Latrunculia (Latrunculia) hamanni Kelly, Reiswig & Samaai,

Kelly, Michelle, Sim-Smith, Carina, Stone, Robert, Reiswig, Toufiek Samaai Henry & Austin, William, 2016, New taxa and arrangements within the family Latrunculiidae (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida), Zootaxa 4121 (1), pp. 1-48: 10-14

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Latrunculia (Latrunculia) hamanni Kelly, Reiswig & Samaai

sp. nov.

Latrunculia (Latrunculia) hamanni Kelly, Reiswig & Samaai  sp. nov.

( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 B, Fig. 5View FIGURE 5, 6View FIGURE 6, 16View FIGURE 16 L; Tables 2, 8, 9)

Latrunculia  sp. undescribed, Na et al. 2010: 385.

Latrunculia  n. sp. (dark purple brown hemisphere), Abbas et al. 2011: 2429‒2430; Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 B. Latrunculia (Biannulata) oparinae, Stone et al. 2011: 113  , Fig. 1‒4View FIGURE 1View FIGURE 2View FIGURE 3View FIGURE 4; 141, 145 (not: Samaai & Krasokhin 2002).

Material examined. Holotype— RBCM 015-00480-001: 29 km SSE of Russian Bay, Umnak Island, eastern Aleutian Islands, 52.888 ° N, 168.253 ° W, 121 m, 30 May 2013, NOAA Fisheries, FV Ocean Explorer, Station-haul 5, Cruise 201301, collected by N. Laman. Paratypes— Eastern Aleutian Islands: RBCM 015-00481-001, RBCM 015-00481-002: 11 km west of Cape Kigushimkada, 53.118 ° N, 168.974 ° W, 265 m, 13 Jun 2012, NOAA Fisheries, FV Ocean Explorer, Station-haul 27, Cruise 201201, collected by B. Knoth; RBCM 015-00482-001: 8.5 km SSW of Herbert Island, Islands of Four Mountains, 52.648 ° N, 170.219 ° W, 235 m, 18 Jun 2012, NOAA Fisheries, FV Ocean Explorer, Station-haul 41, Cruise 201201, collected by B. Knoth. Central Aleutian Islands: 6.6 km SSW of Cape Tusik, Kanaga Island, Adak Strait, RBCM 015-00483-001: 51.622 ° N, 177.238 ° W, 150 m, 26 Jun 2004, NOAA Fisheries, RV Velero IV, Delta  submersible dive transect 6199, Station 5 E, collected by R.

Stone; RBCM 015-00484-001: 51.622 ° N, 177.239 ° W, 155 m, 2 Jul 2004, NOAA Fisheries, RV Velero IV, Station 5 E, collected with a 6 m shrimp trawl. Other material. Aleutian Islands: RBCM 015-00485-001: 17.6 km N of Petrel Pt., Semisopochnoi Island, Petrel Bank, 52.185 ° N, 179.655 ° E, 117 m, Alaska Department of Fish & Game ( United States), FV Ballyhoo, annual king crab survey, 22 Nov 2009, collected by R. Burt; NHMUK 2006.8.24.1: 17 km NNE of Adugak Island, Samalga Pass, 53.063 ° N, 169.087 ° W, 232 m, 12 Jun 2004, NOAA Fisheries, FV Gladiator  , Station 279 – 48, Cruise 200401, Haul 25; NHMUK 2006.8.24.2: 10 km WNW of Uliaga Island, Islands of Four Mountains, 53.115 ° N, 169.914 ° W, 217 m, 13 Jun 2006, collected with bottom trawl on NOAA Fisheries annual groundfish stock assessment survey (featured in Na et al. 2010); NHMUK 2008.3.27.2: Little Tanaga Strait, 51.871 ° N, 176.266 ° W, 146 m, 28 Jun 2004, collected by R. Stone using submersible Delta  launched from RV Velero IV; NMHUK 2011.2.11.4: 17.7 km west of Witchcraft Point, Kiska Island, 52.070 ° N, 177.247 ° E, 88 m, 28 Jul 2010, NOAA Fisheries, FV Sea Storm, Station-haul 173, Cruise 201001, collected by J. Sims.

Type location. Russian Bay, Umnak Island, eastern Aleutian Islands.

Distribution. North Pacific Ocean, from Kiska Island to Umnak Island in the Aleutian Islands, including Petrel Bank which extends into the Bering Sea.

Description. Hemispherical to spherical sponge ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5), about 16 cm diameter, by 4–5 cm thick, with short cylindrical oscules, 4–5 mm wide, elevated 2 mm high, much contracted in the preserved form, appearing taller than wide ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 C –E). Numerous, small, raised, sucker-shaped areolate pore fields cover the surface in life ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 A, B), collapsing into dimples in the preserved condition. Texture in life firm, surface leathery, difficult to tear, the interior is cavernous, fibrous, and stringy, collapsed in the preserved state. Colour in life is dark chocolate to purplish brown. Often attached to large, smooth pebbles ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 E), cobbles or boulders.

Skeleton. Ectosome, a palisade of anisodiscorhabds above a layer of megascleres 350–500 µm thick; the megascleres are paratangential to the ectosome but tend towards vertical near the pore fields. Numerous anisodiscorhabds are scattered between the megascleres in the ectosome. Choanosome, a cavernous, wide-meshed reticulation of thick, loosely constructed tracts of megascleres, about 150–250 um wide ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 A). Megascleres and microscleres are scattered throughout the choanosome between tracts.

Spicules. Megascleres ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 B, Table 2), anisostyles, fusiform, slightly sinuous, head acanthose with retrovert spines, 492 (442–545) × 13 (8–15) µm.

Microscleres ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 C –G, Table 2), anisodiscorhabds, manubrium composed of three spear-shaped sculpted spines ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 G) with rows of tiny teeth that curve along the edges of the sculpted sections, emanating obliquely from the end of the shaft. The basal whorl, above the manubrium, consists of six thick, sharp, sculpted spines, ornamented with single spines and rows of tiny teeth, spines slant towards the manubrium. The median and subsidiary whorls are also composed of serrated, sculpted spines, approximately equal in diameter, 30 (23–35) µm. Shaft is lightly microspined. Apical whorl and apex are not clearly differentiated, forming a solid tuft of spines that are smooth and lightly serrated along sculpted sections ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 F), 48 (40–55) µm long.

Substrate, depth range and ecology. Locally common in Alaskan waters; densities of up to 14 individuals per m 2 were observed in the central Aleutian Islands ( Stone et al. 2011). Grows on bedrock, pebbles, cobbles and boulders, on shelf and upper slope habitats, at depths between about 80 and 300 m in areas with relatively high currents. Sympatric with L. oparinae ( Stone et al. 2011)  .

Etymology. Named for Mark T. Hamann, Professor of Pharmacognosy, Pharmacology and Biochemistry, University of Mississippi, for his contribution to sponge systematics through his diverse studies of marine natural products and sponge biochemistry.

Remarks. Latrunculia (L.) hamanni  sp. nov. was first collected in 2004 but identified only as “ Latrunculia  sp. undescribed” in a study that yielded two new brominated pyrroloiminoquinones, dihydrodiscorhabdin B and discorhabdin Y, along with six known pyrroloiminoquinone alkaloids ( Na et al. 2010; NHMUK 2006.8.24.1– 2). These compounds exhibited significant antiviral activity against hepatitis virus C, antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum  , and antimicrobial effects against several AIDS opportunistic pathogens. The species was collected again in 2006 and 2010, and in 2011 was discussed in the light of the Na et al. (2010) findings by Abbas et al. (2011: 2429‒2430, Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 B), but named only as “ Latrunculia  n. sp. (dark purple brown hemisphere)”. The species was further highlighted in Stone’s et al. (2011) guide to the deep-water sponges of the Aleutian Island Archipelago as one of the three key species of Latrunculia  in the region, along with L. velera  and L. (L.) austini  . It was, however, mistakenly identified as a “dark brown (dominant) colour morph” of L. oparinae  ( Stone et al. 2011: 113, species 93, Fig. 1–4View FIGURE 1View FIGURE 2View FIGURE 3View FIGURE 4; the only image of L. oparinae in Stone et al. (2011)  is in Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 (left), yellowish green specimen, Stone et al. 2011: 113). All remaining sponge images illustrate L. (L.) hamanni  sp. nov., and have been replicated in Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 here.

Latrunculia (L.) hamanni  sp. nov. is easily distinguished from other species of Latrunculia  in the North Pacific and other regions, by a combination of characters including the deep chocolate brown colouration, the discrete areolate pore fields, and anisodiscorhabds with a large undifferentiated apical whorl and apex that forms a solid tuft of spines. The species differs from L. (L.) austini  which forms discrete, green spheres with large, apical oscules, and broad pore fields that almost obscure the exterior features. The megascleres of L. (L.) austini  are about 130 µm longer than those of L. (L.) hamanni  sp. nov., half the thickness, and they have smooth heads compared to those of L. (L.) hamanni  sp. nov. The anisodiscorhabds of L. (L.) austini  are about 7 µm longer and more slender than those of L. (L.) hamanni  sp. nov., and the microscleres are slender with sculpted, denticulate, undulating, almost petalshaped whorls (see Fig. 4View FIGURE 4, Table 1). Those of L. (L.) hamanni  sp. nov. have serrated, sculpted spines.

Latrunculia (L.) hamanni  sp. nov. is sympatric with L. oparinae  and L. velera  , and can be differentiated on subtle differences in colour and morphology; L. oparinae  is khaki green to light brown with a fibrous, cavernous morphology, and L. velera  is dull light brown and club-shaped. The anisodiscorhabds of L. oparinae  and L. velera  are, however, quite different from those of L. (L.) hamanni  sp. nov., forming the basis for establishment in this work of a new subgenus Latrunculia (Uniannulata)  subgen. nov. (see Fig. 6View FIGURE 6).

TABLE 2. Spicule dimensions (µm) of Latrunculia (Latrunculia) hamanni sp. nov.

RBCM 015-00480-001 Holotype   47 (43–53) × 30 (28–35)
    47 (43–52) × 30 (25–33)
  519 (481–545) × 14 (13–15) 50 (45–55) × 27 (25–28)
  494 (458–523) × 13 (12–13) 49 (43–53) × 31 (23–35)
  481 (450–510) × 14 (13–15) 47 (40–50) × 30 (25–33)
    50 (45–55) × 31 (28–33)

Royal British Columbia Museum


National Oceanic and Atmospeheric Administration


Natural History Museum, London














Latrunculia (Latrunculia) hamanni Kelly, Reiswig & Samaai

Kelly, Michelle, Sim-Smith, Carina, Stone, Robert, Reiswig, Toufiek Samaai Henry & Austin, William 2016


Na 2010: 385