Latrunculia (Uniannulata) oparinae Samaai & Krasokhin, 2002,

Kelly, Michelle, Sim-Smith, Carina, Stone, Robert, Reiswig, Toufiek Samaai Henry & Austin, William, 2016, New taxa and arrangements within the family Latrunculiidae (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida), Zootaxa 4121 (1), pp. 1-48: 17-20

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Latrunculia (Uniannulata) oparinae Samaai & Krasokhin, 2002

subgen. nov.

Latrunculia (Uniannulata) oparinae Samaai & Krasokhin, 2002  subgen. nov., comb. nov.

( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 B, 8, 16AG; Tables 4, 8, 9)

Latrunculia oparinae Samaai & Krasokhin, 2002: 95  –101; Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 A –G, 2.

Latrunculia (Biannulata) oparinae, Samaai et al. 2006: 54  ; Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 S, 6 N, 7, 8C, 9 A; Table 2, 3. Latrunculia oparinae, Abbas et al. 2011: 2429  ‒2430, Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 A.

Not Latrunculia (Biannulata) oparinae, Stone et al. 2011: 113  , Fig. 1–4View FIGURE 1View FIGURE 2View FIGURE 3View FIGURE 4; 141, 145. Latrunculia cf. tricincta, Austin et al. Latrunculia  % 20 sp% 20 cf% 20 tricincta  .htm (not: Hentschel 1929).

Material Examined. Central Aleutian Islands: NHMUK 2011.2.11.1: south Amchitka Pass, 8.5 km WNW of Unalga Island, Delarof Islands, 51.594 ° N, 179.180 ° W, 223 m, 24 Jul 2010, NOAA Fisheries, FV Sea Storm, Station-haul 160, Cruise 201001, collected by J. Sims; RBCM 015-00488-001: 20.9 km S of SW Amlia Island, 51.859 ° N, 173.910 ° W, 195 m, 6 Jul 2004, NOAA Fisheries, RV Velero IV, Delta  submersible Dive 6222, Station 2 A, collected by H. Lehnert; RBCM 015-00489-001: 0.5 km N of SW Kasotochi Island, 52.174 ° N, 175.615 ° W, 112 m, 7 Jul 2004, NOAA Fisheries, RV Velero IV, Delta  submersible Dive 6227, Station Kasotochi, collected by D. Carlile; RBCM 015-00484-002: 6.6 km SSW of Cape Tusik, Kanaga Island, Adak Strait, 51.622 ° N, 177.239 ° W, 155 m, 2 Jul 2004, NOAA Fisheries, RV Vel ero IV, Station 5 E, collected by R. Stone with a 6 m shrimp trawl (4 specimens); NHMUK 2008.3.27.1: same locality data as above; RBCM 015-00490-003: 25.2 km WNW of Amtgnak Island, Delarof Islands, Amchitka Pass, 51.333 ° N, 179.503 ° W, 175 m, 3 Aug 2004, NOAA Fisheries, RV Roger Revelle, ROV Jason  II Dive 102, Station 14, collected by R. Stone. Eastern Aleutian Islands: NHMUK 2006.8.24.3: 17 km NNE of Adugak Island, Samalga Pass, Aleutian Islands, 53.063 ° N, 169.087 ° W, 232 m, 12 Apr 2004, NOAA Fisheries, FV Gladiator  , Station 279 - 48, Cruise 200401, Haul 25; RBCM 015-00487-001: 8.5 km SSW of Herbert Island, Islands of Four Mountains, 52.648 ° N, 170.052 ° W, 235 m, 18 Jun 2012, NOAA Fisheries, FV Ocean Explorer, Station-haul 41, Cruise 201201, collected by B. Knoth.

Type location. Kurile Islands, Sea of Okhotsk, Russia.

Distribution. Kurile Islands, Sea of Okhotsk, Russia to the Islands of Four Mountains, eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

Description. Small globular to spherical or block-shaped sponge, width 47 (25–65) mm × height 34 (20–50) mm × thickness 39 (20–60) mm, n = 10; surface covered with distinctive trumpet-shaped areolate pore fields, and long, broad, cylindrical apical oscular tubes or long tapered oscular tubes on the periphery of the sponge ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 A – E). Aquiferous structures on some specimens are short and squat. Texture firm, interior markedly fibrous and stringy, almost honeycombed, difficult to tear. Colour in life is khaki green to light greenish brown, darkening to oak brown in preservative. Often attached to pebbles or bivalve shells in life.

Skeleton. Ectosome, a palisade of anisodiscorhabds above a sub-ectosomal paratangential layer of megascleres, 475–550 µm thick ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 F); this layer tends towards vertical near the pore fields. Choanosome, extremely cavernous and stringy with thick, compact tracts of megascleres 500–600 µm wide, but many are up to 800 µm wide. Gaps between tracts are well over several thousand µm wide. Microscleres are scattered between the megascleres in the ectosome and throughout the choanosome.

Spicules. Megascleres ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 G; Table 4), anisostyles, centrally thickened and slightly sinuous, head acanthose with conical and retrovert spines, 507 (400–610) × 15 (11–19) µm.

Microscleres ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 H –L; Table 4), anisodiscorhabds, manubrium composed of five chisel-shaped doublet projections, with a small number of scattered spines, emanating obliquely from the end of the shaft, basal whorl above the manubrium consists of another five sets of chisel-shaped, more distinctly doublet projections, ornamented with small spines ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 L). The median whorl is composed of horizontal, micro-spined paddles with denticulate margins, 31 (28–38) µm. Subsidiary, apical whorl and apex are only partially differentiated ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 K, right), forming a solid tuft of micro-spined spines with denticulate margins, 46 (35–53) µm long.

Substrate, depth range and ecology. Prior to this work L. (U.) oparinae  was known only from the Kurile Islands, where it was found on a gravel and sand seafloor between 127–238 m ( Samaai & Krasokhin 2002; Samaai et al. 2006). In the Aleutian Islands the species is quite common at depths between 79 and 288 m ( Stone et al. 2011). The species is sympatric with L. (L.) hamanni  sp. nov. ( Stone et al. 2011), and grows directly on bedrock, pebbles, cobbles and boulders, in areas of relatively flat seafloor with moderate to high currents. Latrunculia (U.) oparinae  is discrete and easily recognisable, having a globular shape with columnar aquiferous structures, and being a characteristic olive to khaki green in colour.

Remarks. Latrunculia (Uniannulata) oparinae  and L. (L.) hamanni  sp. nov. are sympatric species, separated in the field primarily on colouration, and morphology of the aquiferous structures; L. (U.) oparinae  is khaki green with tall thin elevated pore fields and oscules, while L. (L.) hamanni  sp. nov. is dark purplish brown and has short, sucker-shaped pore fields and oscules (see Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 B). Both species have a firm, fibrous, stringy texture. The key taxonomic point of difference, however, is the morphology of the anisodiscorhabds; in L. (U.) oparinae  the subsidiary whorl does not appear independently above the median whorl as it does in L. (L.) hamanni  sp. nov., and the whorls of the anisodiscorhabds in L. (U.) oparinae  are composed of broad paddles, or petals with serrated edges, while those of L. (L.) hamanni  sp. nov. are almost entirely composed of sculpted spines. Furthermore, the apical whorl and apex in the anisodiscorhabds of L. (U.) oparinae  form crown-like rings of double serrated paddles that frequently occur in pairs (see Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 K, L), while the spines of the apex and apical whorl of L. (L.) hamanni  sp. nov. form a solid undifferentiated tuft ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 F). The megascleres of L. (U.) oparinae  are about 20 µm longer than those of L. (L.) hamanni  sp. nov. Latrunculia (U.) oparinae  is also similar in colouration to L. (L.) austini  but the latter species is very different morphologically and has not been found, to date, west of the eastern Gulf of Alaska.

TABLE 4. Spicule dimensions (µm) of Latrunculia (Uniannulata) oparinae Samaai & Krasokhin, 2002 subgen. nov.

ZMA Por. 10780 Holotype    
    46 (45‒48) × 33 (28‒38)
    47 (45‒50) × 29 (28‒33)
  535 (480‒590) × 16 (13‒18) 48 (45‒53) × 31 (28‒33)
  550 (481‒610) × 14 (13‒18) 48 (45‒50) × 33 (30‒38)
  510 (450‒560) × 16 (15‒19) 45 (40‒48) × 32 (30‒33)

Natural History Museum, London


National Oceanic and Atmospeheric Administration


Royal British Columbia Museum














Latrunculia (Uniannulata) oparinae Samaai & Krasokhin, 2002

Kelly, Michelle, Sim-Smith, Carina, Stone, Robert, Reiswig, Toufiek Samaai Henry & Austin, William 2016

Latrunculia (Biannulata) oparinae

Stone 2011: 113

Latrunculia (Biannulata) oparinae

Abbas 2011: 2429
Samaai 2006: 54

Latrunculia oparinae

Samaai 2002: 95