Araceae

Ortiz, Orlando Oriel, de Stapf, María Sánchez, Baldini, Riccardo Maria & Croat, Thomas Bernard, 2019, Synopsis of aroids (Alismatales, Araceae) from Cerro Pirre (Darién Province, Panama), Check List 15 (4), pp. 651-689: 653-658

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.15560/15.4.651

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03F487E3-9D7E-FFCC-FC87-FE4234B1FF0A

treatment provided by

Marcus

scientific name

Araceae
status

 

Key to the Araceae   of Cerro Pirre

1. Spadix uniform (sometimes with sterile flowers at the spadix base); flowers bisexual, perigoniate or naked ....................................................................... 2

1ʹ. Spadix segmented, clearly divided into basal female zone and apical or intermediate male zone; flowers unisexual, always naked ...................................... 58

2. Stem cormose; leaf solitary or absent, petioles colored with reptilian patterns, blade divided into three sections (dracontioid leaves) ..................................... ....................................... Dracontium grayumianum  

2ʹ. Stems never cormose; leaves usually>1, blade simple, lobed, pedati-compound, or palmately compound....................................................................... 3

3. Spathe usually persistent after flowering; flowers perigoniate .............................................................. 4

3ʹ. Spathe usually deciduous after flowering; flowers naked ..................................................................... 47

4. Plants generally terrestrial; stem almost obsolete; leaves distichous, collective veins absent; tepals 4–6, free or fused; plants usually associated with streams or sites with flooded soils .......................... 5

4ʹ. Epiphytes, nomadic vines or terrestrial plants (sometimes epilithic); stem evident; leaves arranged in spiral, collective vein usually present, tepals generally 4, free; habitats diverse........................................... 6

5. Blades usually with denticulate margins (when fresh); spathe markedly decurrent into peduncle, tepals free, style tapered and exserted ........................................ ..................................... Spathiphyllum phryniifolium  

5ʹ. Blades generally with entire margins; spathe not decurrent in the peduncle, tepals fused, style obsolete............................................ Spathiphyllum laeve  

6. Blades divided (pedati-compound or palmately compound) .............................................................. 7

6ʹ. Blades entire (simple or lobed) ............................... 9

7. Plants robust with stems ≥3.0 cm wide; leaflets with margins markedly sinuate to pinnatifid; spadix redpurple .................................... Anthurium clavigerum  

7ʹ. Plants of medium size with stems up to 2.5 cm wide; leaflets with entire margins (sometimes the lateral leaflets can be subauriculate at the base); spadix white-gray or lilac................................................... 8

8. Side leaflets usually subauriculate at the base; peduncle less than half the petiole length (usually ≤6.0 cm long); spadix green or white grayish ......... ........... Anthurium pentaphyllum var. bombacifolium  

8ʹ. Leaflets slightly unequal, but never subauriculate; peduncle more than petiole length (usually ≥ 20 cm long); spadix lilac......................... Anthurium kunthii  

9. Leaf blades markedly trilobed ...............................10

9ʹ. Leaf blades entire, never lobed ............................. 12

10. Cataphylls intact on the upper nodes; spadix pale pink .................................... Anthurium rubrifructum  

10ʹ. Cataphylls fibrous on the upper nodes; spadix yel- low ..........................................................................11

11. Blades with posterior lobes narrowly rounded or falcate, both extending laterally at an angle of 50–60° Anthurium trilobum  

11ʹ. Blades with posterior lobes broadly rounded at the apex, both extending laterally at an angle ≥90° ....... Anthurium panduriforme  

12. Blades dark glandular-punctate on at least one sur- face ........................................................................ 13

12ʹ. Blades typically eglandular, lacking dark glandular punctations on either surface ................................ 25

13. Climbing epiphytes with slender and elongated stems (erect to scandent); internodes long (usually ≥3 times longer than wide); leaves arranged along the stem ..................................................................14

13ʹ. Terrestrial plants or non-climbing epiphytes with short stems and compressed internodes (frequently less than 2 times longer than wide); leaves congested at apex of the stem .................................................16

14. Cataphylls intact and deciduous; spadix reddish ..... .................................................... Anthurium tonduzii  

14ʹ. Cataphylls fibrous and persistent; spadix green, white or lilac ..........................................................15

15. Spathe erect at anthesis, spadix large (usually>2.0 cm long) with 4 or 5 flowers in the alternate spiral; berries acute at the apex; lowland to mid-elevation forests (<700 m) ........................ Anthurium obtusum  

15ʹ. Spathe reflexed at anthesis, spadix small (usually up to 1.5 cm long) with <4 flowers in the alternate spiral; berries rounded at apex; cloud forests (> 1000 m)..... ........................ Anthurium scandens subsp. pusillum  

16. Blades dark glandular-punctate on both surfaces .... ................................................................................17

16ʹ. Blades dark glandular-punctate only on lower sur- face ........................................................................ 22

17. Plants with pendent leaves, blades linear-oblanceolate, berries orange ................... Anthurium pendens  

17ʹ. Plants with erect leaves, blades never linear, berries white or purple (unknown in Anthurium sp. 7   ) .....18

18. Primary lateral veins emerging from the midrib at an angle of ≤35°; spadix purple, brown or white...19

18ʹ. Primary lateral veins emerging from the midrib at an angle ≥50°; spadix green ................................. 20

19. Primary lateral veins up to 5 per side; spadix brown or purple .......................................... Anthurium sp. 7  

19ʹ. Primary lateral veins usually ≥15 side; spadix whitecreamy to grayish................. Anthurium lancifolium  

20. Primary lateral veins usually>15 per side; spadix with 2 or 3 flowers in the alternate spiral, lateral tepals broad (4.2 mm wide)............. Anthurium sp. 6  

20ʹ. Primary lateral veins usually <15 per side; spadix usually with 4 or more flowers in the alternate spiral, lateral tepals narrow (≤ 1.5 cm wide) .....................21

21. Spadix with 4–5 flowers in the alternate spiral, tepals thickened and raised in the outer margin ....... .......................................... Anthurium crassitepalum  

21ʹ. Spadix with 8–9 flowers in the alternate spiral, tepals never thickened and raised in the outer mar- gin ............................................... Anthurium terryae  

22. Length of the petioles generally more than the length of the leaf blade ............................... Anthurium sp. 5  

22ʹ. Length of the petioles generally less than the length of the leaf blade..................................................... 23

23. Plants with pendant leaves; blades narrowly linear to lanceolate (usually ≤4.0 cm wide); berries yellow or orange............................. Anthurium friedrichsthalii  

23ʹ. Plants with erect leaves; blades oblong, elliptical, obovate or oblanceolate (generally>3.0 cm wide); berries red or purple.............................................. 24

24. Roots densely clustered; spathe green with purple spots, spadix thick (11.05 cm diam. at base), green turning red-violet; low or mid-elevation forests (<1000 m ................................ Anthurium ramonense  

24ʹ. Roots lax; spathe usually green, spadix slender (≤ 5 mm diam. at the base), green; cloud forests (> 1100 m)................................... Anthurium pirrense  

25. Blades attenuated to cuneate, rounded, truncate or sub-cordate at base, sinus <2 cm deep ................. 26

25ʹ. Blades cordate, sagittate or hastate at the base, sinus> 2 cm deep ............................................................ 32

26. Climbing epiphytes with slender and elongated stems (internodes usually ≥3 times longer than wide) ..... 27

26ʹ. Terrestrial, epilithic or non-climbing epiphytes with short stems and compressed internodes (usually <2 times longer than wide)......................................... 28

27. Internodes usually ≥ 8 cm long; blades drying darkbrown, subcoriaceous to coriaceous........ Anthurium interruptum  

27ʹ. Internodes usually ≤ 6 cm long; blades drying yel- lowish, chartaceous......................... Anthurium sp. 1  

