immature, AM KS32602); same local- ity, 1956, R. P. Edwards coll. (1 ♀, QVMAG 13:43350); same locality, iii.1971, Mrs. Wessing coll. (3 ♀, TMAG J758 View Materials ). Victoria: Avenel: 36º54’S, 145º14’E, 1988–1989, H, Manson coll. (1 ♀, NMV K13832 View Materials ); Bacchus Marsh, 37º40’S, 144º26’E, 03.i.1917, C. French coll. (1 ♀, NMV K13805 View Materials ); Balwyn, 37º49’S, 145º04’E, 01.iii.1950 (1 ♀, NMV K13809 View Materials ); same locality, 09.ii.1925 (2 ♀, NMV K13819 View Materials ); same locality, Threadneedle St. , 19.ii.1917, Martin Alan Joubert coll. (3 ♀, NMV K13814 View Materials ); Belgrave, 37º54’S, 145º21’E, 16.i.1920, Agric. Ed. “Australasian” per C. Arench, Esq. leg. (3 ♀, NMV K13820 View Materials ); Benalla: 36º33’S, 145º58’E, 06.ii.1956, V. McGill coll. (1 ♀ NMV K13831 View Materials ); Brighton, 37º54’S, 144º59’E (20 ♀, NMV K13823 View Materials ); same locality, 08.v.1948, Mrs. A. S. Fellows coll. (1 ♀, NMV K13818 View Materials ); Broadmeadows, 37º41’S, 144º55’E, 27.i.1924 (5 ♀, NMV K13810 View Materials ); Buffalo Swamp, 36º40’S, 145º11’E 20.ii.1922, Education Department leg. (2 ♀, NMV K13822 View Materials ); Chiltern, 36º9’S, 146º36’E, 01.iii.1962, Mr. P. Dawson coll. (1 ♀, NMV K13828 View Materials ); Echuca, 36º08’S, 144º45’E, 29.i.1956, E. Matheson coll. (1 ♀, NMV K13825 View Materials ); Erskine Falls , Otway Ranges, 38º27’S, 143º58’E, 06.iv.1973 (1 ♀, AM KS109467 View Materials ); Glenelg River , Dartmoor, 38º01’S, 140º50’E, M. R. Gray coll. (1 ♀, AM KS665); Grampians National Park , “The Fortress”, 37º15’S, 142º26’E (1 ♀, SAM); Grantville, 38º24’S, 145º32’E 21.ii.1911 (4 ♀, NMV K13835 View Materials ); Healesville, 37º39’S, 145º31’E, vii.1913, A. E. Shaw coll. (2 ♀, K-13811); Holey Hill, Holey Plains State Park , 38º13’S, 146º56’E (1 ♀, SAM NN24132 View Materials ); Ivan- hoe, 37º46’S, 145º02’E, 20.ii.1922, C. French coll. (1 ♀, NMV K13815 View Materials ); Kew, 37º48’S, 145º02’E, 11.vii.1919, M. Plumridge coll. (1 ♀, NMV K13821 View Materials ); Kew East, 37º47’S, 145º03’E, 07.ii.1948 (1 ♀, NMV K13829 View Materials ); Korumburra, 38º25’S, 145º49’E, iii.1988, Rob Cornall coll. (1 ♀, NMV K13833 View Materials ); near Lake Corangamite , 38º10’S, 143º24’E, 10.v.1950, Mr. Weigoll coll. (4 ♀, NMV K13824 View Materials ); Lilydale, 37º45’S, 145º21’E, 14.ix.1916, C. French coll. (2 ♀, NMV K13830 View Materials ); Melbourne, 37º49’S, 144º58’E, ii.1989, L. Manor coll. (1 ♀ NMV K13808 View Materials ); North Balwyn , 37º47’S, 145º04’E, 17.i.1955 (1 ♀, NMV K13813 View Materials ); Oakleigh, 37º55’S, 145º06’E, 01.iii.1950, Hodges coll. (4 ♀, NMV K13817 View Materials ); 5 km S of Swifts Creek, 37º18’S, 147º43’E, 02.iii.1993, G. Milledge coll. (2 ♀, NMV K13834 View Materials ). Western Australia : Albany, 35°00’S, 117°52’E (3 ♀, 10 immatures, BMNH 1924.III.I. 1530–35); same locality, 21.iv.1953, F. Norman coll. (1 ♀, WAM 53 View Materials /785); same locality, 09.i.1981, J. Shanhun coll. (1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1866); same locality, 28.ii.1988, Mr. Rudinger coll. (2 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1867–8); same locality, 26.x.1988, M. Thomas coll. (1 ♀, 3 immature, WAM 97 View Materials / 1869–72); same locality, house garden, 26.i.1987, L. Colmer coll. (2 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1898– 9); same locality, Angus Street, spindle tree in garden, 17.xii.1982, W. Hasdingham coll. (2 ♀, 1 immature, WAM 97 View Materials /1895–7); Albany, Serpentine Road, 35°02’S, 117°53’E, 05.iii.1966, L. Platt coll. (1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1894); Applec- ross, 32°01’S, 115°50’E, 29.vi.1942, Mrs Hanson coll. (1 ♀, WAM 42 View Materials /512); same locality, 10.ii.1971, F. H. Uther- Baker coll. (1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1900); Augusta, 34°19’S, 115°09’E, 10.v.1971, Mr & Mrs Scouler coll. (2 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1901–2); Banganup Lake , 32°10’S, 115°49’E, 30.iii.1990, M. S. Harvey & J. M. Waldock