Acmaeodera

Davidson, J. M., 2003, Mexican Acmaeodera Eschscholtz, 1829: A new species and checklist, with miscellaneous taxonomic and biological notes on other North American Buprestidae (Coleoptera), Zootaxa 201, pp. 1-18 : 5-12

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.156682

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:74F85CD0-662B-43FE-8F38-4DDF6CF6F322

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5690958

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03F43F6C-FFE5-7F30-FE83-F9628F0975AB

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Acmaeodera
status

 

Acmaeodera ( Squamodera ), stat. nov.

Squamodera Nelson, 1996: 167 .

Type species: Acmaeodera vanduzzei Van Dyke, 1934 (original designation).

Nelson (1996) described the genus Squamodera to accommodate four previously described species of A cmaeodera: A. barri Cazier, 1940 , A. constricticollis Knull, 1937 , A. ephedrae Barr, 1943 and A. vanduzzei Van Dyke, 1934 and its three synonyms (see below). The decision to erect a new genus for these species appears to have been based mainly upon anatomical characteristics which are sometimes found in other species of Acmaeodera as well as in related genera. The squamose setae or scales common to all species of Squamodera are also found on Acmaeodera mimicata Knull, 1938 , A. fattigi Knull, 1953 and A. lauta Barr, 1972 , as well as a few other species of Acmaeodera and related genera such as Acmaeoderopsis Barr, 1974 and Acmaeoderoides Van Dyke, 1942 . The latter genus is placed into a separate subtribe from the other genera discussed herein. The s errate parts of the antennae are indeed somewhat subcylindrical in Squamodera , but this feature is not unique to this small complex of species. The combination of characteristics used to define Squamodera is not sufficient to justify a genus separate from Acmaeodera .

Therefore, I propose Squamodera , and the four species and synonyms contained therein, be transferred to Acmaeodera as a subgenus (listed below). Unlike the Palearctic and Afrotropical Acmaeodera faunas, which have been well studied and divided into several subgenera (e.g. Volkovitsh, 1979, Holm, 1978, Holm & Schoeman, 1999), no comprehensive study of Nearctic or Neotropical A cmaeodera has been conducted with the objective of determining whether closely related species or species complexes should be placed in separate subgenera. Except for the four species in the subgenus Acmaeodera ( Squamodera ), no Acmaeodera species known from the Nearctic or Neotropics have yet been placed into particular subgenera. Bellamy (1995) succinctly illustrated the very difficult task facing researchers who are working on the huge genus Agrilus Curtis, 1815 , in trying to divide this group into more manageable segments, i.e. subgenera. In his closing arguments, he suggested that we need to agree upon a "… philosophy that will allow researchers from different regions and backgrounds to approach their studies of Agrilus from some point of agreement, despite the fact that no clear definition or agreement has ever been reached about what constitutes a genus as opposed to a subgenus or species group." However, Holm & Schoeman (1999) presented "criteria and considerations on erecting genera" [and subgenera], and my approach here appears to coincide with their criteria for purposes of placing Squamodera as a subgenus of Acmaeodera . The fundamental principles espoused by both Bellamy (1995) and Holm & Schoeman (1999) apply not only to Agrilus , but also to Acmaeodera , Anthaxia Eschscholtz, 1829, Chrysobothris Eschscholtz, 1829 , and other genera containing large numbers of species.

It appears that the four valid species included in Acmaeodera ( Squamodera ) might comprise a monophyletic group, i.e., are more closely related to one another than to any other species or species group, and are adapted to the hot dry deserts of the southwestern United States and adjacent northern Mexico. These species are very closely related and occasionally are difficult to separate from one another, especially A. (Squamodera) vanduzzei from A. (Squamodera) ephedrae . The latter species appears to be restricted to a relatively small sandy area in southern California. The former species occupies a considerably larger distributional range, at least as far north as the lower end of the Owens Valley and is sometimes found in environments with somewhat reduced amounts of sand. It seems to be most frequently associated with plants of the genus Eriogonum ( Polygonaceae ). Acmaeodera (Squamodera) barri appears to have adapted to the southwestern deserts and occurs mainly on smokebush or smoketree, Dalea spinosa Gray ( Fabaceae ), but sometimes utilizes other species of Dalea as well. This is a rather whitish or pale, smoky colored plant, and because A. (S.) barri is completely covered in silvery­white scales, may have found protection from predators by using this as an adult host or perch. Knull (1950) recorded Dalea as a larval host, and small oval emergence holes in Dalea spinosa I observed while collecting this species might indicate that A. (S.) barri uses this plant as a larval host as well. Acmaeodera (Squamodera) barri is found in western Arizona as well as in southern California. Acmaeodera (Squamodera) constricticollis appears to occupy a more restricted distribution in southeastern California, and appears to be allopatric with A. (S.) ephedrae , but partially sympatric with A. (S.) barri and A. (S.) vanduzzei . It occurs in areas where flowering arrow weed, Pluchea sericia (Nutt.) Coville ( Asteraceae ) is found, and it is evident this is at least one of its adult host plants. Thus, species of Acmaeodera ( Squamodera ) have radiated not only in differences in form and scale structure, but also to different geographic areas and adult (and perhaps larval) hosts, insuring that they do not compete with one another for resources.