28. Terrestrial, epiphytes or epilithic; cataphylls intact and cucullate ............................... Anthurium salvinii  

28ʹ. Plants usually epiphytes; cataphylls lanceolate, semi-intact (fibrous in the basal part) or completely fibrous.................................................................... 29

29. Roots densely clustered; spadix light green, mark- edly stipitate (stipe 1–3.5 cm long) ........................... .................................................... Anthurium michelii  

29ʹ. Roots lax, spadix purple to red, sessile or short stipitate (stipe usually ≤ 7 mm long) ............................ 30

30. Blades rounded, acute or attenuated at base, basal veins absent; spadix with ≥7 flowers in the alternate spiral................................. Anthurium cerropirrense  

30ʹ. Blades broadly rounded to subcordate at base with 2–4 pairs of basal veins; spadix usually with 4–6 flowers in the alternate spiral.................................31

31. Blades with 2–4 pairs of basal veins, usually free; spadix reddish ................................. Anthurium sp. 3  

31ʹ. Blades with 3–5 pairs of basal veins, fused between the first or second pair; spadix violet to purple ........ ............................................. Anthurium talamancae  

32. Nomadic vines with slender and elongated stems (internodes usually ≥3 times longer than wide) ......... 33

32ʹ. Terrestrial, epilithic or epiphytes with short stems and compressed internodes (usually <2 times longer than wide).......................................................................35

33. Blades>2 times longer than wide, markedly bullate; spadix green to green-whitish .................................. .............................................. Anthurium niqueanum  

33ʹ. Blades <2 times longer than wide, never bullate; spadix pale pink to fuchsia ................................... 34

34. Cataphylls thick, coriaceous and persistent; spathe white or green-whitish, erect to semi-erect and oblong-lanceolate (0.8–2 cm wide) ........................... ................................................ Anthurium hartmanii  

34ʹ. Cataphylls thin, brittle and deciduous; spathe green, reflexed and narrowly lanceolate (up to 1.0 cm wide) ............................................ Anthurium rubrifructum  

35. Spadix of brown, red, violet, lilac, or purple........ 36

35ʹ. Spadix green, white, or yellow..............................41

36. Blades with primary lateral veins ≥10 per side .... 37

36ʹ. Blades with primary lateral veins up to 8 per side... ............................................................................... 39

37. Blades cordate or subcordate at base, drying brown or reddish-brown; basal veins up to 5 pairs.............. .............................................. Anthurium talamancae  

37ʹ. Blades markedly cordate at the base, drying yellow- ish-yellow to pale-yellowish brown; basal veins ≥6 pairs....................................................................... 38

38. Plants usually epiphytic; blades>2 times longer than wide, sinus generally hipocrepiform; berries red ..... ........................................................ Anthurium dukei  

38ʹ. Plants usually terrestrial, leaf blades <2 times longer than wide, sinus usually closed or V-shaped; berries lilac or violet-purple............. Anthurium cuspidatum  

39. Blades drying usually dark brown to reddish brown; mature inflorescences long-pedunculate (peduncle usually> 25 cm long)................. Anthurium brownii  

39ʹ. Blades drying green to yellowish-green; mature inflorescences short-pedunculate (peduncle up to 15 cm long) ................................................................ 40

40. Blades with posterior ribs up to 1.9 cm long or absent; spathe erect, green to creamy-white............. ......................................................... Anthurium sp. 4  

40ʹ. Blades with posterior ribs 2.5–3.0 cm long; spathe reflexed, green-purple ............................................... .................................... Anthurium rotundistigmatum  

41. Plants generally terrestrial .................................... 42

41ʹ. Plants usually epiphytes........................................ 43

42. Blades velvety-green on upper surface, with major veins discolor (when fresh); primary lateral veins up to 3 pairs............................. Anthurium crystallinum  

42ʹ. Blades light green on the upper surface, with major veins concolor (when fresh); primary lateral veins>4 pairs ............................... Anthurium ochranthum  

