Pupisoma (Ptychopatula) dioscoricola (C. B. Adams, 1845 )

Hausdorf, Bernhard, 2007, Revision of the American Pupisoma species (Gastropoda: Pupilloidea), Journal of Natural History 41 (21 - 24), pp. 1481-1511: 1483-1489

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1080/00222930701401069

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03F43138-FFEC-6D5B-0A1B-FBA8FCFBFD64

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Pupisoma (Ptychopatula) dioscoricola (C. B. Adams, 1845 )
status

 

Pupisoma (Ptychopatula) dioscoricola (C. B. Adams, 1845)  

( Figures 1, 2, 6 View Figure 6 )

Helix dioscoricola C. B. Adams 1845, p 16   .

Helix punctum Morelet 1851, p 9   .

Helix caeca Guppy 1869, p 241   .

Pupisoma americanum Möllendorff 1899, p 91   [partim].

Pupisoma dioscoricola insigne Pilsbry 1920, p 39   , Plate 4 Figures 6–8 View Figure 6 View Figure 7 .

Pupisoma puella Hylton Scott 1960, p 29   , Figures 7–9 View Figure 7 .

Helix   –: Binney 1884, p 113, Plate 5 Figure L (according to Pilsbry 1920, p 37).

Helix dioscoricola: L. Pfeiffer 1848   , Plate 30 Figures 29–32; L. Pfeiffer 1849, p 240.

Helix (Conulus) dioscoricola: Tryon 1886, p 174   , Plate 53 Figures 46, 47.

Microphysa   (?) dioscoricola: Binney 1890, p 196   , Plate 2 Figure 5, Plate 3 Figure 6 View Figure 6 .

Thysanophora dioscoricola: Pilsbry 1894, p 57   ; Dall and Simpson 1901, p 379; Pilsbry and Brown 1910, p 517; Hinkley 1920, p 39.

Pupisoma dioscoricola: Pilsbry 1920, p 36   , Plate 4 Figures 1–5; Vanatta 1923, p 66, 67, 69; Pilsbry 1926a, p 103; Vanatta 1928a, p 21; Baker 1935b, p 88; Goodrich and van der Schalie 1937, p 30; Pilsbry 1948, p 1007, Figure 528(1–5); van der Schalie 1948, p 37, Map 13; Hylton Scott 1960, p 25, Figures 1, 2; Wilson 1960, p 137; Burch 1962, p 49, Figure 90; Branson and McCoy 1963, p 108; Thompson 1967, p 232; Smith 1971, p 7;

Quintana 1982, p 73; Hubricht 1985, p 12, Map 98; Ramirez 1991, p 5; Correa

Sandoval 1997, p 138, 140; Pérez and López 2002, p 100, Plate 15; Pérez and López

2003, p 417. Pupisoma (Ptychopatula) dioscoricola: Haas 1937, p 10   , Plate 1 Figure 24 [partim]; Haas

1960, p 16 [partim]; Baker 1961, p 33; Chase and Robinson 2001, p 42. Ptychopatula dioscoricola: Paul and Donovan 2005, p 120   , Figure 7a View Figure 7 , Plate 25 Figures 1, 3, 4. Helix punctum: Fischer and Crosse 1872, p 228   , Plate 12 Figure 1; Martens 1892, p 131,

Plate 7 Figure 3. Helix (Microconus) punctum: Tryon 1887, p 53   , Plate 9 Figure 7 View Figure 7 . Thysanophora punctum: Pilsbry 1894, p 57   . Helix caeca: Dall 1889, p 25   , Plate 1 Figure 9; Suter 1900, p 335, Plate 3 Figures 1–3. Helix (Acanthinula) caeca: Tryon 1887, p 55   , Plate 9 Figure 23. Patula (Ptychopatula) caeca: Pilsbry 1889a, p 200   ; Pilsbry 1889b, p 62. Thysanophora caeca: Pilsbry 1894, p 57   , Plate 16 Figure 4; Baker 1914, p 632; Clapp 1918,

p 75, Plate 8 Figure 3; Lange de Morretes 1949, p 136. Thysanophora dioscoricola caeca: Rhoads 1899, p 45   . Pupisoma dioscoricola insigne: Baker 1925, p 2   ; Pilsbry 1926b, p 78; Vanatta 1928b, p 66;