In the recent past, approximately 5,000 to 10,000 years ago, the area in which these species are now found was much wetter than it is today, and the host plants that occur today did not exist at that time ( Betancourt, et. al, 1990). Many desert shrubs and small trees that exist in the southwestern deserts today originated much further south and invaded northward as temperatures warmed and the land became more arid. Whether these beetles are recently derived from a species or species complex from that period and adapted to gradual climatic and changes in plants, or whether these are merely invaders from Mexico cannot be determined with certainty. A similar situation is known from extreme southern Europe and North Africa, where the climate was more mesic over the same time period. Where the Sahara Desert now exists, a savanna with trees, shrubs and grasses occurred. Species of Buprestidae extant in North Africa are adapted to a much more xerophytic environment than in the previous ten millennia. Species of Acmaeodera ( Squamodera ) are slightly elongate, with white scales on various or all body parts. However, as previously mentioned, scales are not unique to A. ( Squamodera ) spp ., and neither is their somewhat elongate body form. The species of the A cmaeodera faceta , A. bivulnera , A. acanthicola complex are elongate but all are without scales. Clearly, scales are a type of setae, almost always flattened, exhibited in various shapes and sizes, and are likely used as a mechanism of reflecting heat from the body parts as well as possibly "hiding" them from predators on similarly colored plants. The elongate body form is found in many genera of Buprestidae , from all parts of the world, and its derivation and particular function is not understood. Whether understood or not, the elongate 'morphotype' has adaptive survival value because it is found in so many unrelated taxa throughout so much of the world. (e.g. Agrilus spp ., Coraebus spp ., Dinocephalia spp ., Iridotaenia spp ., Mixochlorus spp ., Philandia spp ., Phrixia spp ., Ptosima spp ., Synechocera spp .)

The species of Acmaeodera ( Squamodera ) are:

A. (S.) barri Cazier, 1940

A. (S.) constricticollis Knull, 1937

A. (S.) ephedrae Barr, 1943

A. (S.) vanduzzei Van Dyke, 1934 Syn. A. fisheri Cazier, 1940

Syn. A. vermiculata Knull, 1947 Syn. A. nanbrownae Figg­Hoblyn, 1953 A checklist of the species of Acmaeodera known from Mexico

acanthicola Barr, 1972: 177 actites Westcott, 2002: 23

acuminata Kerremans, 1900: 378 adenostomensis Knull, 1941: 691 adusta Barr, 1972: 183

aeneoflava Westcott, 1998: 9 alacris Horn, 1878: 25

alicia Fall, 1899: 29

amplicollis LeConte, 1866: 383 angelica Fall, 1899: 16

apiata Nelson, 1994: 277

aquila Nelson, 1994: 279

aurantiofasciata Westcott and Noguera, 1995: 39 aurantiomarginata Westcott, 1997: 98 aurora Fall, 1922: 88

bacchariphaga Westcott & Verity, 1977: 149 barri Cazier, 1940: 58

bivulnera Horn, 1894: 371

cactophila Westcott & Noguera, 1995: 36 cazieri Knull, 1960: 6

chemsaki Barr, 1992: 75

clausa Horn, 1894: 374

clypeata Barr, 1972: 181

comata LeConte, 1858: 70 convicta Fall, 1899: 11

cordatistigma Westcott, 1998: 9 corrosa Thomson, 1878: 58 cribricollis Horn, 1894: 375 croceonotata Gory, 1840: 27 crossi Barr, 1992: 72

crotonae Westcott & Noguera, 1995: 41 cuprina Spinola, 1838: 367 davidsoni Barr, 1972: 179

decipiens LeConte, 1866: 383 delectabilis Waterhouse, 1889: 180 delumbis Horn, 1894: 378

digna Barr, 1992: 71

discalis Cazier, 1940: 24

discolor Barr, 1992: 79

disjuncta Fall, 1899: 9

divina Théry, 1926: 43

dolorosa dolorosa Fall, 1899: 25 dozieri Barr, 1992: 78

ephedrae Barr, 1943: 113

exilis Waterhouse, 1882: 27 faceta Fall, 1907: 241

fenyesi Fall, 1899: 12

flavomarginata ( Gray) , 1832: 538 flavopicta Waterhouse, 1889: 180 flavosparsa Waterhouse, 1882: 22 flavosticta Horn, 1878: 15 gibbula LeConte, 1858: 69 gibbuloides Westcott, 1998: 10 griswoldi Westcott, 2002: 24 haemorrhoa LeConte, 1858: 69 hepburni LeConte, 1860: 254 hirtula Gory, 1840: 29

impluviata Mannerheim, 1837: 26 iridea Kerremans, 1902: 28 jeanae n. sp.

jocosa Fall, 1899: 14

jubata Barr, 1992: 73

jucunda Dugès, 1891: 14

kathyae Westcott, 1996: 22

kaupii Thomson, 1878: 58

knabi Fisher, 1949: 337

labyrinthica Fall, 1899: 21

lagunae Van Dyke, 1945: 104 lateralis Chevrolat, 1834 :No. 6 latiflava latiflava Fall, 1907: 240 lauta Barr, 1972: 184

lesnei Kerremans, 1906: 72 loei Manley, 1987: 22

longipennis Waterhouse, 1882: 25 lucana Van Dyke, 1942: 103 lysilomae Nelson, 1994: 281 maculifera Horn, 1894: 372 marginarcuata Westcott, 1998: 11 miliaris Horn, 1878: 10

mima Gory, 1840: 29

mimicata Knull, 1938: 136

mimicomixteca Westcott, 1998: 8 mixta LeConte, 1860: 227

mixteca Westcott, 1998: 7

moesta Dugès, 1891: 11

montezuma Obenberger, 1924: 35 monticola Fisher, 1949: 341 mudgei Westcott, 2002: 23

neoneglecta Fisher, 1949: 336 oaxacae Fisher, 1949: 340

opinabilis Fall, 1899: 30

paradisjuncta Knull, 1940: 36 parkeri Cazier, 1940: 22

picta Waterhouse, 1882: 24

pinalorum Knull, 1930: 15

plagiaticauda Horn, 1878: 10 proxima Waterhouse, 1889: 178 pubiventris lanata Horn, 1880: 148 pubiventris yumae Knull, 1937: 301 pueblana Obenberger, 1916: 9 pulchella ( Herbst) , 1801: 211 quadriseriata Fall, 1899: 18

quadrivittata Horn, 1870: 79

quadrivittatoides Nelson & Westcott, 1995: 77 recticolloides Westcott, 1971: 3 reflexa Barr, 1992: 74

resplendens Van Dyke, 1937: 106 retifera LeConte, 1859: 72

riograndei Nelson, 1980: 175

rubescens Schaeffer, 1904: 210 rubrocuprea Westcott & Nelson, 2000: 302 rubroguttula Nelson, 1994: 275 rubronotata Laporte and Gory, 1835: 5 rubrovittata Nelson, 1994: 272 rufolateralis Westcott, 1998: 12 ruricola Fisher, 1949: 333

rustica Fisher, 1949: 338

sabinae Knull, 1937: 15

scalaris Mannerheim, 1837: 25 scapularis Horn, 1894: 328

serena Fall, 1899: 16

setosa Waterhouse, 1882: 26

sinaloensis Dugès, 1891: 14

singularis Barr, 1992: 77

sinuosa Kerremans, 1906: 45

solitaria Kerremans, 1897: 40 sphaeralcae Barr, 1972: 166

stellaris Chevrolat, 1835 :No. 189 stigmata Horn, 1894: 370

subbalteata LeConte, 1863: 82 sulcicollis Kerremans, 1914: 258 superba Waterhouse, 1882: 23 tarahumara Westcott, 1998: 13 tenuidigna Nelson, 1994: 276

thoracica Kerremans, 1910: 268 tildenorum Nelson & Westcott, 1995: 85 transversa Van Dyke, 1945: 105 trizonalis trizonalis Kerremans, 1892: 181 trizonalis islamariae Westcott, 1998: 14 turnbowi Westcott, 1996: 25

unica Kerremans, 1897: 41

unicolor Fisher, 1949: 335

uvaldensis Knull, 1936: 73

vanduzeei Van Dyke, 1934: 23 venusta Waterhouse, 1882: 25 vernalis Barr, 1972: 160

vipera Kerremans, 1906: 110 viridissima Chevrolat, 1835:No. 73 wenzeli Van Dyke, 1919: 154 wheeleri Van Dyke, 1919: 155 wickenburgana Knull, 1939: 28 zacatecana Westcott, 2002: 26