43. Adult plants with massive blades (87.0–104.0 × 61.0– 75.0 cm); basal veins 9–11 pairs ..... Anthurium sp. 2  

43ʹ. Adult plants with moderate blades (11.0–75.0 × 5.0– 43.0 cm); basal veins up to 9 pairs ........................ 44

44. Cataphylls thick, coriaceous, intact and persistent on the upper nodes ..................................................... 45

44ʹ. Cataphylls thin, chartaceous, intact or fibrous and deciduous on the upper nodes............................... 46

45. Cataphylls 11–18 cm long; blades usually ≥1.7 times longer than wide; spathe erect and cucullate............ ........................................ Anthurium cucullispathum  

45ʹ. Cataphylls 8–12.5 cm long; blades usually ≤ 1.5 times longer than wide; spathe reflexed, not cucul- late........................................ Anthurium curvispadix  

46. Blades panduriform, drying yellow; primary lateral veins numerous (≥15 per side) .................................. ......................................... Anthurium panduriforme  

46ʹ. Blades not panduriform, drying brown to reddishbrown; lateral primary veins up to 11 per side ......... ...................................................... Anthurium ravenii  

47. Petiole short (<1.5 cm long) without geniculum; blades with inframarginal collective veins near margins...................................... Heteropsis oblongifolia  

47ʹ. Petiole prominent (> 1.5 cm long) and geniculate; blades usually without inframarginal collective veins ................................................................................. 48

48. Epiphytic plants with spirally arranged leaves; blades usually with inconspicuous primary lateral veins .. 49

48ʹ. Nomadic vines or terrestrial plants with distichous leaves; blades with prominent lateral primary veins (except in Monstera pittieri   ) ..................................51

49. Plants robust with short and thick internodes (0.5– 1.5 × 1.5–3 cm); petioles usually more than 15 cm long............................... Stenospermation ellipticum  

49ʹ. Plants small or medium size with slender and elongated internodes (1.0–5.0 × 0.4–0.8 cm); petioles up to 15 cm long......................................................... 50

50. Internodes drying grayish-brown; spadix creamywhite, sessile or shortly stipitate (stipe up to 0.2 cm long) ....................... Stenospermation angustifolium  

50ʹ. Internodes drying dark-brown to reddish; spadix yellow, markedly stipitate (stipe 0.5–1.0 cm long) ... ............................................... Stenospermation sp. 1  

51. Terrestrial plants, frequently associated with streams or rivers; blades with red dots on the lower surface. ........................................... Rhodospatha moritziana  

51ʹ. Nomadic vines with habitats various; blades without red spots on the lower surface .............................. 52

52. Blades drying reddish-brown, entire, never perforated; primary lateral veins>25 per side; spadix pink to red-purple ............. Rhodospatha wendlandii  

52ʹ. Blades drying yellowish-green, yellowish, darkbrown or blackened; entire, pinnatilobed or pin- natifid, sometimes perforated; primary lateral veins frequently <25 per side (in Monstera oreophila   up to 40 per side); spadix green, yellowish-green, grayishgreen, creamy-white, or dark-brown .................... 53

53. Blades of adult plants with secondary venation completely reticulated............................. Monstera dubia  

53ʹ. Blades of adult plants with secondary venation parallel........................................................................ 54

54. Blades of adult plants pinnatilobed or pinnatifid (rarely on one side only), never perforated ............55

54ʹ. Blades of adult plants with entire margins, sometimes with perforations ......................................... 56

55. Juvenile plants with exserted leaves (never appresed to the substrate); petiole sheaths deciduous; blade lobes narrow (1–3 cm wide) ...................................... ............................................ Monstera pinnatipartita  

55ʹ. Juvenile plants with leaves tightly appressed to the substrate; petiole sheaths persistent; blade lobes broad (5–14 cm wide)............... Monstera spruceana  

56. Blades small (10.0–26.0 × 4.0–9.0 cm), perforated or not perforated; primary lateral veins obscure; peduncle up to 4 cm long ............... Monstera pittieri  

56ʹ. Blades large (35.0–65.0 × 15.0–30.0 cm), usually perforated; primary lateral veins prominent; peduncle>5.0 cm long ....................................................57

57. Unsheathed portion of the petiole D-shaped in cross section; primary lateral veins 10–20 per side........... ........................... Monstera adansonii subsp. laniata  

57ʹ. Unsheathed portion of the petiole U-shaped in cross section; primary lateral veins>25 per side............... ................................................... Monstera oreophila  

58. Adult plants with deeply divided blades (trifoliolate or pedati-compound) or markedly trilobed (lobes arranged forward, longer than wide) ....................59

58ʹ. Adult plants with generally simple, entire, cordate, sagittate or hastate blades (lobes directed back- wards, ± as long as wide) ...................................... 64

59. Plants always terrestrial; semi-subterranean stems; leaves up to 1–4 per plant; female portion of the spa- dix fused to the spathe .......................................... 60

59ʹ. Nomadic vines; stems aerial; leaves numerous; female portion of the spadix free to the spathe .....61

60. Blades trilobed or rarely trisect (lacking auricles), usually with irregular pale maculations; blades lobes with entire margins .............. Chlorospatha mirabilis  

60ʹ. Blades 5-lobed, usually prominently auriculate, lacking maculations; blades lobes with denticulate margins (when fresh) .................. Chlorospatha sp. 1  

61. Plants with colorless or reddish sap; blades trilobed or trisect; tertiary veins parallel; stamens and berries free ............................ Philodendron tripartitum  

61ʹ. Plants with copious milky sap; blades trisect or ped- ati-compound; tertiary veins reticulate; stamens fused as synandria; berries fused (syncarp) ......... 62

62. Primary lateral veins of the medial segment emerging from the midrib at an angle of ≥35°; spathe tube reddish internally .................. Syngonium hoffmannii  

62ʹ. Primary lateral veins of the medial segment emerging from the midrib at an angle of ≤30°, spathe tube greenish internally (unknown in Syngonium sp. 1   ).. ............................................................................... 63

63. Plants frequently of forest edges; petiole sheaths lon- ger than the unsheathed portion of the petiole; auricles of the blade truncate to sagittate or hastate lobed ............................................. Syngonium podophyllum  

63ʹ. Understory plants; petiole sheaths shorter than the unsheathed portion of the petiole; auricles of the blade obovate, oblong to elliptically lobed ............... ........................................................ Syngonium sp. 1  

64. Petioles armed with small spines (mainly at base) and/or puberulent to pubescent or densely covered with fleshy scales ..................................................65

64ʹ. Petioles unarmed, completely glabrous and lacking fleshy scales........................................................... 68

65. Nomadic vines; stem, peduncles and the outer surface of the spathe densely covered with fleshy scales ............................... Philodendron verrucosum  

65ʹ. Plants always terrestrial; stem, peduncles and the outer surface of the spathe without fleshy scales.. 66

66. Plants with abundant milky sap; petioles unarmed, densely pubescent; stamens connate as synandria ... ........................................... Xanthosoma mexicanum  

66ʹ. Plants with colorless to reddish sap (sometimes absent); petioles armed with small spines (mainly at the base) and/or puberulent; stamens separated ... 67

67. Blades markedly peltate and prominently glossy above; midrib whitish on the upper surface (when fresh) ................................... Adelonema panamense  

67ʹ. Blades basifixed and more or less matte above; mid- rib concolor on the upper surface (when fresh) ........ .............................................. Adelonema wendlandii  

68. Blades acute, obtuse, rounded or truncate at base, sometimes slightly cordulate or subcordate, but with posterior lobes ≤¼ of the length of the anterior lobe ............................................................................... 69