Bequaert and Clench 1936, p 65; Arias 1955, p 160; Basch 1959, p 12; van Regteren

Altena 1960, p 49; Correa Sandoval, García-Cubas Gutiérrez and Reguero Reza 1998,

p 14; Correa Sandoval 2000, p 8; Correa Sandoval and Rodríguez Castro 2002, p 235;

Correa Sandoval 2003, p 512; Correa Sandoval and Salazar Rodríguez 2005, p 59. Ptychopatula dioscoricola insigne: Tillier 1980, p 54   , Figures 45, 46, 49–52. Pupisoma puella: Quintana 1982, p 74   Pupisoma   (subgenus?) minus: Haas 1960, p 16   , Plate 1 Figure B [non Pilsbry 1920]. Pupisoma minus: Oliveira and Almeida 1999, p 20   , Figure [non Pilsbry 1920].

Type material examined

Pupisoma dioscoricola insigne Pilsbry   : lectotype (design. Baker 1962, p 11): USA, Texas: Brownsville   GoogleMaps , 25 ° 549N, 97 ° 309W ( ANSP 109013 View Materials ); paralectotypes: Mexico, San Luis Potosı´   GoogleMaps : Valles Falls, 22 ° 019N, 99 ° 049W ( ANSP 141390 View Materials ); Choy cave, 22 ° 189N, 99 ° 059W ( ANSP 141391 View Materials partim).

Pupisoma americanum Möllendorff   : lectotype (design. Haas 1937, p 10): Ecuador, Azuay: Cuenca, 2 ° 539S, 78 ° 599W ( SMF 10697 View Materials ); paralectotypes: Ecuador, Azuay: Cuenca , 2 ° 539S, 78 ° 599W ( SMF 10698 View Materials partim).

