Ricinoides iita, Botero-Trujillo & Sain & Prendini, 2021

Botero-Trujillo, Ricardo, Sain, Colby E. & Prendini, Lorenzo, 2021, Systematics Of The “ Giant ” Ricinulei (Ricinoididae: Ricinoides) Of West Africa, With Descriptions Of Five New Species And Comparative Morphology Of The Male Copulatory Apparatus, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 2021 (448), pp. 1-69: 44-51

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1206/0003-0090.448.1.1



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scientific name

Ricinoides iita

sp. nov.

Ricinoides iita   , sp. nov.

Figures 5 View FIGURE 5 , 6E View FIGURE 6 , 9E View FIGURE 9 , 10C View FIGURE 10 , 11E View FIGURE 11 , 14E View FIGURE 14 , 17E View FIGURE 17 , 20E View FIGURE 20 , 21E View FIGURE 21 , 24A, C, E, G View FIGURE 24 , 27 View FIGURE 27 , 30A, C, E, G, I View FIGURE 30 , 33E View FIGURE 33 , tables 1, 2, 4

TYPE MATERIAL: Holotype ♂ ( USNM), NIGERIA: Oyo: Ibaden [Ibadan], International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (I.I. T.A.) [07°30′N 03°53′E], iv.1973, B. Critchley, pitfall. Two microvials contain the following detached pieces: sinistral leg I, dextral leg III, and copulatory apparatus. GoogleMaps  

DIAGNOSIS: The male of R. iita   resembles the males of R. afzelii   , R. atewa   , and R. kakum   in the modified ventral part of the cucullus. It resembles the male of R. afzelii   in possessing an apical brushlike row of yellowish setae on the proventral surface of the metatarsus of leg III (fig. 27) and the femur of leg IV being wider than the femur of leg III, and deeper than the femur of leg I, characters unique to the two species. The male of R. iita   is unique among the four species in the anteromedian elevation on the cucullus (fig. 10C), the tubercles on the ventral surface of the pedipalp tibia not being noticeably enlarged or arranged in distinct rows (fig. 20E), the femur of leg IV being wider than the femur of leg I, and the femur of leg II being less incrassate (figs. 24A, C, table 4). Additionally, the structure of the fixed process of the male copulatory apparatus is unique in R. iita   (figs. 30A, C, E, G, I, 33E), as the α lobe is subcircular in cross-section and curved retrolaterally, and β 2 of the β lobe is fingerlike and larger than β 1 (table 2). Finally, the carapace of R. iita   possesses the smallest dorsolateral translucent areas of the four species.

ETYMOLOGY: The specific epithet is a noun in apposition taken from the acronym of the type locality, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (I.I.T.A.), in Ibadan, Nigeria.

DESCRIPTION OF MALE: Based on the holotype (USNM).

Measurements: Total length 9.74 mm (table 4).

Coloration: Soma and appendages predominantly dark brown, almost black. Carapace dorsolateral translucent areas yellowish. Opisthosomal tergal and pleural membranes dark yellow, hyaline. Cheliceral manus yellow; fingers, finger dentition, and manus toothlike process dark.

Setation: Surfaces densely covered with short, translucent, bristlelike setae, slightly expanded but not navicular, length similar to height of surrounding tuberose granules (figs. 6E, 14E). Polygonal setae absent.

Tegument surface macrosculpture: Tegument very irregular, without cuticular pits. Carapace, cucullus, opisthosomal sclerites, legs, and, to lesser extent, coxal region covered with coarse, rounded tuberose granules, evenly spaced apart, not clustered together (figs. 6E, 9E, 11E, 14E, 21E, 24A, C, E, G). Opisthosoma, pleural membranes finely and densely granular; tergal membranes more sparsely granular. Pedipalp femur dorsal, prolateral, and retrolateral surfaces finely granular; tibia with elevated oval tubercles distally (fig. 20E), not noticeably enlarged or arranged in distinct rows.

Carapace: Carapace wider than long, broadest between coxae of legs II and III; trapezoidal, lateral margins curved, narrowing anteriorly (fig. 6E); anterior margin linear in dorsal aspect; posterior margin slightly procurved; median longitudinal sulcus, paired posterior marginal transverse sulci, and paired anterolateral longitudinal sulci distinct; paired lateral depressions aligned with coxae of legs II; posteromedian moundlike excrescence absent; dorsolateral translucent areas entirely smooth, small, aligned with intersection between coxae of legs I and II, visible in dorsolateral aspect.

Cucullus: Cucullus   broadened laterally, wider than long; ventrolateral margins rounded (fig. 9E); ventral margin predominantly linear in anterior aspect, shallowly bilobate in ventral aspect, posterior surface worn, unclear if median row of denticulations present; anterior surface shallowly convex, without ventral compressed surface; pair of moderately developed sublateral longitudinal sulci; ventral part with moderate anteromedian elevation, visible in ventral aspect (fig. 10C), anteromedian knoblike tubercle absent.