68ʹ. Blades cordate, sagittate or hastate at base, with posterior lobes prominent, generally>¼ than the anterior lobe ................................................................. 83

69. Plants generally terrestrial, usually with milky sap; female portion of the spadix fused to the basal part of the spathe; stamens fused as synandria; pistillate flowers with free staminodes................................ 70

69ʹ. Nomadic vines without milky sap; female portion of the spadix free to the basal part of the spathe; stamens free; pistillate flowers without staminodes. 72

70. Plants robust, usually with stems>1.0 m tall and internodes>3.0 cm diam.; blades cuneate to rounded or truncated at base; petiole sheaths decurrent at the apex ................................ Dieffenbachia longispatha  

70ʹ. Plants of small or medium size, usually with stems <1.0 m tall and internodes up to 3.0 cm diam.; blades acute, rounded, subcordate or cordate at base; petiole sheaths rounded to auriculate at apex ............. 71

71. Blades drying greenish to grayish-green, frequently with pale-maculations; spadix lacking sterile medial region (male and female regions contiguous) ........... ................................................. Dieffenbachia killipii  

71ʹ. Blades drying dark greenish-gray or blackish, usu- ally lacking maculations; spadix with sterile medial region, with male and female portions separated by a distinct naked spadix axis.. Dieffenbachia isthmia  

72. Adult plants generally with cataphylls (sometimes deciduous); petiole sheaths non-amplexicaule, sheathed for less than half their length.................................. 73

72ʹ. Adult plants usually lacking cataphylls; petiole sheaths completely amplexicaule, sheathed for more than half their length............................................. 76

73. Petioles lacking a lilac to dark-purple ring at apex; blades usually ≥ 25 cm wide, 1.7–2 times longer than wide .................................. Philodendron niqueanum  

73ʹ. Petioles with a lilac to dark-purple ring at apex; blades usually ≤ 25 cm wide, 1.9–6 times longer than wide........................................................................74

74. Scandent climbing plants with long and slender internodes (10.0–15.0 × 1.0– 1.5 cm), generally>3 times longer than wide....... Philodendron immixtum  

74ʹ. Appressed-climbing plants with short and relatively thick internodes (1.0–4.0 × 1.0–4.0 cm), usually <2 times longer than wide...........................................75

75. Petioles D-shaped in cross section with winged and undulate margins; blades usually reddish-maculate on the lower surface .................................................. .............. Philodendron ligulatum var. heraclioanum  

75ʹ. Petioles subterete lacking winged margins; blades never reddish-maculate............................................. ............................... Philodendron pseudauriculatum  

76. Appressed-climbing plants; stems drying yellowish and sulcate or green and finely striated; peduncle> 3 cm long.................................................................. 77

76ʹ. Scandent-climbing plants; stems drying blackish or brownish-yellow and sulcate; peduncle usually <3 cm long.................................................................. 79

77. Stem drying green and finely striated; dry blades usually granular on upper surface, primary lateral veins inconspicuous .................................................. .............. Philodendron ensifolium subsp. ensifolium  

77ʹ. Stem drying yellowish and coarsely sulcate; dry blades usually minutely alveolate on the upper surface; primary lateral veins prominent on at least one of the surfaces ....................................................... 78

78. Unsheathed portion of the petiole <1.0 cm long; petiole sheaths horizontally winged, widely open; seeds semi-coiled to cochlear........ Philodendron sulcatum  

78ʹ. Unsheathed portion of petiole>1.0 cm long; petiole sheaths generally erect; seeds straight to slightly curved.................................... Philodendron opacum  

79. Petiole sheaths horizontally winged, widely open ... ........................................ Philodendron tuerckheimii  

79ʹ. Petiole sheaths usually erect to involute ............... 80

80. Stems and petioles with the epidermis abruptly scaly and fissured .................. Philodendron ichthyoderma  

80ʹ. Stems and petioles with crisp and/or smooth epider- mis (sometimes slightly scaly), but not abruptly fis- sured.......................................................................81