Other material examined

Mexico, Coahuila: 10 km SW of Zaragoza , 1100 m altitude (alt.), 28 ° N, 100 ° W ( FLMNH 211796 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Tamaulipas: Sabinas , 23 km NNW of El Limón, 60 m alt., 23 ° 019N, 99 ° 059W ( FLMNH 159224 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Sierra Cucharas , 10 km W of Gomez Farias, 960 m alt., 23 ° 039010N, 99 ° 129300W ( FLMNH 190999 View Materials partim)   ; 1 km WNW of Esperanza , 300 m alt., 23 ° 389N, 98 ° 219360W ( FLMNH 317136 View Materials )   ; Salto Del Tigre State Park , 30 km W of Santa Engracia, 350 m alt., 23 ° 599540N, 99 ° 209480W ( FLMNH 317093 View Materials )   ; Sierra De Tamaulipas, 7 km NW of Piruli , 350 m alt., 23 ° N, 98 ° W ( FLMNH 189710 View Materials partim) GoogleMaps   ; 9 km W of Gomez Farias , 700 m alt., 23 ° N, 99 ° W ( FLMNH 200155 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . San Luis Potosı´: Tamazunchale , 21 ° 169N, 98 ° 479W ( FLMNH 35460 View Materials )   ; Ciudad Valles , 21 ° 599N, 99 ° 019W ( FLMNH 40040 View Materials )   ; 6 km W of El Naranjo , 340 m alt., 21 ° N, 98 ° W ( FLMNH 200115 View Materials partim) GoogleMaps   . Queretaro: 2 km E of Jalpan , 780 m alt., 21 ° 129590N, 99 ° 279380W ( FLMNH 200731 View Materials )   . Hidalgo: 5 km SE of Pas Flores , 340 m alt., 20 ° N, 99 ° W ( FLMNH 268668 View Materials partim) GoogleMaps   . Veracruz-Llave : 5 km ENE of Cuauhtémoc, 75 m alt., 17 ° 069590N, 94 ° 519100W ( FLMNH 211354 View Materials )   ; 1 km NW of Atoyaqullas, 7 km NNW of Paraje Nuevo , 750 m alt., 18 ° N, 96 ° W ( FLMNH 190939 View Materials partim) GoogleMaps   ; Cerro de Las Palmas, 1 km E of Berlin, ca 4 km N of Cordoba , 980 m alt., 18 ° N, 96 ° W ( FLMNH 190859 View Materials partim) GoogleMaps   . Puebla: 1.6 km NE of Chietla , 1400 m alt., 18 ° 319N, 98 ° 359W ( FLMNH 35458 View Materials )   ; Tepexic near Necaxa , 675 m alt. ( ANSP 256459 View Materials , voucher to Baker 1930)   ; below Necaxa , 900 m alt., 20 ° 139N, 98 ° 009W ( ANSP 256460 View Materials , voucher to Baker 1930)   . Tabasco: Teapa , 17 ° 339N, 92 ° 579W ( FLMNH 35455 View Materials )   . Yucatán: Tikúl , 20 ° 249N, 89 ° 329W ( FLMNH 19412 View Materials , voucher to Thompson 1967)   . Guerrero: 1.3 km N of Playa Majahua , 50 m alt., 17 ° 479580N, 101 ° 449110W ( FLMNH 200185 View Materials )   ; 2 km NNE of Punto Troncones , 50 m alt., 17 ° N, 101 ° W ( FLMNH 211721 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 5 km E of Naranjito , 480 m alt., 18 ° 049180N, 101 ° 489520W ( FLMNH 200683 View Materials )   ; 2 km E of Naranjillo , 430 m alt., 18 ° 049320N, 101 ° 459330W ( FLMNH 200672 View Materials partim)   ; 3 km E of Naranjillo , 350 m alt., 18 ° N, 101 ° W ( FLMNH 211741 View Materials partim) GoogleMaps   . Oaxaca: Bosque Natural de Temascal , 1 km SW of Cedral, 100 m alt., 18 ° 239N, 96 ° 299W ( FLMNH 159487 View Materials partim)   ; 1.5 km SE, 1 km NE of La Selva Uno , 100 m alt., 18 ° 269280N, 96 ° 309100W ( FLMNH 200483 View Materials partim)   .

Bahamas: San Salvador Island, French Bay Pier, S coast, 11.1 km SSW of Cockburn Town, 4 m alt., 24 ° N, 74 ° W ( FLMNH 246602 View Materials ); Little Abaco Island, 0.4 km E of Foxtown, 26 ° N, 77 ° W ( FLMNH 39155 View Materials partim) GoogleMaps   .

Cuba: La Estrella Morro, 20 ° 069N, 75 ° 559W ( FLMNH 138749 View Materials ); Cárdenas, 23 ° 029N, 81 ° 129W ( ANSP 160512 View Materials )   .

Jamaica: Mandeville, 18 ° 029N, 77 ° 309W (ANSP 101399, voucher to Pilsbry and Brown 1910); Stony Hill, Saint Andrew 18 ° 059N, 76 ° 489W (ANSP 104491, voucher to Pilsbry 1920); 0.5 km W of Troy, 427 m alt., 18 ° 159N, 77 ° 379W (FLMNH 116008); 1.2 km N of Good Hope House, 100 m alt., 18 ° 259N, 77 ° 419W (FLMNH 210130 partim); Montego Bay, 18 ° 289N, 77 ° 559W (ANSP 101398, voucher to Pilsbry 1920); Orange Hill, Montego Bay (ANSP 104493, voucher to Pilsbry 1920).

Haiti: 2 km W of Saud d’Eau, 440 m alt., 18 ° N, 73 ° W ( FLMNH 32776 View Materials ); San Lorenzo, S side of Samana Bay , 19 ° 109N, 73 ° 009W ( ANSP 44672 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   .