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Buprestidae

Loc

Acmaeodera

Davidson, J. M. 2003
2003
Loc

Squamodera

Nelson 1996: 167
1996
Loc

quadrivittatoides

Nelson 1995: 77
Barr 1992: 74
Westcott 1971: 3
1995
Loc

discolor

Barr 1992: 79
1992
Loc

singularis

Barr 1992: 77
1992
Loc

riograndei

Nelson 1980: 175
1980
Loc

bacchariphaga

Westcott 1977: 149
Cazier 1940: 58
1977
Loc

acanthicola

Westcott 2002: 23
Barr 1972: 177
1972
Loc

clypeata

Barr 1972: 181
1972
Loc

neoneglecta

Fisher 1949: 336
Fisher 1949: 340
1949
Loc

rustica

Fisher 1949: 338
1949
Loc

unicolor

Fisher 1949: 335
1949
Loc

discalis

Cazier 1940: 24
1940
Loc

paradisjuncta

Knull 1940: 36
Cazier 1940: 22
1940
Loc

mimicata

Knull 1938: 136
1938
Loc

resplendens

Van 1937: 106
LeConte 1859: 72
1937
Loc

uvaldensis

Knull 1936: 73
1936
Loc

pinalorum

Knull 1930: 15
1930
Loc

montezuma

Westcott 2002: 23
Fisher 1949: 341
Obenberger 1924: 35
1924
Loc

lesnei

Manley 1987: 22
Kerremans 1906: 72
1906
Loc

rubescens

Westcott 2000: 302
Nelson 1994: 275
Nelson 1994: 272
Fisher 1949: 333
Schaeffer 1904: 210
Laporte 1835: 5
1904
Loc

acuminata

Barr 1972: 183
Knull 1941: 691
Kerremans 1900: 378
1900
Loc

alicia

Fall 1899: 29
1899
Loc

disjuncta

Fall 1899: 9
1899
Loc

dolorosa

Barr 1992: 78
Fall 1899: 25
1899
Loc

fenyesi

Fall 1899: 12
1899
Loc

jocosa

Fall 1899: 14
1899
Loc

labyrinthica

Fall 1899: 21
1899
Loc

serena

Fall 1899: 16
1899
Loc

solitaria

Barr 1972: 166
Kerremans 1897: 40
1897
Loc

bivulnera

Horn 1894: 371
1894
Loc

stellaris

Horn 1894: 370
1894
Loc

jucunda Dugès, 1891 : 14

Duges 1891: 14
1891
Loc

moesta Dugès, 1891 : 11

Duges 1891: 11
1891
Loc

sinaloensis Dugès, 1891 : 14

Duges 1891: 14
1891
Loc

exilis

Fall 1907: 241
Waterhouse 1882: 27
1882
Loc

picta

Waterhouse 1882: 24
1882
Loc

vanduzeei

Barr 1972: 160
Waterhouse 1882: 25
1882
Loc

aeneoflava

Horn 1878: 25
1878
Loc

plagiaticauda

Fall 1899: 18
Waterhouse 1889: 178
Horn 1878: 10
Herbst 1801: 211
1878
Loc

quadrivittata

Horn 1870: 79
1870
Loc

amplicollis

Fall 1899: 16
LeConte 1866: 383
1866
Loc

decipiens

Horn 1894: 378
Waterhouse 1889: 180
LeConte 1866: 383
1866
Loc

mimicomixteca

LeConte 1860: 227
1860
Loc

comata

Fall 1899: 11
LeConte 1858: 70
1858
Loc

scalaris

Horn 1894: 328
Mannerheim 1837: 25
1837
Loc

flavomarginata (

Westcott 2002: 24
Waterhouse 1889: 180
Waterhouse 1882: 22
Horn 1878: 15
LeConte 1860: 254
LeConte 1858: 69
LeConte 1858: 69
Gory 1840: 29
Gray 1832: 538
1832