Heterotheridion nigrovariegatum ( Simon, 1873 )

Knoflach, Barbara, Rollard, Christine & Thaler, Konrad, 2009, Notes on Mediterranean Theridiidae (Araneae) – II, ZooKeys 16 (16), pp. 227-264 : 238-240

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.3897/zookeys.16.237

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3791784

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03F387D5-FFF2-FFB5-06E4-FAB0CFF8FE99

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Heterotheridion nigrovariegatum ( Simon, 1873 )
status

 

Heterotheridion nigrovariegatum ( Simon, 1873)

Figs 32-33 View Figures 32-35 , 44 View Figures 41-44 , 59 View Figures 57-62

Achaearanea xinjiangensis Hu & Wu, 1989: 119 , male, female, figs 92.1-5, type region: China, Xinjiang, syn. n.

Theridion xinjiangensis : – Zhu 1998: 187, figs 121A-F, male, female.

Theridion xinjiangensis : – Song et al. 1999: 148, figs 82E-F, I-J, male, female.

Heterotheridion nigrovariegatum : – Wunderlich 2008: 388, 460, figs 510-516, male, female, transfer from Theridion .

For additional synonyms see Platnick (2008).

Material examined. Uzbekistan: Vil. Tashkent, T. Bostanlyk, Tschatkal mountains , Mt. Surenatra , 1550-1700 m, SSE Karamosov , 2 ♂, 15.6.- 17.6.1997, leg. H. and R. Rausch [97-23] . Vil. Kashka Darja, Hissar mountains W, Kukbulok surroundings, 1500 m, 1 ♂, 6.6.1997, leg. H. and R. Rausch [97-15] . Ibidem, 2000-2100 m, 1 ♂, 6.6.1997, leg. H. and R. Rausch [97-16] . Vil. Surchan Darja , 4 km SW Shurob, 14-1500 m, 2 ♂, 26.5.- 27.5.1997, leg. H. and R. Rausch [97-8] . Vil. Dzhizak, T. Farish, Nuratau mountains, Hayat-Saj , S Hayat , 950-1100 m, 1 ♂ 1 subadult ♂, leg. H. and R. Rausch [97-4] . Iran: Prov. Golestan, Tangegol, E Gonbad-e Qabus , 37°22’N / 55°56’E, 800 m, 1 ♂, 22.5.- 24.5.2001, leg. E. Heiss. GoogleMaps Turkey: Adapazari 12 km SSW, branch-off to Sapanca , ca. 100 m, beating at edge of oak forest, 1 male ( NMW), 14.6.1967, leg. J. Gruber. Greece: Corfu, W of Spartilas, above Pirgi , in olive grove and scrub, beat catches, 1 ♂, 29.5.1996, leg. B. Knoflach and K. Thaler [TH260 Ko96-5] . Corfu, Pantokrator, above Spartilas-Taxiarkhis , 650 m, beat catches around chapel, 1 ♀, 31.5.1996, leg. B. Knoflach and K. Thaler [TH-263 Ko96- 8] . Italy: Calabria, Catanzaro, Bosco di Stilo, S Paso d. Pietra Spada , 38°29’40’’N, 16°21’06’’E, 1300 m, 4 ♂, 16.6.2003, leg. H. and R. Rausch [2003-19] GoogleMaps . Toscana, Le Regine, Popiglio 800 m, 1 ♀, 15.10.1975, leg. K. Thaler. Molise, Matese, Campitello , 1500-1900 m, 1 ♂, 10.8.1989, leg. G. Osella. Friuli, Trieste, Aurisina , beating from Juniperus , 1 ♀, 13.7.1993, leg. F. Bertrandi . Ibidem, 1 ♂, 4.5.1994, 1 ♀, 2.6.1994, 1 ♂ 7 ♀, 17.6.1994, leg. F. Bertrandi. Lombardia, Lago di Garda, Rocca die Manerba , 1 ♂ 1 ♀, 16.6.1964, leg. K. Thaler . Lago di Garda, Riva, Monte Brione , 7 ♂ 1 ♀, 13.6.1964, leg. K. Thaler . South Tyrol / Alto Adige, Klausen, Säben , beat catches, 2 ♂ 4 ♀, 19.6.2004, leg. B. Knoflach and K. Thaler . Austria: Northern Tyrol, Oetz , 850-900 m, 2 ♂ 6 ♀, 9.6.2007, leg. Knoflach . Innsbruck surroundings, 700 m, from rolled leaf of Corylus avellana , 1 ♀, 27.7.2008, leg. B. Knoflach .