Dominican Republic: Bani , 65 m alt., 18 ° 209N, 70 ° 239W ( FMNH 175643 View Materials , 175649 View Materials )   ; Cambita near San Cristobal, 35 m alt., 18 ° 279N, 70 ° 129W ( FMNH 175616 View Materials , 175651 View Materials )   ; Medina near San Cristobal, 18 ° 329N, 70 ° 089W ( FMNH 175648 View Materials )   ; Villa Trina near Boca ( FMNH 175644 View Materials )   .

Puerto Rico: canyon of Rio Grande de Arecibo, about 10 miles S of town (ANSP 256069, voucher to Baker 1961); Island of Vieques, 18 ° N, 65 ° W (ANSP 982, voucher to Tryon 1886).

Virgin Islands: St Thomas Island, Nadir Estate, 0.3 km SW of junction of Highways 30 and 32, 18 ° 199N, 64 ° 529W (FLMNH 119889).

Netherlands Antilles: St Eustatius Island , Base of White Wall, 17 ° N, 62 ° W ( FMNH 64300 View Materials , voucher to Haas 1960) GoogleMaps   .

Belize: Vaca Plateau , Caracol Archeological Monument, 600 m alt., 16 ° 459480N, 89 ° 069060W ( FLMNH 198424 View Materials partim)   ; 10 km SE of Benque , 300 m alt., 16 ° 599480N, 89 ° 049240W ( FLMNH 207355 View Materials partim)   ; 0.8 km NE of Benque Viejo del Carmen , 100 m alt., 17 ° 309000N, 89 ° 089180W ( FLMNH 146324 View Materials partim)   ; 5.4 km W of Nuendorf , 100 m alt., 17 ° N, 88 ° W ( FLMNH 207203 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   .

Guatemala: 2.5 km NE of Puente Chixoy, 810 m alt., 15 ° 219320N, 90 ° 399100W (FLMNH 189992 partim); 8 km SE of Lanquin, 350 m alt., 15 ° 329430N, 89 ° 569490W (FLMNH 190121 partim); 4 km W of Lanquin, 330 m alt., 15 ° 349370N, 90 ° 019060W (FLMNH 190098 partim); 2 km WNW of Lanquin, 300 m alt., 15 ° 349380N, 89 ° 599190W (FLMNH 190074 partim); 10 km NNW of Camajo Grande, 680 m alt., 15 ° 419270N, 91 ° 559580W (FLMNH 190439 partim); 2 km SW of Nenton, 600 m alt., 15 ° 479520N, 91 ° 459420W (FLMNH 190480 partim).

Honduras: Choluteca, 13 ° 189N, 87 ° 110W ( FLMNH 34841 View Materials partim); Silca , 600 m alt., 14 ° 489370N, 86 ° 329320W ( FLMNH 212213 View Materials partim); Agua Azul, 1300 m alt., 14 ° 559N, 87 ° 589W ( FLMNH 34833 View Materials )   ; Magua Cave   , 15 km SSW of Gualaco , 940 m alt., 14 ° 569300N, 86 ° 079300W ( FLMNH 194342 View Materials partim)   ; 5 km NNW of Rio Tinto, 2 km NNE of Campo Nuevo , 500 m alt., 14 ° 579080N, 85 ° 429350W ( FLMNH 194503 View Materials , 212139 View Materials partim)   ; 20 km NE of Copán, Rio Maria , 640 m alt., 14 ° N, 87 ° W ( FLMNH 221035 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 0.5 km SE of Cerron, 28 km SW of Villanueva , 350 m alt., 15 ° 109150N, 88 ° 069270W ( FLMNH 224407 View Materials )   ; 24 km E of Jocón , 260 m alt., 15 ° 229080N, 86 ° 599360W ( FLMNH 212052 View Materials )   ; 2.6 km SW of La Brea , 100 m alt., 15 ° 459390N, 86 ° 009080W ( FLMNH 211988 View Materials partim)   ; 7 km ENE of La Brea , 100 m alt., 15 ° N, 85 ° W ( FLMNH 221338 View Materials partim); 11.5 km SW of GoogleMaps   Francia, 50 m alt., 15 ° N, 85 ° W ( FLMNH 221435 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 21 km WSW of Olanchito , 150 m alt., 15 ° N, 86 ° W ( FLMNH 221208 View Materials partim) GoogleMaps   ; 13.6 km NE of Jocón , 260 m alt., 15 ° N, 86 ° W ( FLMNH 221269 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Roatán Island   , 1.6 km E of West Bay Beach, 100 m alt., 16 ° 169540N, 86 ° 359290W ( FLMNH 224534 View Materials partim); Roatán Island , 2.5 km N, 3.0 km   E of Oak Ridge , 250 m alt., 16 ° 249530N, 86 ° 209240W ( FLMNH 224483 View Materials )   ;

Nicaragua: 4 km N of Masatepe , 733 m alt., 11 ° N, 86 ° W ( FLMNH 34828 View Materials partim) GoogleMaps   ; 4 km SSW of Tuma , 700 m alt., 13 ° N, 85 ° W ( FLMNH 34831 View Materials partim, 34834) GoogleMaps   .

Costa Rica: 14.1 km S of Palmar Norte , 233 m alt., 8 ° N, 83 ° W ( FLMNH 34838 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Turrialba , 667 m alt., 9 ° 549N, 83 ° 419W ( FLMNH 34836 View Materials )   ; Santa Ana, 1433 m alt., 9 ° 569N, 84 ° 119W ( FLMNH 34821 View Materials partim)   ; San Isidro del General , 2100 m alt., 9 ° 599N, 84 ° 019W ( FLMNH 34837 View Materials partim)   ; 0.8 km NNW of Colonia Carmona , 10 ° 009N, 85 ° 159W ( FLMNH 34820 View Materials )   ; Puerto Jesus , 10 ° 079N, 85 ° 169W ( FLMNH 34807 View Materials partim)   ; Nicoya , 10 ° 099N, 85 ° 279W ( FLMNH 34829 View Materials )   ; Santa Cruz , 10 ° 169N, 85 ° 359W ( FLMNH 34822 View Materials )   ; La Lola, 47.2 km W of Limón, 10 ° N, 83 ° W ( FLMNH 34835 View Materials partim) GoogleMaps   ; 16.7 km ESE of Santa Cruz , 10 ° N, 85 ° W ( FLMNH 34830 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 11.7 km E of Bahia Tamarindo , 10 ° N, 85 ° W ( FLMNH 34827 View Materials partim) GoogleMaps   ; 4.2 km S of Nicoya , 10 ° N, 85 ° W ( FLMNH 34812 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 10 km S of Nicoya , 10 ° N, 85 ° W ( FLMNH 34819 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; La Lola, 47.2 km W of Limón, 10 ° N, 83 ° W ( FLMNH 34835 View Materials partim) GoogleMaps   .

Panama: Tonosi , 7 ° 249N, 80 ° 279W ( ANSP 162450 View Materials )   ; Capira , 8 ° 459N, 79 ° 539W ( FMNH 63723 View Materials partim); Pedro Miguel, 9 ° 019N, 79 ° 379W ( ANSP 161817 View Materials ; FMNH 63722 View Materials ); Juan Mina, 9 ° 109N, 79 ° 399W ( ANSP 45261 View Materials ; FMNH 63721 View Materials , vouchers to Pilsbry 1926a); Allee Creek, Barro Colorado, 9 ° N, 79 ° W ( FMNH 73509 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   .

Colombia, La Guajira: La Goajira Peninsula, 2 km S of Rio Hacha , 11 ° N, 72 ° W ( FMNH 296624 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   .

Venezuela, Lara: 3.7 km E and   4.7 km N of Tamaca , 680 m alt., 10 ° N, 69 ° W ( FLMNH 133190 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Carabobo: 2 km S of Borburata , 100 m alt., 10 ° 269000N, 67 ° 589160W ( FLMNH 246509 View Materials )   ; 2 km N of Petanemo , 10 m alt., 10 ° 279130N, 67 ° 559120W ( FLMNH 246502 View Materials partim)   .

