Belonocnema quercusvirens, Burks, 1979

Zhang, Y. Miles, Egan, Scott P., Driscoe, Amanda L. & Ott, James R., 2021, One hundred and sixty years of taxonomic confusion resolved: Belonocnema (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) gall wasps associated with live oaks in the USA, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 193 (4), pp. 1234-1255: 1244-1248

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1093/zoolinnean/zlab001

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5761709

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03F4D96B-FFCA-9C7B-E319-F9D4D70EFBDC

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Belonocnema quercusvirens, Burks, 1979
status

 

Belonocnema quercusvirens, Burks, 1979   .

Material examined: Asexual generation – Syntype 1F ‘ USA: FL, Clearwater , Reared Dec-13–19, Quercus geminata, L.H.Weld Collector, Hopk. U.S.   15634f, Type 24099, USNMENT 00802094’; Paratype 9F same locality as Syntype USNMENT 00893032, 00893095, 00893115, 00893123, 00893218; 4F   USA:SC, Charleston Co. S. Car ’43, Q. virginiana   , 1160a, USNM’; 2F   USA: FL, Archbold Biol. Stn., 27.1846, -81.3521, 19/X/2016, Ott Lab, Q. geminata   ’; 5F GoogleMaps   USA: FL, Dickinson State Pk., 27.0261, -80.1090, 18/X/2016, Ott Lab, Q. geminata   ’; 5F GoogleMaps   USA: FL, Oceanside Village , 29.9542, -85.4277, 30/X/2016, Ott Lab, Q. geminata   GoogleMaps   ’.

Sexual Generation – 7F3M ‘ USA: FL, Archbold Biol. Stn. , 27.1846, -81.3521, IV/2018, Egan Lab, Q. geminata   ’; 5F5M GoogleMaps   USA: FL, Dickinson State Pk. , 27.0261, -80.1090, III/2017, Egan Lab, Q. geminata   ’; 5F5M GoogleMaps   USA: FL, Lake Lizzie , 28.2277, -81.1800, III/2018, Egan Lab, Q. geminata   ’; 4M GoogleMaps   USA: FL, Volusia Co. Daytona Beach, IV-6-1998, Urban beachside UV   light trap, C Yorke, S. Fullerton, UCFC 0017693 View Materials , 0017694 View Materials , 0017695 View Materials , 0017696 View Materials   ’; 1F2M ‘ USA: FL, Brevard Co. Malabar, Malabar Rd. 30 Mar – 25 May 2000, P.J. Russell, Z. Prusak, S.M. Fullerton, UCFC 0079161 View Materials , 0100100 View Materials , 0101364 View Materials   ’; 2F3M ‘ USA: FL, Brevard Co. Titusville, SR 405, 21 Feb–15 May 2001, Z. Prusak, P.J. Russell, S.M. Fullerton, UCFC 0078923 View Materials , 0079318 View Materials , 0093022 View Materials , 0093669 View Materials , 0103143 View Materials   ’; 2F2M ‘ USA: FL, Orange Co. Rk. Spr. Rn. St. Res. IV-13–1995, S.M. Fullerton, UCFC 0201995 View Materials , 0202004 View Materials , 0202411 View Materials , 0202415 View Materials   ’; 5F5M ‘ USA: FL, Orange Co. UCF 28°36’37”N 81°12’01”W LLP Flatwds, M. Carey, S.L. Kelly , S.M. Fullerton, III-28–2008, UCFC 0463902 View Materials , 0463926 View Materials , 0463936 View Materials , 0463954 View Materials , 0463957 View Materials , 0464351 View Materials , 0464355 View Materials , 0464384 View Materials , 0464390 View Materials , 0464524 View Materials GoogleMaps   . 8F4M ‘ USA: FL, Orange / Osceola Co. Walt Disney World, 24 Mar–28 Apr 1998, Z. Prusak, S. Fullerton, UCFC 0017132 View Materials , 0017146 View Materials , 0017173 View Materials , 0017230 View Materials , 0017232 View Materials , 0017601 View Materials , 0017602 View Materials , 0017603 View Materials , 0017604 View Materials , 0017608 View Materials , 0017787 View Materials , 0017793 View Materials   ’; 2M ‘ USA: FL, Sarasota Co. MCC- Venice Campus , III-31- 1997, K.J. Maharay, S.M. Fullerton, UCFC 0018361 View Materials , 0018363 View Materials   ’; 2F1M ‘ USA: FL, Seminole Co. Econ. Wild. Area IV-8-2000, T   . Smith , UCFC 0054591 View Materials , 0054607 View Materials , 0060190 View Materials   ’; 2F1M ‘ USA: FL, Seminole Co. Lower Wekiva River St. Preserve, 28-IV-2001, P.J. Russell, S.M. Fullerton, UCFC 0108938 View Materials , 0109646 View Materials , 0109778 View Materials   ’; 3F ‘ USA: FL, Seminole Co. Oveido, rural yard, Malaise trap, IV-7-1994, S.M. Fullerton, UCFC 0202173 View Materials , 0202175 View Materials , 0202190 View Materials   ’; 4F6M ‘ USA: FL, Seminole Co. Oveido, rural yard, UV   light, 28°39’25”N 81°10’44”W, S.M. Fullerton, III-28–IV-12-2009, UCFC 0446980 View Materials , 0446991 View Materials , 0446992 View Materials , 0446993 View Materials , 0446994 View Materials , 0446996 View Materials , 0448649 View Materials , 0448658 View Materials , 0448659 View Materials , 0448660 View Materials GoogleMaps   ’.