81. Blades drying blackish, up to 30 cm wide................ ................................... Philodendron inaequilaterum  

81ʹ. Blades drying green or reddish-brown, usually ≤14.0 cm wide ................................................................. 82

82. Unsheathed portion of the petiole usually ≤ 0.3 cm long; blades drying reddish brown, tertiary veins inconspicuous................... Philodendron alliodorum  

82ʹ. Unsheathed portion of the petiole usually> 0.3 cm long; blades drying greenish, tertiary veins prominent on the upper surface..... Philodendron rayanum  

83. Plants with abundant milky sap; stamens fused as synandria............................................................... 84

83ʹ. Plants usually with colorless or reddish sap (sometimes absent) (in Philodendron albisuccus   it turns whitish when exposed to air); stamens free (often weakly fused at the base, but never in synandria).... ............................................................................... 85

84. Plants strictly terrestrial, caulescent; spathe tube green internally; berries free Xanthosoma hammelii  

84ʹ. Appressed-climbing plants; spathe tube red-purple internally; berries connate as syncarp...................... ............................................ Syngonium schottianum  

85. Blades with posterior ribs (fused basal veins) naked (no tissue to the outside of the rib)........................ 86

85ʹ. Blades with posterior ribs (fused basal veins) not naked (with tissue to the outside of the rib) .......... 92

86. Cataphylls of the upper nodes of stem mostly deciduous (sometimes persistent in the second and third node, but the rest are completely deciduous)............ ............................................................................... 87

86ʹ. Cataphylls generally persistent in the upper nodes of stem, either intact or fibrous ................................. 88

87. Plants robust with short and thick internodes (1.5– 2.0 × 4.5–10.0 cm); blades massive (55–95 × 36–90.0 cm) with broadly crenate margins ............................ ..................................................... Philodendron sp. 1  

87ʹ. Plants of medium size with elongated and slender internodes (3.0–15.0 × 1.3–1.7 cm); blades relatively small (22.0–35.0 × 16.0–31.0 cm) with entire mar- gins............................................................................ ........ Philodendron wilburii var. longipedunculatum  

88. Plants with colorless sap that turns whitish when exposed to air; blades drying green to greenish-yellow ..................................... Philodendron albisuccus  

88ʹ. Plants with colorless or reddish sap (which does not turn whitish when exposed to the air) or absent; blades drying brown to reddish-brown, blackish or grayish to brownish-gray...................................... 89

89. Blades drying brown to reddish-brown; spathe tube reddish to purple-red on both surfaces................. 90

89ʹ. Blades drying blackish, greenish-brown to grayishbrown; spathe tube greenish to grenish-white internally and greenish to greenish-yellow externally..91

90. Petioles D-shaped in cross section, with obtuse to acute margins; basal veins generally 3–5 pairs; pri- mary lateral veins 3–6 per side................................. ................................. Philodendron fragrantissimum  

90ʹ. Petioles terete or subterete, with rounded to obtuse margins; basal veins usually 7–11 pairs; primary lat- eral veins 6–10 per side ....... Philodendron pirrense  

91. Blades ovate to broadly ovate, usually equal to or 1.5 times longer than wide; primary lateral veins 3–4 per side ..................................... Philodendron lazorii  

91ʹ. Blades markedly ovate, usually 1.8 times longer than wide; primary lateral veins 4–7 per side .................. .......................................... Philodendron panamense  

92. Cataphylls generally persistent on the upper nodes of stem, either intact or fibrous ............................. 93

92ʹ. Cataphylls mostly deciduous on the upper nodes of stem (sometimes persistent in the second and third node, but the rest are totally deciduous) ............... 95

93. Plants strictly terrestrial; petioles D-shaped in cross section, with elevated and acute margins; spathe tube green-whitish internally.................................... ............................................ Philodendron grandipes  

93ʹ. Plants terrestrial or nomadic vines; petioles terete or subterete; spathe tube violet-purple or red-purple internally............................................................... 94