Voucher specimens deposited in CTh, MHNG, MHNP, NHMB, NMW if not specifically indicated.

Description, identification. Wiehle (1937), Miller (1971), Zhu (1998; sub Theridion xinjiangensis ), Jäger et al. (2000), Deltshev (2003), Nentwig et al. (2003), Wunderlich (2008), for additional citations see Platnick (2008).

Generic placement. Wunderlich (2008) established a new monotypic genus Heterotheridion for this strikingly coloured species ( Figs 32-33 View Figures 32-35 ) owing to its genital characters, such as the palpal tibia being elongated into a slender outgrowth, the cymbium with an apical, scaly bulge and a distal embolus directed clockwise ( Fig. 59 View Figures 57-62 ). Furthermore, the anterior median eyes are smaller than the posterior medians, the posterior eye row is procurved and the legs are rather long ( Wunderlich 2008). According to its mating behaviour, H. nigrovariegatum does not correspond to representatives of the genus Theridion ( Knoflach 2004) . Time and duration of sperm induction and number of insertions are clearly different. Sperm induction takes place independently of copulation and lasts correspondingly longer. Copulation usually consists of two insertions only ( Knoflach 2004).

Synonymy. Theridion xinjiangensis ( Hu & Wu, 1989) is synonymised with H. nigrovariegatum from the literature (figs 121 in Zhu 1998) because of the following distinct characters: Conformation of male palp and epigynum very similar ( Figs 44 View Figures 41-44 , 59 View Figures 57-62 ). Tibial and cymbial outgrowth typical, bulbus genitalis fully corresponding; conductor characteristically pointed, embolus clockwise, sperm duct highly convoluted within voluminous subtegulum and tegulum, median apophysis inconspicuous and hidden by cymbium ( Fig. 59 View Figures 57-62 ). Epigynum and vulva of Theridion xinjiangensis largely resemble those of H. nigrovariegatum in shape of copulatory orifices, coiled course of copulatory ducts and relatively large receptacula ( Fig. 44 View Figures 41-44 ). The only apparent morphological difference concerns the opisthosoma, which ends in a small tubercle in T. xinjiangensis (see fig. 121B in Zhu 1998). Specimens examined from Uzbekistan strengthen this synonymy. Also the type province Xinjiang is not so far distant from the hitherto known eastern records in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.

Distribution. Heterotheridion nigrovariegatum shows a wide distribution range within the Palaearctic, reaching its easternmost limits in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan ( Mikhailov 1997), W-China ( Zhu 1998, Song et al. 1999, sub T. xinjiangensis ) and Siberia ( Simon 1914: 294, without exact locality), and northernmost in the Russian plain ( Mikhailov 1997). This distinctive species has also been reported from a few localities in North Africa, Algeria ( Denis 1937) and Libya ( Bonnet 1959: 4495; Caporiacco 1936a, Ghat). In Europe it has been assigned as Mediterranean-expansive ( Thaler 1981; Knoflach and Thaler 1998). Further records come from several districts in Turkey ( Türkeş and Mergen 2007). In Central Europe a preference for xerothermic habitats is evident ( Buchar 1975; Thaler 1981; Jäger et al. 2000). H. nigrovariegatum lives on vegetation. Females hide in rolled leaves where they guard their egg sacs ( Kubcová and Buchar 2005).

NMW

Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Theridiidae

Genus

Heterotheridion

Loc

Heterotheridion nigrovariegatum ( Simon, 1873 )

Knoflach, Barbara, Rollard, Christine & Thaler, Konrad 2009
2009
Loc

Achaearanea xinjiangensis

Hu JL & Wu WG 1989: 119
1989
Loc

Achaearanea xinjiangensis

Hu JL & Wu WG 1989: 119
1989
Loc

Theridion xinjiangensis

Zhu 1998: 187
Loc

Theridion xinjiangensis

Song et al. 1999: 148
Loc

Heterotheridion nigrovariegatum

Wunderlich 2008: 388