Diagnosis: Belonocnema fossoria   can be distinguished from the other two known species by the spur on the anterior side of fore tibia longer than basitarsus and tibial spurs ( Fig. 3A View Figure 3 ). The asexual generation has small, non-functional wings, lack of areolet in the front wing, and the middle tibia with an additional spur.

Description

Asexual female ( Figs 1D View Figure 1 , 3A–C View Figure 3 ): Body length 2.5– 3.5 mm (N = 12). Reddish brown; tip of mandibles, wing veins dark brown ( Fig. 3A View Figure 3 ). Head finely coriaceous with sparse white setae; slightly rounded in dorsal view; 2.3× as broad as long in dorsal view; 1.2× as broad as long in frontal view; slightly broader than mesosoma. Gena alutaceous, not broadened behind eye in dorsal view; 1.2× as broad as cross diameter of eye. Malar space alutaceous, without striae radiating from clypeus; eye 2.1× higher than length of malar space. Inner margins of eyes parallel. OOL 1.6× longer than POL; OOL 2.3× longer than LOL; ocelli ovate, all equal in size. Transfacial distance 1.8× longer than height of eye and 1.5× longer than height of lower face ( Fig. 3C View Figure 3 ); diameter of antennal torulus 2.3× longer than distance between them, distance between torulus and eye margin 1.4× longer than diameter of torulus. Lower face finely coriaceous, with white setae, without striae radiating from clypeus, median area not elevated. Clypeus trapezoid, flat, broader than high, with deep anterior tentorial pits, distinct epistomal sulcus and clypeopleurostomal line. Frons finely coriaceous, glabrous; vertex, interocellar area, occiput is finely coriaceous. Postgena coriaceous, glabrous. Antenna 13 segmented, longer than head + mesosoma; F1 shorter than the length of scape + pedicel, 1.7× longer than F2 ( Fig. 3C View Figure 3 ).

Mesosoma longer than high in lateral view. Propleuron alutaceous, with few setae. Mesoscutum smooth, glabrous between notauli, alutaceous lateral to notaulus; longer than broad (width measured across base of tegulae); notauli complete, deeply impressed for full length; median mesoscutal line distinct; anterior parallel lines and parapsidal lines absent ( Fig. 3B View Figure 3 ); Mesoscutellum only slightly longer than broad, slightly broader posteriorly; shorter than mesoscutum, uniformly rugose, overhanging metanotum; scutellar foveae present but shallow and indistinct. Mesopleural triangle large, sparsely setose; Mesopleuron smooth, glabrous, with a few white setae along ventral and anterior margins. Lateral propodeal carinae distinct, central propodeal area glabrous, with rugae; lateral propodeal area alutaceous, with dense white setae; nucha short, coriaceous. Legs short and stout; tibia setose on anterior edge; fore tibia prolonged on the anterior side into a curved spine ( Fig. 3A View Figure 3 ), longer than basitarsus and the tibial spur; tarsal claws simple with a slight ridge but never a full tooth. Middle tibia also with curved spine but smaller than basitarsus and tibial spurs; middle and hind tibia with two spurs. Tarsi covered in setae. Fore wing hyaline, shorter than body and often curved upwards, margin with dense cilia; Radial cell 2× as long as wide; 2r and Rs infumated, Rs curved upwards and thickened at apex; radial cell open; areolet absent; Rs + medial vein (M) reaching to M; cubitus-anal crossvein (cu-a) absent; first cubitus vein (cu1) broken ( Fig. 3B View Figure 3 ). Metasoma slightly longer than head + mesosoma, as long as high in lateral view, smooth and glabrous; second metasomal tergite occupies setose medially; all subsequent tergites without setae, smooth, glossy; ventral spine of the hypopygium short, prominent part as long as broad in ventral view, with white setae extending beyond the apex of spine ( Fig. 3A View Figure 3 ).

N = number tested; * see Supporting Information, Table S1 View Table 1 for corresponding site abbreviations.