coll. (1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1852); Black Head, 34°46’S, 115°57’E, 08.ii.1989, D. Elford coll. (1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1873); Booragoon, 32°02’S, 115°50’E, 22.v.1986, R. L. Barker coll. (1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1931); Boyanup, 33°29’S, 115°44’E, 16.i.1935, D. Page coll. (1 ♀, WAM 35 View Materials /309); Bridgetown, 33°58’S, 116°08’E, 17.v.1990, I. Hunt coll. (1 ♀, 18 immature, WAM 90 View Materials / 1084-1102); Bridgetown, 15 km S (on Mockerdillup Road), 34°04’S, 116°01’E, 01.ii.1993, J. M. Waldock coll. (1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1951); Bridgetown, 5 Rowley Street, 33°57’S, 116°08’E, 20.v.1990, M. Cockerill coll. (via B. Y. Main) (5 ♀, WAM T87398 View Materials ); Broomehill, 33°50’S, 117°38’E, 21.ii.2006, R. Neal coll. (4 ♀, WAM T85252 View Materials ); Buck- ley Beach, Duke of Orleans Bay (via Esperance), 33°55’S, 122°35’E, 10.i.1977, A. F. Longbottom coll. (1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1856); Busselton, 33°39’S, 115°21’E, ivy vine, 01.xii.1990, J. Donnally coll. (1 ♀, 1 immature, WAM 97 View Materials /1853– 4); same locality, 16.i.1990, D. Hughes coll. (1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1855); same, locality, 03.xi.1973, grape vine, B. Trip- plet coll. (2 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1903–4); Camp Creek , 40 miles W Ravensthorpe, near Susetta River , 33°35’S, 119°20’E, 13.i.1952, B. Y. Main coll. (7 ♀, 2 immature, WAM 97 View Materials / 1962–70); Cape Arid National Park , 33°51’17”S, 123°0’43”E, 05.xi.2006, G. Byrne coll. (1 ♀, WAM T85249 View Materials ); Castle Rock Walking Trail, Porongurup National Park , 34º41’S, 117º57’E, M. R. Gray coll. (1 ♀, 1 immature, AM KS14509); City Beach, 31°56’S, 115°46’E, 30.x.1933, C. Y. Cowbley coll. (1 ♀, WAM 33 View Materials /2375); Collie, 32°21’S, 116°09’E, 13.iv.1989, J. Ladec coll. (1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1874); Cottesloe, 32°S, 115°46’E, 28.x.1935, U. Glauert coll. (1 ♀, WAM 35 View Materials /2156); Dardanup, 33°24’S, 115°45’E, 18.v.1989, T. M. Savory coll. (1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1875); Denmark, 34°58’S, 117°21’E, 17.i.1946, F. W. A. Smith coll. (1 ♀, WAM 46 View Materials /61); same locality, 15.iii.1948, G. M. Mather coll. (2 ♀, WAM 48 View Materials /557–8); same locality, 30.xii.1988, J. M.Waldock coll.(4 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1876–8); D’Entrecasteaux National Park , Mt Chudalup , 34°54’52”S, 116°05’10”E, 12.iii.2005, M. S. Harvey, J. M. Waldock & K. Edward coll. (1 ♀, WAM T85247 View Materials ); Duncraig, 31°50’S, 115°47’E, 26.xii.1989, K. Aplin coll. (1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1880); 3 km NE Dwellingup, 32°42’S, 116°05’E, 18.i.1982, O. Nichols coll. (1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1883); Eaglemont Farm, McLeod Rd, 34°58’S, 117°12’E, 11.ii.1999, M. S. Harvey & M. E. Blosfelds coll. (2 ♂, 1 ♀, WAM T85246 View Materials ); East Witchcliffe , 34°01’S, 115°06’E, 16.ii.1939, Mrs Renners coll. (12 ♀, WAM 39 View Materials / 1112–1123); Eaton, 33°19’S, 115°43’E, 11.xii.1991, Mrs Jamieson coll. (5 ♀, WAM 92 View Materials /99–104); same locality, 26.xi.1990, T. Bodrogai coll. (1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1857); Emu Point, 35°S, 117°56’E, 23.iii. 11976, S. G. Birss coll. (2 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials / 1909–10); Fitzgerald River National Park , 34°04’S, 119°26’E, 11.ii.1984, R. P. McMillan coll. (1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1912); Grass Patch, 33°14’S, 121°44’E, in garden, 16.xi.1987, A. F. Longbottom coll. (1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1881); Hither Green, 33°43’S, 115°31’E, 01.viii.1944, E. N. Johnson coll. (1 ♀, WAM 44 View Materials /372); Hovea, 545 Hedges Road, 31°53’27”S, 116°06’56”E, 10.xi.2017, Jarrah/ Marri forest , V. W. Framenau coll. (1 ♀, WAM T145211 View Materials ); Jarrahdale mine, 32°16’S, 116°06’E, 26.iv.1999, K. E. C. Brennan coll. (1 ♀, WAM T54837 View Materials ); Jarrahdale, Alcoa mine, 32º16’S, 116º06’E, tree beating, 01.ii.2001, M. L. Moir coll. (1 ♂, T103466); Jarrahwood, 33º48’S, 115º40’E (1 ♀, WAM 93 View Materials /2092); Karri Meera, Pemberton , 34°27’S, 116°02’E, 26.iv.1940, R. H. Neville coll. (1 ♀, WAM 40 View Materials /831); Karridale, 34°12’S, 116°06’E, in web on cypress tree, 30.i.1990, G. K. Pow coll. (1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1858); same locality, 24.ii.1974, M. Gardner coll. (1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1884); Lake Muir , Poorginup Rd, 34°33’S, 116°44’E, 23.iv.1990, M. S. Harvey & J. M. Waldock coll. (1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1859); Lucky Bay , 33°59’30.90”S, 122°13’13.81”E, 18.i.2018, V. W. Framenau & K. N. Framenau coll. (1 ♂, 1 ♀, WAM T145210 View Materials ); Mandurah, 32°32’S, 115°43’E, 13.xii.1976, Dept. of Fisheries leg. (2 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1913–4); Manjimup, 34°15’S, 116°09’E, 21.vii.1949, I. Giblett coll. (13 ♀, 1 immature, WAM 49 View Materials /796–809); Margaret River , 33°57’S, 115°04’E, 12.ii.1951, G. Stewart coll. (1 ♀, WAM 51 View Materials /151); same locality, 01.iv.1972, G. Shaw coll. (3 ♀, 1 immature, WAM 97 View Materials / 1915–18); same locality, 07.vi.1989, T. Eyre & B. Y. Main coll. (3 ♀, WAM T87417 View Materials ); McLeod Creek , S of Witchcliffe, 34°09’S, 115°09’E, 22.x.1969, R. J. McKay & J. A. L. Watson coll. (3 ♀, 5 immature, WAM 97 View Materials / 1943–50); Mond- rain Island, Recherche Archipelago, 34°08’S, 122°14’E, 12.xi.1950, V. Serventy coll. (3 ♀, WAM 55 View Materials /4995); Morn- ington Mills, 33°09’S, 115°56’E, ii.1939, J. M. Day coll. (1 ♀, WAM 39 View Materials /226); Mt Barker , 34°38’S, 117°40’E, garden area, xi.1991, P. J. Mann coll. (7 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1952–8); Mt Ragged , 33°27’S, 123°28’E, 14.xii.1953, B. Y. Main coll. (1 ♀, WAM T87414 View Materials ); Mt. Ross , Stirling Ranges, heathland, 14.i.1974, M. Gray coll. (1 ♀, AM KS128064 View Materials ); Nannup, 33°58’S, 116°04’E, under eaves of house, 05.xi.1985, A. Collard coll. (1 ♀, 3 immature, WAM 97 View Materials / 1919– 22); Napier Creek , 34°44’S, 117°48’E, 18.v.1925, A. C. Mawson coll. (1 ♀, WAM 25 View Materials /397); Narrikup, 34°46’S, 117°42E, 10.xii.1937, A. Platt coll. (1 ♀, WAM 37 View Materials /4228); Nornalup, 32°S, 116°05’E, 29.ii.1956, A. K. Lee, A. Watson & R. P. McMillan coll. (5 ♀, WAM T 101108); North Denmark, Scotsdale Road, 34°58’S, 117°21’E, 30.xii.1988 J. M. Waldock coll. (1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1888); Peaceful Valley , 34°58’S, 117°21’E, 01.iii.1985, R. Hamilton coll. (3 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1906–8); Pemberton , 34°27’S, 116°02’E, 15.xii.1959, R. Luff coll. (2 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1923); same locality, 07.v.1974, Mrs Bradbury coll. (1 ♀, 1 immature, WAM 97 View Materials /1924–5); 4 km NW Pemberton, 34°25’S, 115°57’E, 02.v.1990, M. S. Harvey & J. M. Waldock coll. (1 ♀ WAM 97 View Materials /1863); Quaalup Homestead , 34°17’S, 119°26’E, 31.v.1994, M. S. Harvey & J. M. Waldock coll. (1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1959); same locality, 30.v.1994, M. S. Harvey & J. M. Waldock (1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1961); 0.5 km NW Quaalup Homestead, 34°17’S, 119°26’E, 30.v.1994, M. S. Harvey & J. M. Waldock (1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1960); Rosa Brook, Margaret River , 34°S, 115°30’E, 22.iii.1943, F. Newman coll. (2 ♀, WAM 43 View Materials /234–5); Rossmore, 34º24’S, 116º46’E (1 ♀, AM KS33097); Sand Patch Beach Re- serve, W of Albany Wind Farm, 35°03’07”S, 117°45’39”E, sifting and beating low vegetation/litter, 15.iii.2008, M. G. Rix coll. (1 ♀, WAM T94785 View Materials ); Scott River , 34°17’S, 115°20’E, 05.ii.1952, W. Ellis coll. (1 ♀, WAM 52 View Materials /382); Shannon National Park , Shannon River at Nelson Rd, 34°43’S, 116°21’E, 16.ii.1990, M. S. Harvey & M. E. Blosfelds coll. (2 ♂, 1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1860–2); Smith Brook, 34°21’S, 116°11’E, 11.v.1948, G. Summerville coll. (3 ♀, WAM 48 View Materials /851, WAM 966–7 View Materials ); Snake Gully, 34°36’38”S, 116°21’E, i.1975 (1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1889); Stirling Range National Park , caravan park, 34°18’55”S, 118°11’14”E, 08.iv.2004, M. S. Harvey, J. M. Waldock, K. Edward & C. Poustie coll. (1 ♀, WAM T85250 View Materials ); Stirling Range National Park , Mt Magog picnic site, 25.iv.1996, M. S. Harvey, J. M. Waldock & B. Y. Main coll. (1 ♀, WAM T85236 View Materials ); Stirling Range National Park , M. R. Gray coll. (1 ♂, 1 ♀, KS 14460); Junction of Ellen Track and Moongoongoondurup Creek , 30.iv.1996, M. S. Harvey, J. M. Waldock & B. Y. Main coll. (1 ♀, WAM T85238 View Materials ); Stirling Range National Park , rangers garden, 34°25’S, 118°03’E, 01.xii.1988, R. Wills coll. (1 ♀, 1 immature, WAM 97 View Materials /1971–2); Stirling Range National Park , S of Coyanurup Peak, 34°24’10”S, 118°14’40”E, 08.iv.2004, M. S. Harvey, J. M. Waldock, K. Edward & C. Poustie coll. (1 ♀, WAM T85248 View Materials ); Stirling Range National Park , Talyuberlup picnic site, 34°24’56”S, 117°57’18”E, 25.iv.1996, M. S. Harvey, J. M. Waldock & B. Y. Main coll. (1 ♀, WAM T85237 View Materials ); Stirling Range National Park , The Cascades, 34°22’29”S, 118°14’17”E, 17.xii.1996, M. S. Harvey, J. M. Waldock & B. Y. Main coll. (1 ♀, WAM T85239 View Materials ); Stirling Range National Park , Toolbrunup Peak Track, 34°24’S, 118°04’E, 31.iii.1993, M. S. Harvey & J. M. Waldock coll. (1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1973); Stirling Range National Park , W end of Ellen Track, 34°22’53”S, 118°17’23”E, 08.iv.2004, M. S. Harvey, J. M. Waldock, K. Edward & C. Poustie coll. (1 ♀, WAM T85253 View Materials ); Sussex, near Busselton, 33°39’S, 115°20E, 28.i.1984, J. M. Waldock coll. (1 ♂, 1 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1905); Torbay, 35°02’S, 117°36’E, 18.i.1990, M. Barr coll. (2 ♀, WAM 90 View Materials /532–3); same locality, (2 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1926–7); Torndirrup National Park , Sharp Point, Eclipse Island Road, 35°06’22”S, 117°52’04”E, 14.iii.2008, M. Rix & M. S. Harvey coll. (1 ♀, WAM T89299 View Materials ); Two Peoples Bay , 34°57’S, 118°11’E, 06.vi.1973, G. T. Smith coll. (2 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1890, WAM 97 View Materials /1974); Two Road, 12 km NW of Walpole, Walpole-Nornalup National Park , 34°57’56”S, 116°36’24”E, 26.ii.2006, N. Scharff & T. Szüts coll. (28 ♀, 40 ♂, 4 immatures, ZMUC); Walpole , 34°59’S, 116°44’E, 10.xii.1937, J. Codgon coll. (1 ♀, WAM 37 View Materials /4227); 04.ii.1938, A. W. Thorn coll. (1 ♀, WAM 38 View Materials /342); Waroona, 32°51’S, 115°55’E, L. Tyler coll. (1 ♀, 1 immature, WAM 97 View Materials /1891–2); West Narrikup , 34°46’S, 117°42E, 12.iii.1942 (3 ♀, WAM 42 View Materials /291–4); West Swan , 31°51’S, 115°59’E, xi.1930, M. Heard coll. (1 ♀, 30/900); White Gum Flat, Stirling Range National Park , 34º22’S, 117º48’E (1 ♀, 1 ♂, AM KS14460); Witchcliffe, 34°02’S, 115°06’E, 14.iii.1938, M. Heard coll. (4 ♀, WAM 38 View Materials /918–21); 25.i.1939, E. Renner coll. (2 ♀, WAM 39 View Materials /171); 2 mi E Witchcliffe, 34°01’S, 115°08’E, 07.xi.1971, A. G. Mathews coll. (2 ♀, 1 immature, WAM 97 View Materials / 1928–30); Wonnerup, 33°38’S, 115°26’E, 30.i.1947, F. J. Reynolds coll. (1 ♀, WAM 47 View Materials /1469); Wooroloo, Sanitorium, 31°48’S, 116°18’E, 26.xi.1926, R. McMitchell coll. (1 ♀, WAM 26 View Materials /767); Yanchep National Park, Yanjidi Trail, 31°31’S, 115°46’E, 20.iv.1993, J. M. Waldock & A. Sampey coll. (1 ♂, WAM 97 View Materials /1976); Yonki Yonka, via Cranbrook, 34°14’S, 117°26’E, 23.vii.1929, F. Wills-Johnson coll. (1 ♀, WAM 29 View Materials /1030); Youngs Siding, 35°01’S, 117°31’E, 30.vii.1990, J. Laudehr coll. (2 ♀, WAM 97 View Materials /1864–5) GoogleMaps   .