Trinidad and Tobago, Tobago Island: 1 km S of Crown Point Airport , 10 m alt., 11 ° 089550N, 60 ° 509130W ( FLMNH 226690 View Materials )   ; Union Village , 80 m alt., 11 ° 129230N, 60 ° 459140W ( FLMNH 226801 View Materials )   ; 0.9 km NE Belle Garden , 30 m alt., 11 ° 149010N, 60 ° 359460W ( FLMNH 226771 View Materials )   ; 3.7 km NE of Roxborough , 280 m alt., 11 ° 169250N, 60 ° 359150W ( FLMNH 226730 View Materials )   . Trinidad Island: 5.0 km SSW of Fyzabad, Morne Daisy Village , 10 m alt., 10 ° 119540N, 61 ° 359150W ( FLMNH 227142 View Materials )   ; Point Radix, 7.0 km NE of Mayaro (Pierreville), 3 m alt., 10 ° 209110N, 60 ° 599230W ( FLMNH 226909 View Materials partim)   ; St Augustine, 10 ° 399N, 61 ° 249W ( FMNH 65415 View Materials , voucher to Haas 1960)   ; Port of Spain, 10 ° 399N, 61 ° 319W ( ANSP 140635 View Materials )   ; Point Gourde, 110 m alt., 10 ° 409230N, 61 ° 379470W ( FLMNH 226490 View Materials )   ; 8.1 km ENE of Maraval , near Contaro, 100 m alt., 10 ° 429580N, 61 ° 289380W ( FLMNH 226253 View Materials )   ; 1.1 km S Santa Cruz , 100 m alt., 10 ° 439060N, 61 ° 289390W ( FLMNH 227218 View Materials )   ; 2.0 km NE La Platonia, Gasparillo Village , 100 m alt., 10 ° 439330N, 61 ° 279360W ( FLMNH 227188 View Materials )   ; Trinidad ( SMF 150031 View Materials , 259325 View Materials )   .

Suriname: Tambaredjo, 5 ° 509N, 55 ° 339W (NNM, voucher to van Regteren Altena 1960).

Brazil, Amazonas: Manaus, 03 ° 079S, 60 ° 029310W (ANSP 139135, voucher to Pilsbry 1926b). Ceara´: Serra de Baturite´, 4 ° 159S, 39 ° 059W (ANSP 109342, voucher to Baker 1914). São Paulo: São Paulo, 23 ° 329S, 46 ° 379W (ANSP 141386, voucher to Pilsbry 1920). Rio Grande do Sul: Taquara del Mundo novo, 29 ° 399S, 50 ° 479W ( SMF 55285 View Materials partim).

Argentina, Salta: Lumbrera, 25 ° 149S, 64 ° 509W ( FMNH 216318 View Materials )   . Tucumán: San Miguel de Tucumán, park of the institute M. Lillo, 430 m alt., 26 ° 499S, 65 ° 139W ( SMF 164128 View Materials , 275438 View Materials partim)   .

Shell ( Figures 1, 2)

Globose-conical; apex obtuse; body whorl with unequal growth lines crossed by fine incised spiral striae, sometimes with additional low riblets; upper whorls irregularly granulated; corneous; shining; subtranslucent; 2.5–3.25 inflated whorls separated by a deep suture; body whorl slightly descending towards the aperture, basally rounded; aperture truncaterounded, edentate; peristome neither expanded nor reflexed nor thickened; columellar margin triangularly dilated, more or less covering the narrow umbilicus. Shell measurements and ratios are listed in Tables I and II.

Remarks

Pupisoma dioscoricola   can easily be distinguished from the other American Pupisoma species   by its distinct spiral striae and its larger first whorls.

Möllendorff (1899) and Haas (1937) failed to note that there are two species among the type series of P. americanum Möllendorff, 1899   . The lectotype designated by Haas (1937) and some of the paralectotypes belong to the form of P. dioscoricola   with distinct riblets, later called P. dioscoricola insigne Pilsbry, 1920   , the other paralectotypes belong to P. macneilli   . Specimens with distinct riblets occur scattered throughout the range of P. dioscoricola   and sometimes even sympatrically with the typical form. Therefore, the form with distinct riblets cannot be considered a geographical subspecies.

Pupisoma puella Hylton Scott, 1960   was based on a single specimen which differs from P. dioscoricola insigne   supposedly in the more regular spacing of the riblets. Hylton Scott (1960) separated P. puella   from P. dioscoricola insigne   mainly because of the great distance between the type locality of the latter in Texas and the occurrence of the former in Argentina. However, specimens with distinct riblets occur also in the intervening regions, e.g. also in Guyana and Ecuador. There is no reason to consider P. puella   to be specifically distinct.

The anatomy of P. dioscoricola   has been described by Tillier (1980).

The specimens recorded as P. dioscoricola   from Dog Island by Haas (1960) do not belong to Pupisoma   .

Pilsbry (1920) has already questioned whether P. orcula (Benson, 1850)   , that is distributed throughout the Old World tropics from Africa to East Asia, Australia and even to some Pacific islands, can be separated from the American P. dioscoricola   (see also Solem 1989). A comparison of American specimens with material from Africa also did not reveal any conchological differences. Thus, P. orcula (Benson, 1850)   can be considered a synonym of P. dioscoricola   unless future genetic studies show that Old World and New World populations form separate units.

Distribution ( Figure 6 View Figure 6 )

Pupisoma dioscoricola   is a circumtropical species (given that P. orcula   is a synonym). Pupisoma dioscoricola   originated probably in the Old World, because all other Ptychopatula species   are restricted to the Old World tropics. However, given its wide distribution in the Americas, it is unlikely that P. dioscoricola   has been introduced into the New World only by humans.

Pupisoma dioscoricola   is one of the most widespread snails in tropical and subtropical America occurring from the southern USA through the Caribbean and Central America to the Galapagos Islands and to southern Brazil and northern Argentina. It is most frequent in lowland forest, but has been found up to 2100 m altitude.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Mollusca

Class

Gastropoda

Order

Stylommatophora

Family

Valloniidae

Genus

Pupisoma

Loc

Pupisoma (Ptychopatula) dioscoricola (C. B. Adams, 1845 )

Hausdorf, Bernhard 2007
2007
Loc

Pupisoma puella

Hylton Scott MI 1960: 29
1960
Loc

Pupisoma dioscoricola insigne

Pilsbry HA 1920: 39
1920
Loc

Pupisoma dioscoricola:

Smith AG 1971: 7
Thompson FG 1967: 232
Branson BA & McCoy CJ Jr. 1963: 108
Burch JB 1962: 49
Hylton Scott MI 1960: 25
Wilson D 1960: 137
Pilsbry HA 1948: 1007
van der Schalie H 1948: 37
Goodrich C & van der Schalie H 1937: 30
Baker HB 1935: 88
Vanatta EG 1928: 21
Pilsbry HA 1926: 103
Vanatta EG 1923: 66
Pilsbry HA 1920: 36
1920
Loc

Pupisoma americanum Möllendorff 1899 , p 91

Mollendorff O von 1899: 91
1899
Loc

Thysanophora dioscoricola:

Hinkley AA 1920: 39
Pilsbry HA & Brown AP 1910: 517
Dall WH & Simpson CT 1901: 379
Pilsbry HA 1894: 57
1894
Loc

Microphysa

Binney WG 1890: 196
1890
Loc

Helix (Conulus) dioscoricola:

Tryon GW Jr. 1886: 174
1886
Loc

Helix

Pilsbry HA 1920: 37
Binney WG 1884: 113
1884
Loc

Helix caeca

Guppy RJL 1869: 241
1869
Loc

Helix punctum

Morelet A 1851: 9
1851
Loc

Helix dioscoricola C. B. Adams 1845 , p 16

Adams CB 1845: 16
1845