Pseudothyretes obscurus, 2015

Przybyłowicz, Łukasz & Tarcz, Sebastian, 2015, Strong sexual dimorphism unraveled by DNA analysis - towards a better understanding of Pseudothyretes classification (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 173 (1), pp. 22-54 : 40-43

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1111/zoj.12198

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03F08794-FF90-FF89-FC23-FE2F68F02F7C

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Pseudothyretes obscurus
status

SP. NOV.

PSEUDOTHYRETES OBSCURUS PRZYBYŁOWICZ SP. NOV.

Material examined

Type material

Holotype: Male , ‘ Nigeria, Bendel State, Okomu F. Res., 13.02.1986, leg. J. Wojtusiak’ ( ISEA).

Paratypes (95 ♂♂, 31 ♀♀): Guinea: 2♂♂ ‘ Conakry, Forêt classée de Diécké, 7–16/5/2004, leg. Erik Vingerhoedt’ ( RMCA) ; ♂ ‘ Mt. Nimba, Plat. Zouguepo , 735 m, 14.VI.1991, Girard et Legrand’ ( MNHN) ; ♂ ‘ Mt. Nimba, Gouela , Ft du Piedmont, 8.VI.1991, Girard et Legrand’ ( MNHN) ; ♂ ‘ Guinée Forestière, 25 km südlich Boula, Forêt Classée du Mont Béro, 8°10′53.76″N, 8°42′28.2″W, 680 m, Lichtfang , 6.VI.2013, leg. M. Ochse’ ( ZSM) GoogleMaps ; ♂ ‘ Guinée Forestière, 27 km südlich Bounouma, Forêt Classée du Diecké, 7°27′52.20″N, 8°50′36.60″W, 482 m, Lichtfang , 7.VI.2013, leg. M. Ochse’ ( ZSM) GoogleMaps ; ♂ ♀, same data, but ‘ 8.VI.2013 GoogleMaps ’. Liberia: ♂ ♀, ‘ Grand Gedeh County, Putu Range , 19–31.XII.2010, leg. Safian Sz., Zakar E. ’ ( SZS) ; 4♂♂ ‘ Nimba County, Nimba Berge, 4km südöstlich Yekepa, 7°33′39.31″N, 8°30′23.67″W, 622 m, Lichtfang , 11.VI.2013, leg. M. Ochse’ ( ZSM) GoogleMaps . Ivory Coast: 2♂♂ ‘ Station Orstom, Adiopodoume , IX.1963, P. Griveaud’ ( RMCA) ; ♂ ‘ Abidjan, 1957, P. Dessart’ ( RMCA) ; ♂ ‘ Forêt du Banco, 12.V.1964, P. Griveaud et Piart’ ( RMCA) . Ghana: 8♂♂ ♀ ‘ Central Kakum N.P. – Entrance , 5°21′N 1°22′W, 220 m, 31.V.2011, leg. J. & W. de Prins’ ( RMCA) GoogleMaps ; 4♂♂ ‘ Central Region, Kakum Guesthouse, Kakum National Park , 01–03.XII.2011, leg. Safian Sz. ’ ( ISEA) ; 4♂♂ same data, but ‘ XII.2011 ’; ♂ same data, but ‘ 23–26.X.2011 ’, leg. Safian Sz., Pühringer F. & Pöll N. ’ ( ISEA) ; ♂ ‘ Umg. Sunyani , 12–14.IX.1996, leg. L. Kühne’ ( ZMHB) ; ♂ 3♀♀ ‘ Umg. Yamfo , 15– 20.X.1993, leg. L. Kühne’ ( ZMHB) ; 3♂♂ ‘ Eastern: Atewa Hills 800 m, 7 km W Sagyimase, 22–24.III.2010, Knud Larsen & Wojciech Kubasik’ ( ISEA) ; ♂ ‘ Western , 3 km E of Elubo, 5°17′N 2°45′W, 30 m, 8.VI.2011, leg. J. & W. de Prins’ ( RMCA) GoogleMaps ; 2♂♂ ♀ ‘ Eastern Region, Bunso Arboretum , 19–20.X.2011, leg. Safian Sz., Pühringer F. & Pöll N. ’ ( ISEA) ; 4♂♂ 2♀♀ same data, but 12– 20.X.2009, leg. Safian Sz., Walker A., Davey S., Onstein R. ; ♂ same data, but 10–18.IX.2010, leg. Safian Sz., Dall’Asta U. ’ ( ISEA) ; 5♂♂ ♀ ‘ Volta Region, Likpe Bakua , 16–18.X.2011, leg. Safian Sz., Pühringer F. & Pöll N. ’ ( ISEA) ; ♀ same data, but XI.2011 ( SZS) ; 7♂♂ ‘ Ashanti Region, Bonkro, Nyamibe Bepo Forest Reserve , 26–28.X.2011, leg. Safian Sz., Pühringer F. & Pöll N. ’ ( SZS) ; 6♂♂ ‘ Western Region, Visitor Centre, Ankasa National Park , 27–30.XI.2011, leg. Dall’Asta U., Safian Sz., Ochse M. ’ ( SZS) ; ♂ ‘ Ashanti, Bobiri – 4 km NE Kubease, 6°41′N 1°20′W, 230 m, 25.V.2011, leg. J. & W. de Prins’ ( RMCA) GoogleMaps ; ♂ ‘ Ashanti Region, Kumasi , 18.XI.1965, leg. Endrödy-Younga’ ( ZSM) ; ♂ ‘ Bia Cons. Area, Camp 15, 13/1/2009, leg. U. Dall’Asta’ ( RMCA) ; ♀ same data, but Track Camp 5, 26/1/2009 ( RMCA) ; 3♂ ‘ Western Region, 16 km east of Elubo, Ankasa National Park, 7.3 km south of Nkwanta camp, Visitor Center 58 m, light attraction 5°13′02.3′N, 2°39′05.4″W, May 6th 2005, leg. M. Ochse’ ( ZSM) ; ♀ same data, but ‘ 500 m northwest of Nkwanta Camp , 60 m, 25.II.2006 ’; ♂ ‘ Western Region, 20 km east of Elubo, Ankasa National Park, Radio Hill , 5°16′22.8″N, 2°34′17.0″W, 112 m, 2.V.2005, leg. M. Ochse’ ( ZSM) GoogleMaps ; ♂ ‘ Western Region, 16 km east of Elubo, 1 km southeast of Nkwanta camp, Ankasa National Park , Exploration Base , 103 m, light attraction 5°16′29.2′N, 2°38′46.0″W, 24.II.2006, leg. M. Ochse’ ( ZSM) ; ♂ ‘ Western Region, 16 km east of Elubo, Ankasa National Park, Visitors Center , 60 m, 5°13′02.8′N, 2°39′05.4″W, light attraction, 28.XI.2011, leg. M. Ochse’ ( ZSM) ; ♀ ‘ Central Region, 30 km north of Cape Coast, 1 km north of Abrafo, Kakum National Park , Visitor centre, 240 m, 1°24′W, 5°21′N, light attraction, 18.X.2003, leg. M. Ochse’ ( ZSM) GoogleMaps ; ♀ same data, but ‘ 157 m, 5°20′55.6″N, 1°23′00.9″W, 13.V.2005 GoogleMaps ’; ♀ same data, but ‘ 4.III.2006 GoogleMaps ’; ♂ same data, but ‘ Canopy Walkway , 260 m, 20.X.2003 GoogleMaps ’; 2♀♀ same data, but ‘ Canopy Walkway , 198 m, 5°21′12.6″N, 1°23′01.0″W, 9.V.2005 GoogleMaps ’; ♂ ‘ Greater Accra Region, Aburi Botanical Gardens , 5°51′17.4′N, 0°10′13.8″W, 492 m, light attraction, 26.11.2011 ’. Nigeria: ♂ ‘ Bendel State, Okomu F. Res., 19.05.1984, leg. J. Wojtusiak’ ( ISEA) ; ♂ ♀ same data, but ‘ 20.05.1984 ’ ( ISEA) ; ♀ same data, but ‘ 20.10.1984 ’ ( ISEA) ; ♂ same data, but ‘ 21.10.1984 ’ ( ISEA) ; ♀ same data, but ‘ 12.01.1985 ’ ( ISEA) ; ♂ ♀ ‘ Ikom , 26.V.1974, leg. H. Politzar’ ( ZSM) ; 3♀♀ same data, but ‘ 26–28.V.1974 ’ ( ZSM) ; ♀ same data, but ‘ 27.V.1974 ’ ( ZSM) ; ♂ ‘ Ibadan , ca Jan.-Juni 1954, H. Stenholt Clausen’ ( ISEA) ; ♂ ‘ Okomu For. , 4.05.1991, rec. A.A. Knoop’ ( RMCA) ; ♀ ‘ Anambra State, Nsukka F. Res., 12.04.1982, leg. J. Wojtusiak’ ( ISEA) ; ♀ ‘ Nigeria, lg. Patkai’ ( ISEA) . Cameroon: ♂ Cameroun Occid., Victoria , 0–80 m, 5– 18.11.1975, leg. W. Schacht’ ( ZSM) ; ♂ ‘ Songloulou , mar. 81′ ( MCZR) ; ♀ ‘ Département de Nkam, Bonepoupa 35 km ONO Douala, ca 5 km NW Ort, Rand eines Tieflandregenwaldrestes , 4°7′n. Br 10°1′ö.L., 26.VIII.1994, LF (160 W Mischlicht), T. Karisch legit.’ (TK) ; ♀ ‘ Ari W. Kampf, D’dorf, Ekona , 11.11.1936 ’ ( ZSM) ; ♀ ‘ Kamerunberg, Südostseite , 9 km NW Limbe, 4°4′47,5″N, 9°10′16,5″O, 776 m, 13.V.2009, leg. M. Ochse’ ( ZSM); ♂ ‘Südwest Provinz, Kupeberg, 2 km östlich Nyasoso, 1283 m, 4°49′28.8′N 9°42′6.6″O, 21 May 2009, Lichtfang, leg. M. Ochse’ ( ZSM) . Republic of the Congo: ♂ ‘ Kindamba, Meya settlement, 10.11.1963, leg. Endrödy-Younga’ ( ISEA) ; 3♂♂ ‘ Mt. Fouari reserva- tion near Gabon, 13.12.1963, leg. Endrödy-Younga’ ( ISEA) . DRC: 2♂♂ ‘ Bas-Congo, 250 m, Luki-Mayumbe NR, 5°27′S 13°2′E, 29.XI.2008, leg. J. & W. de Prins’ ( RMCA) GoogleMaps ; ♂ ‘ Lusambo , 11.VI.1950, dr. Fontaine’ ( RMCA) ; ♂ ‘ Eala , XI.1936, J. Ghesquiere ( RMCA) ; ♂ ‘ Lubumbashi , 18.4.1979, J. Thiry’ ( RMCA) ; ♂ ‘ Uele, Paulis , 23.1.1958, Dr. M. Fontaine’ ( RMCA) .