Diagnosis. Males and females of this species are most similar to A. feredayi   (see Diagnosis above). Females differ distinctly from A. melanura   (as interpreted here based on a female found in Queensland) by the shape of the epigynum, which forms a simple subquadrate scape and distinct lateral arches in A. higginsii   ( Fig. 5D View FIGURE 5 ), but a broad U-shaped lip and lateral lobes in A. melanura   ( Fig. 10E View FIGURE 10 ).

Description. Female (WAM T145210). Carapace brownish-grey with yellowish-brown head region, a distinct dark median strip and yellow brown patches on carapace flanks ( Fig. 5A View FIGURE 5 ). Eyes small and their rows slightly recurved, all of them on tubercles, lateral eyes very close and almost touching and apart from median eyes by its length ( Fig. 5A View FIGURE 5 ). Chelicerae with pale yellow paturon and dark brown fangs ( Fig. 5B View FIGURE 5 ). Legs segments varying shades of brown, patellae I conspicuously yellowish-brown and tibia IV almost entirely very dark brown to black ( Figs. 5A, B View FIGURE 5 ). Labium and endites pale yellow, endites laterally brown ( Fig. 5B View FIGURE 5 ). Sternum triangular, but indented at coxae, brown with distinct elongated yellowish-brown patch in anterior half and indistinct lighter patches at bases of coxae ( Fig. 5B View FIGURE 5 ). Abdomen elongated, anteriorly with a deep central division forming two pointed shoulders above cardiac area ( Fig. 5A View FIGURE 5 ); dorsum beige but darkening laterally and there with thin light lines, linear pattern also dorsally on abdominal tail ( Fig. 5A View FIGURE 5 ). Tip of abdominal tail dark brown with five protuberances, the two ventral ones being very short, dorso-lateral ones long and dorso-median one very long ( Fig. 5C View FIGURE 5 ). Venter brown, with few yellow-brown spots between genital area and spinnerets; two transverse pale yellow lines at the base of the tail ( Fig. 5B View FIGURE 5 ). Spinnerets basally brown, apically light brown ( Fig. 4B View FIGURE 4 ). Epigynum scape subquadrate, rebordered and with distinct antero-lateral arches ( Fig. 5D View FIGURE 5 ). Spermathecae dark brown, very sclerotized, spherical and bearing two thick tubular copulatory ducts ( Fig. 5E View FIGURE 5 ).