Chelicerae: Manus dorsal surface with large toothlike process distally. Movable finger longer than fixed finger, tooth row comprising six small teeth; sharp prodorsal longitudinal carina parallel to tooth row (opposite fixed finger); mucron with shallow but distinct prolateral excavation (opposite fixed finger) delimited by two parallel longitudinal carinae. Fixed finger tooth row comprising four small teeth.

Coxosternal region: Tritosternum very small, barely visible, not abutting coxae of legs I (fig. 11E); coxae of legs II and IV abutting one another medially along entire length, coxae of legs III abutting along anterior two-thirds; coxae of legs II, anterior and posterior margins almost parallel, slightly narrowing medially, not perpendicular to median axis, inclined anteriorly; coxae of legs II, posterior margin U-shaped medially; suture between coxae of legs II approximately 2× length of suture between coxae of legs III and IV.

Opisthosoma: Opisthosoma oval, longer than wide, broadest at tergite XII. Posterodorsal and posteroventral margins without spiniform granules (figs. 14E, 17E). Tergites X–XIII each comprising median and lateral sclerites; median sclerites of tergites XI–XIII each with paired, shallow submedian depressions near anterior margins; lateral margins of median sclerites converging posteriorly on tergite XI and, to lesser extent, XII, subparallel on XIII; median sclerites of tergites XI and XII wider than long, of XIII approximately as wide as long, square; margins of lateral sclerites adjacent to tergal longitudinal membranes predominantly linear, tergal membranes narrow. Sternites XI–XIII each with pair of shallow submedian depressions similar to tergites (fig. 17E). Pygidium, basal segment parallel to longitudinal axis of opisthosoma; opening very narrow, compressed laterally, width approximately one third lateral width of segment at its base; posterior border narrow; dorsal surface with V-shaped notch; ventral surface entire.

Pedipalps: Femur globose, length approximately 2× depth. Tibia longer than femur; predominantly linear, slightly curving ventrally (fig. 20E); robust along entire length, margins parallel in dorsal aspect and, to lesser extent, lateral aspect; apical longitudinal carinae absent. Movable finger approximately 2× length of fixed finger.

Legs: Leg II longest, femur markedly incrassate (figs. 24A, C). Femora width (at midline) increasing in order leg III <I <IV << II; dorsal surface with longitudinal sulcus distinct on all legs. Leg I tibia without ventral apophyses; metatarsus subcircular in cross section, with deep proventral depression in proximal third and without prominent ventral excrescence (fig. 21E). Leg II tibia with large ventromedian apophysis proximally (fig. 24E), not markedly hook shaped, with pointed apex, entirely covered with tuberose granules; tibia and metatarsus without pad of long translucent setae ventrally; metatarsus with very shallow subproximal depression but without ventrosubmedian concavity or excrescence (fig. 24G); first to third tarsomeres short, subequal, fourth approximately 2× length of preceding tarsomeres; all tarsomeres movable. Leg III metatarsus not swollen, with moderate concavity dorsodistally; proventral surface with apical brushlike row of long, yellowish setae (fig. 27); prodorsal proximal sulcus present; metatarsus, metatarsal process, and tarsus precisely fitting together to completely encase copulatory apparatus when tarsus retracted; metatarsal process situated basally near tibia, robust, tapering and slightly laterally compressed, longitudinal axis sinuous, apex pointing retrolaterally; lamina cyathiformis of second tarsomere longer than deep, with pointed apex; subdistal (third) tarsomere with acute dorsodistal process. Leg IV tarsus not swollen. Legs III and IV terminal tarsomere apex, dorsal margin sublinear, covering ungues. Leg I tarsus and legs II–IV terminal tarsomeres without ventrodistal papillae.

Copulatory apparatus: Fixed process, PL lobe moderately expanded and dorsoventrally compressed (figs. 30C, G). Distal lobular region, primary α lobe very long and narrow, subcircular in cross-section (figs. 30A, C, E, G, I, 33E); origin slightly prolateral, curving toward retrolateral surface; margins smooth. Primary β lobe medium sized, distinctly bicuspid, with β 2 fingerlike, larger than β 1, which is pointed. rsd lobe medium sized, pronounced, associated with distinct subdistal emargination. Secondary pd and rd lobes well developed, pointed; pd situated adjacent to β and rd lobes. Movable process slender, slightly flexible, narrowing distally; apex simple, entire.

FEMALE: Unknown.

DISTRIBUTION: This species is known only from the type locality in the state of Oyo, Nigeria (fig. 5).


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics