Belonocnema, (MAYR, 1881)

Zhang, Y. Miles, Egan, Scott P., Driscoe, Amanda L. & Ott, James R., 2021, One hundred and sixty years of taxonomic confusion resolved: Belonocnema (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) gall wasps associated with live oaks in the USA, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 193 (4), pp. 1234-1255 : 1243-1245

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1093/zoolinnean/zlab001

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5751511

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03F4D96B-FFC9-9C7E-E3A9-F9B8D02AFC6D

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Belonocnema
status

 

GENUS BELONOCNEMA ( MAYR, 1881)

Type species: Belonocnema treatae ( Mayr, 1881) .

Diagnosis: Belonocnema can be distinguished from all other Cynipini genera by the combination of the curved spine on the anterior side of the fore tibia ( Fig. 3A View Figure 3 ), and the strongly angulate Rs with narrow black stripes, which form a short radial cell in the fore wing ( Fig. 4A View Figure 4 ; Melika & Abrahamson, 2002). The genus is restricted to live oaks ( Quercus section Quercus series Virentes ). Sexual-generation males have 15 antennal segments with F1 excavated, while the sexual females and asexual females have 14 and 13 antennal segments, respectively. The sexual females are larger than asexual-generation conspecifics ( Hood & Ott, 2017: fig. 2A) based on measurement of the length of the right tibia length, often used as a proxy for body size, (e.g., the average tibial length of sexual females of B. kinseyi = 1.46 ± 0.007 mm vs. that of asexual females = 1.05 ± 0.004 mm; Hood & Ott, 2017).

Redescription: Female antenna 13-segmented (asexual generation) ( Fig. 4C View Figure 4 ) and 14-segmented (sexual generation) ( Fig. 4E View Figure 4 ), male antenna 15-segmented and filiform. Head weakly sculptured, almost smooth or alutaceous to finely coriaceous. Occiput without distinct and sharp occipital carina. Ventral area of genae without vertical carinae. Malar space much shorter than height of compound eye and malar sulcus present. Lower face without striae radiating from sides of clypeus. Mesoscutum smooth and shiny. Notauli complete ( Fig. 3B View Figure 3 ), anterior parallel and parapsidal lines absent ( Figs 2F View Figure 2 , 4F View Figure 4 ). Scutellar foveae present ( Figs 2F View Figure 2 , 4F View Figure 4 ). Mesopleuron smooth and shiny. Propodeal carinae sharply curved. Second metasomal tergum large and medially setose. Radial cell of the forewings open, partially infumated, Rs strongly angulate, with or without areolet ( Figs 3B View Figure 3 , 4A View Figure 4 ). Fore tibia prolonged on the anterior side into a curved spine ( Figs 2C View Figure 2 , 3A View Figure 3 ), with or without middle tibia curved spine. Tarsi with swollen base, not toothed. Body colour varies from light yellow to orange to reddish brown.

KEY TO THE ASEXUAL AND SEXUAL GENERATIONS OF THE THREE BELONOCNEMA SPECIES OF THE SOUTHERN AND SOUTH- EASTERN USA:

1. Antennae with 14 (females) or 15 (males, F1 excavated) segments.............................. 2 (sexual generation)

1’. Antennae with 13 segments .......................................................................................... 4 (asexual generation)

2. Spur on the anterior side of fore tibia longer than basitarsus and tibial spurs ( Fig. 3A View Figure 3 ). Middle tibia with a smaller spur. Found on Q. geminata in Georgia and Florida........................................................ B. fossoria

2’. Spur on the anterior side of fore tibia shorter than basitarsus, approximately the same length as tibial spurs ( Fig. 2C View Figure 2 ). Middle tibia without a spur. Found on Q. fusiformis or Q. virginiana ................................. 3

3. Scutellar foveae deeply excavated, delimited on all sides, separated narrowly by a carina ( Fig. 4F View Figure 4 ). Rs vein thickened but not infumated ( Fig. 4E View Figure 4 ). Found west of Gautier, Mississippi (30.3858° N, 88.6117° W), associated with Q. fusiformis and Q. virginiana ............................................................................ … B. kinseyi

3’. Scutellar foveae shallow, weakly delimited posteriorly, separated broadly by a ridge ( Fig. 2F View Figure 2 ). Rs vein thickened and infumated ( Fig. 2E View Figure 2 ). Found east of Gautier, Mississippi, associated predominantly with Q. virginiana and rarely with Q. geminata ....................................................................................... B. treatae

4. Spur on the anterior side of fore tibia longer than basitarsus and tibial spurs ( Fig. 3A View Figure 3 ). Middle tibia with a smaller spur. Fore wing small and curved, areolet absent ( Fig. 3A View Figure 3 ). Found on Q. geminata in Georgia and Florida ................................................................................................................................................ B. fossoria

4’. Spur on the anterior side of fore tibia shorter than basitarsus, approximately the same length as tibial spurs. Middle tibia without a spur. Fore wing not curved, areolet present (could be small and indistinct) ( Fig. 4A View Figure 4 ). Found on Q. fusiformis or Q. virginiana .......................................................................................... 5

5. Reddish brown in colour, areolet in fore wing small and indistinct ( Fig. 4A View Figure 4 ). Found west of Gautier, Mississippi, associated with Q. fusiformis and Q. virginiana ........................................................... B. kinseyi

5’. Yellowish brown in colour, areolet in fore wing large and distinct ( Fig. 2E View Figure 2 ). Found east of Gautier, Mississippi, associated predominantly on Q. virginiana and rarely with Q. geminata .................. B. treatae

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Cynipidae