Apisa kamitugensis, DUFRANE, 1945: 128 - 129

Przybyłowicz, Łukasz & Tarcz, Sebastian, 2015, Strong sexual dimorphism unraveled by DNA analysis - towards a better understanding of Pseudothyretes classification (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 173 (1), pp. 22-54 : 35-37

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1111/zoj.12198

persistent identifier


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scientific name

Apisa kamitugensis



Type material

Holotype: Male ( DRC) ‘Kamituga, 9.11.39, A. Fontaine’ ( KBIN).

Additional material (117 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀): Republic of the Congo: ♂ ‘ Brazzaville , 21.12.1963, light trap, leg. Endrödy-Younga’ ( ISEA) . DRC: 5♂♂ ‘ Kivu: Rwankwi , XII.1951 (4), III.1952, J. V. Leroy’ ( RMCA) ; ♂ ‘ Kivu: Nyamunyunye ( Mulungu ), V.1960, J. Hecq’ ( RMCA) ; 2♂♂ ‘ Uele: Paulis , 28.II.1957, 21.I.1960, M. Fontaine’ ( RMCA) ; ♂ ‘ N. Lac Kivu: Rwankwi , 2-IX-1948, J.V. Leroy’ ( RMCA) ; ♂ ‘ Lubumbashi , 23.III.1979, Th. Bouyer’ ( RMCA) . Rwanda: ♂ ‘ Cyangugu, Nyakabuye , 1100– 1300 m, 17.3.1984, leg. Burmeister, Fuchs, Kühbandner’ ( ZSM) ; ♂ ‘ Bumba ( Kibali-Ituri ), 17.I.52. A. Dufrane’ ( KBIN) ; ♂ ‘ Butare, Guesthouse University , 11.IX.2002, LF, 2.35S 29.44E, leg. L. Kühne’ ( ISEA) GoogleMaps ; ♂ ‘ Volcanoes NP, cca 2000 m, light trap 160 W, 6.V.1988, leg. A. Vojnits’ ( ISEA) . Burundi: 77♂♂ ‘ Gitega ( Kitega ), 28.VI.1962, 4.IX.1962, 17.XII.1962, 29.XII.1962, 18.I.1963, 21.I.1963, 13.III.1964, 14.IV.1963, 16.IV.1963, 17.IV.1963, 20.IV.1963, 28.IV.1963, 12.V.1962, 13.V.1963, 14.V.1963 (2), 17.V.1963, 21.V.1963, 16.XI.1963, 10.I.1964, 15.I.1964, 17.I.1964, 4.II.1964, 7.II.1964, 15.II.1964, 17.II.1964, 13.III.1964, 8.IV.1964, 13.IV.1964, 14.IV.1964 (3), 3.V.1964 (3), 4.V.1964 (2), 6.V.1964 (2), 8.V.1964 (4), 10.V.1964 (2), 19.V.1964, 31.V. 1964, 6.VI.1964, 18.VI.1964, 5.VIII.1964, 2.I.1965, 21.II.1965, 30.III.1965, 22.IV.1965, 23.IV.1965 (2), 19.V.1965, 23.V.1965, 26.V.1965, 29.V.1965, 4.VI.1965 (2), 1965, 20.I.1966, 18.IV.1966, 29.V.1967, 30.V.1967, 31.V.1967, 5.VI.1967, 7.XI.1967, 10.XII.1967, 28.IV.1968, 5.V.1968, 6.V.1968, 31.V.1968, 7.IV.1969, 17.V.1969, Dr. M. Fontaine’ ( RMCA) ; 4♂♂ ‘ Usumbura , 900 m, 2.VII.1961, 13.VIII.1961, 2.I.1962, 25.I.1962, M. Fontaine’ ( RMCA) ; ♂ ‘ Uele: Paulis , 27.I.1956, M. Fontaine’ ( RMCA) . Uganda: ♂ ‘ Kallinzu Forest , 7–10.I.65, leg. J. Scheven’ ( ZSM) ; ♂ ‘ Fort Portal , 24.I.1966 ’ ( RNHL) . Kenya: 2♂♂ ‘ Western Prov. , Kakamega Forest N.R. cultivation land 1600 m, 7.IV.2002, Lichtfang (4), 0.21,2N 34.51,4E, leg. L. Kühne’ ( ZMHB, SMNS) ; ♂ same data, but ‘sec. forest, 13.IV.2002, Lichtfalle (2), 0.21,1N 34.51E’ ( ZMHB) ; 3♂♂ same data, but ‘sec. forest, 7.III.2002, Lichtfang (7), 0.21,1N 34.51E’ ( ZMHB) ; 2♂♂ same data, but ‘ Udo’s campsite, 21.X.2001, Lichtfalle (2), 0.21,08N 34.51, 57E’ ( ZMHB) ; ♂ 1♀ ‘ Western Prov. , Kakamega Forest N.R. cultivation land 1600 m, 8.V.2002, Lichtfang (4), 0.21,28N 34.51,45E, leg. F. Namu’ ( SMNS) ; ♂ 1♀ ‘ Western Prov. , Kakamega Forest N.R. sec. forest 1600 m, 14.XII.2001, Lichtfalle (2), 0.21,31N 34.51,82E, leg. F.N. Namu’ ( SMNS) ; 4♂♂ ‘ Kakamega, 4.I.1973, leg. H. Politzar’ ( ZSM) ; 2♂♂ ‘ Kakamega Forest, Rondo Retreat , ca. 1700 m, 5– 8.05.1997, U. Dall’Asta’ ( RMCA) ; ♂ ‘ Rift Valley Prov., Kitale [NE], Saiwa Swamp NP, 1857 m, 17–21.Nov.2006, N:01°05′38.5′ E:035°07′06.2″, leg. Lars Ove Hansen / Karsten Sund, At light, swamp’ ( NHMO) . Ethiopia: ♂ ‘ Soupe-Boro, Abyss , 24.V.1925, H. Ungemach’ ( MNHN) .


Pseudothyretes kamitugensis is one of the easiest species to determine based on pattern and wing coloration ( Figs 2C View Figure 2 , 3B View Figure 3 ). It is unique in having distinctly darker veins in the distal area of the forewing, after the semitransparent markings. The male genitalia ( Fig. 4C View Figure 4 ) are almost identical with those of P. obscurus sp. nov., and the only detected difference is the small area of minute cornuti present in the dorsobasal portion of the vesica of P. kamitugensis ( Fig. 5D, G View Figure 5 ). The specimens of P. obscurus sp. nov. analysed are completely devoid of cornuti ( Fig. 5F, I View Figure 5 ). The pattern and coloration of both species are, however, very distinct. In the latter species the forewing is uniformly ochraceous with concolorous veins. An additional character easily separating both species is the presence of am 3 in P. obscurus sp. nov., whereas in P. kamitugensis only a prominent, elongate m 3 can be detected.

Description of female

Head: Frons and vertex rusty brown; labial palpus concolorous, short, extending upwards, last segment bullet-shaped ( Fig. 6C, I View Figure 6 ); scapus and basal segment of flagellum rusty brown; flagellum serrate, dorsal scales tawny, except for six or seven paler, terminal segments on which they are white.

Thorax: Vestiture unicolorously pinkish buff; legs with intensive orange tinge from distal part of femur.

Abdomen: Dorsal and ventral segments unicolorous, pinkish buff; terga 2–6 with narrow black distal margins.

Forewing: Forewing length 20.7–21.2 mm (N = 2); upper side background colour pale pinkish brown, more rusty along costa and darker around transparent blotches; pattern consisting of seven blotches with strongly marked margins: m 2, large, subsquare, in terminal region of DC; m 3, medium sized, elongate, between CuA 2 and 1A+2A in middle of dorsum; fm 3, smallest, triangular; m 4, medium sized, elongate, slightly triangular; am 4, large, quadrangular; m 5, medium sized, triangular; m 6, large, discoidal; fringe scales pale rusty brown; ventral ‘background’ colour more pink, especially in basal half, markings similar.

Hindwing: Background colour of dorsum and venter pinkish; blotch d large, prominent, irregular, with diffuse margins, occupying large portion of inner area of wing.

Female genitalia ( Fig. 4I View Figure 4 ): Papillae anales rectangular, covered with numerous setae along distal and dorsal margins; apophyses anteriores and posteriores sclerotized, of similar length; apophyses anteriores visibly widened at tip; dorsal pheromone glands reduced to small, lateral invaginations located lateroventrally; ventral pheromone glands in form of one shallow wide pouch occupying almost entire ventral area between apophyses anteriores; ostium bursae discoidal; ductus bursae short, divided into three parts (anterior portion wide, dorsally sclerotized and fused with lamella postvaginalis; middle portion membranous, with several straight plicae convergent towards narrowed centre; posterior portion membranous, reduced to narrowing between ostium bursae and corpus bursae, or at most three times longer than wide); lamella antevaginalis invisible; lamella postvaginalis strongly sclerotized in form of small plate encircling ostium bursae laterally and terminating posteriorly between paired invaginations located posterolaterally from ostium bursae; corpus bursae oval, membranous, without any trace of sclerotization or distinct plicae; signum absent; ductus seminalis slender, originating in basal half of corpus bursae.


The imagoes can be collected throughout the year. The most precise information on phenology can be extract- ed from an analysis of the collecting dates of the 76 specimens collected by M. Fontaine in Gitega ( Burundi) between 1962 and 1969. None of these specimens were collected in July and October, and only one was collected from August–December. The highest numbers of specimens were caught in May (29) and April (15). According to the information on the labels the moths were collected in different habitats, but never in open savannah. This may suggest that the species is associated with forest and bush vegetation .


Collecting data suggest the species to be restricted to the eastern upland zone of tropical Africa ( Fig. 7C View Figure 7 ). The northernmost area of occurrence is south Ethiopia (Soupe-Boro), from where a single specimen has been collected; however, this collecting locality was impossible to localize precisely. This old datum should be confirmed by new material. The southernmost locality is Lubumbashi in the south-east corner of DRC. The remaining localities are concentrated west and north of Lake Victoria. The remote locality in the Republic of the Congo should be treated with reservation. It is far from the known range and is located at a much lower elevation (about 500 m a.s.l.) than any other known collecting site. The known vertical distribution of the species is from 1100 to 2200 m a.s.l. (N = 22).

Molecular variation

A total of five COI haplotypes were found among the five specimens of P. kamitugensis studied. The intraspecific haplotype diversity was Hd = 1 and the nucleotide diversity amounted to π = 0.00969. Detailed information concerning the molecular variation found is presented in Table 3.


At present, despite an examination of several specimens, no other characters for differentiating the male genitalia of P. kamitugensis and P. obscurus sp. nov. have been detected. The description of the female is based on just two specimens.



Royal Museum for Central Africa


Bavarian State Collection of Zoology


Staatliches Museum fuer Naturkund Stuttgart


Natural History Museum, University of Oslo


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle














Apisa kamitugensis

Przybyłowicz, Łukasz & Tarcz, Sebastian 2015


Dufrane A 1945: 129