Additional material (112 ♂♂, 8 ♀♀): Guinea: 13♂♂ ‘ Conakry, Forêt classée de Diécké, 7–16/5/2004, leg. Erik Vingerhoedt’ ( RMCA) ; ♂ same data, but ‘ IX.2004 ’ ( RMCA) . Sierra Leone: 2♂♂ ‘ Kenema , IX/ X.1974, don A. Allaer’ ( RMCA) . Ivory Coast: 7♂♂ ‘ Forêt du Banco, 12.V.1964, P. Griveaud et Piart’ ( RMCA) ; 1♂♂ same data, but ‘2/ 3.X.1964, P. Griveaud’ ( RMCA) ; 3♂♂ ‘ Ayame II, Barrage de la Bia, 9/ 12.I.1964, Griveaud et Piart’ ( RMCA) ; 16♂♂ same data, but ‘6/ 9.V.1964 ’ ( RMCA) ; 2♂♂ ‘ Station Orstom, Adiopodoume , IX.1963, P. Griveaud’ ( RMCA) ; ♂ same data, but ‘ III.1964 ’ ( RMCA) ; ♂ ‘ Lamto , 3.12.1968, R. Vuattoux’ ( RMCA) ; 2♂♂ same data, but without date ( RMCA) ; ♂ ‘ Mokta , 5/ 14.VI.1964, P. Griveaud’ ( RMCA) ; 2♂♂ ‘ Azaguie , 3/ 5.VI.1964, P. Griveaud’ ( RMCA) ; ♂ ♀ ‘ Daloa , 21.X.1976, leg. H. Politzar’ ( ZSM) ; ♂ ‘ San Pedro, 16.XII.1976, leg. H. Politzar’ ( ZSM) ; ♀ ‘ Umgeb. Abidjan , 8.12.1966, G. v. Rosen’ ( ZSM) . Ghana: ♂ ‘ Ajenjua Bepo Forest Reserve, 24– 30.08.2006, site 1, N06°22′2.3′ W01°01′58.6″, Elevation: 300 m a.s.l., leg. M. Ba ˛ kowski’ ( ISEA); ♂ ‘ Umg. Yamfo , 15–20.X.1993, leg. L. Kühne’ ( ZMHB); ♂ ‘ Umg. Sunyani , 12–14.IX.1996, leg. L. Kühne’ ( ZMHB); ♂ ‘ Central Kakum N.P. – Entrance , 5°21′N 1°22′W, 220 m, 31.V.2011, leg. J. & W. de Prins’ ( RMCA); ♂ ‘ Ashanti, Bobiri – 4 km NE Kubease, 6°41′N 1°20′W, 230 m, 25.V.2011, leg. J. & W. de Prins’ ( RMCA); ♂ ‘Mamang River Forest Reserve , 31.08.- 4.09.2006, site 2, N 06°15′0.2″W 01°02′25.7″, Elevation: 130 m a.s.l., leg. M. Ba ˛ kowski’ ( ISEA) GoogleMaps ; ♂ ‘ Bia Cons. Area, Bongo Camp , 25/1/2009, leg. U. Dall’Asta’ ( RMCA) ; ♀ same data, but ‘ Track Camp 5, 26/1/2009 ’ ( RMCA) ; ♂ ‘ Kwadso , 3.X.1967, Dr. Endrödy-Younga’ ( ISEA) ; ♂ ‘ Kumasi , 16.V.1967, Dr. Endrödy-Younga’ ( ISEA) ; 2♂♂ same data, but ‘ 15.II.1966 ’ and ‘ 9.XII.1966 ’ ( ISEA) ; ♂ ‘ Ghana, 26.VII.1967, Dr. Endrödy-Younga’ ( ISEA) . Nigeria: 4♂♂ ‘ Okomu For. , 4.05.1991, Rec. A.A. Knoop’ ( RMCA) ; 2♂♂ same data, but IV.1992 ( RMCA) ; ♂ ‘ Bendel State, Okomu Forest Res. , 20.10.1984, leg. J. Wojtusiak’ ( ISEA) ; ♂ same data, but ‘ 20.05.1984 ’ ( ISEA) ; ♂ same data, but ‘ 12.02.1984 ’ ( ISEA) ; ♂ same data, but ‘ 9.06.1986 ’ ( ISEA) ; ♀ same data, but ‘ 27.05.1984 ’ ( ISEA) ; ♂ same data, but ‘ 15.12.1985 ’ ( ISEA) ; 3♂♂ ‘ Oban Hills , 3.05.1991, rec. A.A. Knoop ( RMCA) ; ♂ ‘ Cross River St., Oban Hills, Awsamba , 19.04.1986, leg. J. Wojtusiak’ ( ISEA) ; 3♀♀ ‘ Ikom , 22–24.XII.1970, leg. H. Politzar’ ( ZSM) ; 2♂♂ ‘ Cercopan Research and Conservation Area, Rhoko Forest , Iko Esai , Cross River Loop , 18.V.2012. 6°39′27.20′N 8°15′42.16″E leg. Safian Sz. ’ ( SZS) . Cameroon: ♂ ‘ Eloumden , 24/ 25.10.1992, Th. Bouyer’ ( RMCA) ; ♂ ‘ Korup Park Bridge, Night , 21.2.1989, oper. Raleigh 17A’ ( RMCA) ; ♂ ‘Mount Cameroun, Bonenza , 9 5.3E 4 3.6N, 13/01/89, night 19.00–06.00, 180 m, Primary lowland rain forest, Dominant tree species is Pycananthus angolensis’ ( RMCA) GoogleMaps ; ♂ ‘Mount Cameroun, Bonenza , 9 5.1E 4 3.2N, 16/01/ 89, night 19.00–06.00, 180 m, Farms of mixed crops, On the higher ridges still thin ribbons original forest (nearest 50 m)’ ( RMCA) GoogleMaps ; ♂ ‘ Mt. Kameroun, Ekona , 550 m, 3.11.1996, leg. M. Kuhbandner ( ZSM) ; ♂ same data, but ‘ 65 m, 18/01/89’ ( RMCA) ; ♂ ‘ Ebogo , 23/ 29.11.1992, Th. Bouyer’ ( RMCA) ; ♂ ‘ Ari W. Kampf, D’dorf, Mukonje , 4.11.1936 ’ ( ZSM) ; ♂ same data, but ‘ Ekona , 3.11.1936 ’ ( ZSM) ; 2♂♂ ‘ Songloulou , mar. 81’ ( MCZR) ; ♀ ‘ Cameroun Occid., Victoria , 0–80 m, 4–18.11.75, leg. M. u. R. Kühbandner’ ( ZSM) . Republic of the Congo: ♂ ‘ Mt. Fouari reservation near Gabon, 13.12.1963, leg. Endrödy-Younga’ ( ISEA) . DRC: ♂ ‘ Luluabourg , 10.VI. 1952, Dr. M. Fontaine’ ( RMCA) ; ♂ ‘ Lusambo , 20.X.1950, Dr. Fontaine’ ( RMCA) ; ♂ ‘ 180 km W of Bukavu, rainforest, light trap 160 W, no. 325, MV Lamp , 15.V.1988, leg. A. Vojnits’ ( ISEA) ; ♂ ‘ Lubumbashi , 1979, J. Thiry’ ( RMCA) ; ♂ ‘ Rg. Kinshasa, Bombo Lumene , (reserve naturelle), 6/8/1991 ( PO) . No data: 2♂♂ without locality ( MCZR) .

Diagnosis

The presence of a minute blotch like am 3 neighboring a much larger m 3 distinguishes the males of this new taxon from those of P. mirus sp. nov., P. kamitugensis , P. perpusilla , and P. nigrita . Pseudothyretes erubescens and P. carnea also possess a blotch like am 3, but their forewing base is deprived of a well-formed blotch like m 1. The male genitalia of P. obscurus sp. nov. are very characteristic. The elongate uncus bearing two small hooks is unparalleled in all other species, except P. kamitugensis . The male genitalia of these two species are identical and the only differentiated character is the structure of the membranous, dorsoterminal portion of the phallus. In P. obscurus sp. nov. this region is devoid of the numerous minute cornuti characteristic of P. kamitugensis . This pair of taxa exhibits strongest differences in wing pattern and coloration. Pseudothyretes obscurus sp. nov. is much smaller, has a uniform, dark background, and am 3 is always present. Pseudothyretes kamitugensis is larger, paler, with significantly darker veins and without am 3.

Description of male

Head: Vertex rusty brown; labial palpus ( Fig. 6F View Figure 6 ) rusty brown, with extremely long and narrow second segment, and small, bullet-shaped but well-separated third segment; scapus rusty brown; frons concolorous but slightly paler; flagellum bipectinate, dorsal scales tawny except white on terminal segments 7–8.

Thorax: Vestiture unicolorously rusty brown; legs concolorous, but often with more intensive tinge.

Abdomen: Dorsal and ventral segments unicolorous, rusty brown; terga 2–7 with intensive, narrow, black distal margins.

Forewing ( Fig. 2F View Figure 2 ): Male forewing length 11.2– 15.5 mm (average 13.2 mm, N = 30); upperside ground colour rusty brown, usually more intensive around white blotches; costa rusty orange; dorsal area between 1A+2A and margin slightly paler than ground colour; pattern usually consisting of seven blotches (m 1 large, with diffuse margins, slightly darker than remaining blotches; m 2 large, discoidal, in terminal region of DC, but not reaching its outer margin; m 3 middle sized, elongate, between CuA 2 and 1A+2A in middle of dorsum, sometimes with minute am 3 close to DC; m 4 large, discoidal; am 4 minute, discoidal or elongate (rarely larger); m 5 minute, discoidal; m 6 large, discoidal; sometimes additional, small, and indistinct blotch at base of CuA 2; fringe scales rusty brown; ventral ground colour and markings similar.

Hindwing: Semitransparent, ground colour of dorsum and venter rusty brown, paler than on forewing; blotch d small, discoidal or rounded, less prominent than forewing pattern, often very indistinct.

Male genitalia ( Fig. 4F View Figure 4 ): Tegumen without narrowing; uncus elongate, without pair of prominent parallel lobes but terminated by pair of small, hook-like, dorsoapical processes; vinculum narrow, elongate; saccus small, triangular; valva evenly sclerotized, gradually narrowed towards sharp tip; phallus almost straight, widening towards apex, dorsal, terminal portion without area of minute cornuti; vesica well developed in form of pair of membranous pouches everted anteriorly ( Fig. 5F, I View Figure 5 ).

Description of female

Head: Frons and vertex rusty brown; labial palpus concolorous, short, extending slightly upwards, last segment bullet shaped ( Fig. 6K View Figure 6 ); scapus and basal segment of flagellum rusty brown; flagellum blackish, serrate, dorsal scales tawny, except on terminal paler segments 8–11(15), white.

Thorax: Vestiture unicolorously rusty brown; legs with intensive orange tinge from distal part of femur.

Abdomen: Dorsal and ventral segments unicolorous, rusty; terga 2–6 with narrow black distal margins.

Forewing ( Fig. 3D View Figure 3 ): Length 20.0– 24.5 mm (average 22.4 mm, N = 31); upper side ground colour rusty, more intensive and darker along costa and around transparent blotches; pattern consisting of six or seven blotches with strongly marked margins (m 2 medium sized, subsquare to circular, in terminal region of DC; m 3 medium sized to small, elongate, between CuA 2 and 1A+2A in middle of dorsum, almost always with wellseparated, minute am 3 in basal part; fm 3 usually small, rounded, often atrophied and rarely larger, triangular; m 4 medium sized, usually ovate, rarely subsquare or slightly elongate; am 4 similar to m 4, but often slightly smaller; m 5 rather small, triangular or ovate; m 6 largest of all blotches, usually discoidal; fringe scales pale rusty brown; ventral ground colour concolorous with dorsum, markings similar.

Hindwing: Ground colour of dorsum and venter pinkish rust; blotch d rather small, rounded, with diffuse margins, occupying distal portion of inner area of wing between Cu 1 and stalk of M 2 –M 3.

Female genitalia ( Fig. 4K View Figure 4 ): Papillae anales rectangular, covered with numerous setae along distal and dorsal margins; apophyses anteriores and posteriores sclerotized, of similar length; dorsal pheromone glands invisible; ventral pheromone glands in form of single wide pouch occupying almost entire ventral area between apophyses anteriores; ostium bursae discoidal; ductus bursae short, asymmetrical, directed slightly to the left, divided into three parts (anterior portion wide, dorsally sclerotized, and fused with lamella postvaginalis, sclerotized wall about twice as long as wide; middle portion indistinct, membranous, without plicae convergent towards narrowed centre, posterior portion membranous, distinct, slightly shorter than anterior portion); lamella antevaginalis invisible; lamella postvaginalis weakly sclerotized in form of indistinct longitudinal ridge between paired invaginations located posterolaterally from ostium bursae; corpus bursae oval, membranous, without any trace of sclerotization or distinct plicae; signum absent; ductus seminalis slender, originating in basal half of corpus bursae.

Biology

Biological information retrieved from the labels suggests that P. obscurus sp. nov. is a lowland species. The highest elevation at which a specimen was collected is 800 m a.s.l. ( Ghana: Atewa Hills). Also, the spatial distribution of the taxon is strongly connected with the zone of lowland evergreen forests covering Upper Guinea and the basin of the Congo River. Pseudothyretes obscurus sp. nov. flies all year round. The population density is highest in May and from October to January ( Fig. 8 View Figure 8 ). These findings seem to indicate that the species is bivoltine, with overlapping generations. It should be stressed that the high number of specimens in May and October is not the result of a single collecting event

RMCA

Royal Museum for Central Africa

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

ZSM

Bavarian State Collection of Zoology

MCZR

Museo Civico di Zoologia

PO

Collection of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Erebidae

Genus

Pseudothyretes