Total length: 20.9. Carapace: 4.6 long, 3.5 wide. Abdomen: 19.1 long. Leg I: femur 3.1, patella 1.9, tibia 2.4, metatarsus 2.3 and tarsus 1.2. Patella + tibia II 3.5; III 2.2; IV 3.9.

Male (WAM 97/1976). Carapace pale orange-brown with broad dusky brown lateral bands and a thin brown median line from eyes to fovea ( Fig. 6A View FIGURE 6 ). Eyes proportionally bigger than in females and their rows slightly re- curved, all four dyads on tubercles, with eyes relatively close to each other ( Fig. 6A View FIGURE 6 ). Chelicerae with orange brown paturon and fangs. Legs yellowish-brown, femora somewhat darker ( Figs. 6A, B View FIGURE 6 ). Labium and endites orange brown, labium anteriorly and endites medially lighter ( Fig. 6B View FIGURE 6 ). Sternum shape as in female, orange brown with darker contours ( Fig. 6B View FIGURE 6 ). Abdomen ovoid but tapering posteriorly, with lateral ridges and posterior rings ( Fig. 6A View FIGURE 6 ), dorsum beige, with indistinct darker patches, laterally lighter ( Fig. 6A View FIGURE 6 ). Venter beige, with a light brown hue between lungs and spinneret and scattered brown to black spots ( Fig. 6B View FIGURE 6 ). Spinnerets orange-brown ( Fig. 6B View FIGURE 6 ) Terminal apophysis of pedipalp ovoid, longer than wide ( Figs. 6C View FIGURE 6 ; 7 View FIGURE 7 ); embolus curved medially, but with straight tip ( Figs. 6C View FIGURE 6 ; 7 View FIGURE 7 ); conductor elongated and sclerotized, with a finger-like tip and ridged base; median apophysis crescent-shaped and with numerous teeth-like tubercles ( Figs. 6C, D View FIGURE 6 ; 7 View FIGURE 7 ); paramedian apophysis forms a ridge towards conductor ( Figs. 6C View FIGURE 6 ; 7 View FIGURE 7 ); paracymbium short and hook-like ( Fig. 6D View FIGURE 6 ).

Total length: 2.9. Carapace: 0.9 long, 0.9 wide. Abdomen: 2.0 long. Leg I: femur 0.7, patella 0.3, tibia 0.5, metatarsus 0.2 and tarsus 0.3. Patella + tibia II 0.7; III 0.3; IV 0.5.

Variation. Females (n = 70): total length, 10.6–24.1; males (n = 13): total length, 2.2–3.6. Females can vary in colour, often without the darker brown features on carapace and sternum and dorsal, ventral and lateral abdomen ( Fig. 8A View FIGURE 8 ). Venter colour varies in the amount of the dark brown dusky guanine spots. In females, the projections on the tail are very variable, from elongated finger-like prongs ( Figs. 5C View FIGURE 5 , 8A View FIGURE 8 ) to small tubercles ( Fig. 8D View FIGURE 8 ), just like A. feredayi   .

Males can vary in carapace and abdomen colour hue and pattern, which include shades from pale beige to orange and dark brown ( Figs. 8B, C View FIGURE 8 ). The shape of the abdomen is variable with respect to the length of the abdominal tail ( Figs. 8B, C View FIGURE 8 ), although short males predominate in collections.

Remarks. Two females of A. higginsii   in the BMNH (1915.3.5.443, 1915.3.5.740) include the typical labels as used by L. Koch and appear therefore to be part of the L. Koch collection that has been purchased by the NHM from the Museum Godeffroy (see e.g. Baehr et al., 2017). However, both are labelled ‘Sydney’, not Darling Downs, the type locality of the species and are therefore unlikely to represent the holotype.

The spelling Arachnura higginsi   has been frequently used for this species (see list of synonyms above); however, the correct spelling is Arachnura higginsii (L. Koch, 1872)   . This is in accordance with article 33.4 in the fourth edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature ( International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1999), which states the change from -ii to -i is a subsequent incorrect spelling (but see FAQ section of World Spider Catalog 2019).

Life history and habitat preferences. Mature males have so far only been found from mid-summer to autumn (November, and January to April) peaking in February. Mature females have been found all year round, with occasional records in August and September, then increasing in numbers to a peak in February and declining steadily after that.

Habitat descriptions found on specimen labels varied considerably, suggesting that although A. higginsii   prefers variable open woodlands ( Banksia speciosa   , Acacia   spp., Eucalyptus   spp. including Jarrah and River red-gum ( E. marginata   and E. camaldulensis   ), individuals have also been recorded from vine thickets, scree slopes and in the littoral zone on cliffs. The species is also not uncommon in cultural landscapes, for example garden and parks.

Distribution. Only known from Australia, south of ca. 24°S Latitude; present in all states except Northern Territory ( Fig. 13 View FIGURE 13 ).

NMV

Museum Victoria

AM

Australian Museum

QM

Queensland Museum

SAM

South African Museum

ZMUC

Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen

TMAG

Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery

WAM

Western Australian Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Araneidae

Genus

Arachnura

Loc

Arachnura higginsii (L. Koch, 1872 )

Castanheira, Pedro De S., Didham, Raphael K., Vink, Cor J. & Framenau, Volker W. 2019
2019
Loc

Arachnura higginsii

Davies, V. T. 1988: 320
Butler, L. S. G. 1933: 279
1933
Loc

Arachnura higginsi

Rainbow, W. J. 1909: 218
Simon, E. 1895: 776
1895