Sexual female ( Figs 1B View Figure 1 , 3E View Figure 3 ): Body length 3.5–4.5 mm (N = 16). Reddish brown; pedicel, flagellomeres, vertex, tip of mandibles, tarsal claws, wing veins dark brown ( Fig. 3E View Figure 3 ). Head finely coriaceous with sparse white setae; slightly rounded in dorsal view; 1.8× as broad as long in dorsal view; 1.3× as broad as long in frontal view; slightly broader than mesosoma. Gena alutaceous, not broadened behind eye in dorsal view; 0.7× as broad as cross diameter of eye. Malar space alutaceous, without striae radiating from clypeus; eye 2.1× higher than length of malar space. Inner margins of eyes parallel. OOL 1.6× longer than POL; OOL 1.4× longer than LOL; ocelli ovate, all equal in size. Transfacial distance 1.6× longer than height of eye and 1.3× longer than height of lower face; diameter of antennal torulus 2× longer than distance between them, distance between torulus and eye margin 1.3× longer than diameter of torulus. Lower face finely coriaceous, with white setae, without striae radiating from clypeus, median area not elevated. Clypeus trapezoid, flat, broader than high, with deep anterior tentorial pits, distinct epistomal sulcus and clypeo-pleurostomal line. Frons finely coriaceous, glabrous; vertex, interocellar area, occiput is finely coriaceous. Postgena coriaceous, glabrous. Antenna 14 segmented, longer than head + mesosoma; F1 shorter than the length of scape + pedicel, 1.3× longer than F2 ( Fig. 3E View Figure 3 ). Mesosoma longer than high in lateral view. Propleuron alutaceous, with few setae. Mesoscutum smooth, glabrous between notauli, alutaceous lateral to notaulus; longer than broad (width measured across base of tegulae); notauli complete, deeply impressed for full length; median mesoscutal line distinct; anterior parallel lines and parapsidal lines absent; mesoscutellum only slightly longer than broad, slightly broader posteriorly; shorter than mesoscutum, uniformly rugose, overhanging metanotum; scutellar foveae present. Mesopleuron smooth, glabrous, with a few white setae along ventral and anterior margins; mesopleural triangle setose. Lateral propodeal carinae bent outwards, central propodeal area glabrous, with rugae; lateral propodeal area alutaceous, with dense white setae; nucha short, coriaceous. Legs short and stout; tibia setose on anterior edge; fore tibia prolonged on the anterior side into a curved spine, longer than basitarsus and the tibial spur; tarsal claws simple with a slight ridge but never a full tooth. Middle tibia also with curved spine but smaller than basitarsus and tibial spurs; middle and hind tibia with two spurs. Tarsi covered in setae ( Fig. 3E View Figure 3 ). Fore wing hyaline, shorter than body and often curved upwards, margin with dense cilia; radial cell 2× as long as wide; 2r and Rs infumated, Rs curved upwards and thickened at apex; radial cell open; areolet present; Rs + M reaching to M; cu-a absent; cu1 broken ( Fig. 3E View Figure 3 ). Metasoma slightly longer than head + mesosoma, as long as high in lateral view, smooth and glabrous; second metasomal tergite occupies setose medially; all subsequent tergites without setae, smooth, glossy; ventral spine of the hypopygium short, prominent part 1.5× as long as broad in ventral view, with white setae extending beyond the apex of spine ( Fig. 3E View Figure 3 ).

Male: Body length 3.2–4.1 mm (N = 15). Colour and sculptures like the sexual female, Antenna 15 segmented; F1 is curved, excavated, and incised medially. Metasoma smaller than head + mesosoma.

Gall: Smooth, single-chambered pea galls (5.88– 6.45mm in diameter) on the ventral side of leaves for the asexual generation ( Fig. 1C View Figure 1 ); irregular shaped, multilocular galls often in clusters on the small rootlets for the sexual generation ( Fig. 1A View Figure 1 ; Egan et al., 2013). Host plant: Quercus geminata   .

Distribution: Georgia, Florida ( USA).

Biology: The small, often bent wings of the asexual generation ( Figs 1D View Figure 1 , 3A View Figure 3 ) appear to be non-functional ( Table 2 View Table 2 ), and the large tibial spur and short, stout legs are likely fossorial adaptations that allows B. fossoria   to reach the rootlets of Q. geminata   in sandy soil where these species co-occur. The sexual generation emerges from early March to mid-April, corresponding with the timing of leaf flush of their host Q. geminata ( Hood et al., 2019)   .

Remarks: Osten Sacken’s (1861) original description of C. quercusvirens   was based on the asexual galls alone collected on ‘live oak’ in Georgia, the wasp itself was described by Weld (1921) as B. fossoria   . As both B. treatae   and B. fossoria   can be found in the region and both induce similar galls, it is difficult to know which species Osten Sacken collected and named. However, names described before 1930, and which were applied only to the product of an animal, are valid names for the organism itself under ICZN Article 1, section 3. Therefore, we here propose the name B. quercusvirens   as species inquirenda.

UV

Departamento de Biologia de la Universidad del Valle

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics