Pseudothyretes erubescens, Hampson, 1901
Przybyłowicz, Łukasz & Tarcz, Sebastian, 2015, Strong sexual dimorphism unraveled by DNA analysis - towards a better understanding of Pseudothyretes classification (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 173 (1), pp. 22-54 : 31-35
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( HAMPSON, 1901) TRITONACLIA ERUBESCENS HAMPSON, 1901: 169
Holotype: Male ( Kenya), ‘ Mile 478. on Uganda Rly, B.E. Africa, 21.XI.1900, C.S. Betton’ ( BMNH).
Additional material (35 ♂♂): DRC: ♂ ‘ Ituri, Nioka , 2.VIII, 1953, J. Hecq’ ( RMCA) ; 2♂♂ same data, but ‘ 13.X.1953 ’ ( RMCA) ; ♂ same data, but ‘ 25.IV.1954 ’ ( RMCA) ; 3♂♂ ‘ P.N. A., Massif Ruwenzori, Kyandolire, 1750 m, Camp des Gardes , 21.X.1952, P. Vanschuytbroeck & J. Kekenbosch’ [ KBIN (2), RMCA] ; ♂ same data, but ‘ 1700 m, 12–20.X.1952 ( KBIN) ’; 4♂♂ ‘ Kivu: Nyamunyunye ( Mulungu ), 31.I.1956, II.1956, 28.X.1956, VI.1956, J. Hecq’ ( RMCA) . Rwanda: 2♂♂ ‘ Nyungwe , 4.1982, A. Van den Berghe’ ( RMCA) ; ♂ ‘ Nyakabuye , 1200 m, 6.06.1985, leg. Mühle’ ( ZSM) ; ♂ ‘ Volcanoes NP, cca 2000 m, light trap 160 W, 7.V.1988, leg. A. Vojnits’ ( ISEA) . Uganda: ♂ ‘ Fort Portal , 10.II.1972 ’ ( RNHL) . Kenya: 4♂♂ ‘ Mount Kenya, Chogoria , 1600 m, 00°14′S 37°35′E (M8/08), 13– 14.IV.2001, leg. U. Dall’Asta’ [ RMCA (2), ISEA(2)] GoogleMaps ; ♂ ‘ Mt. Kenya East, Chogoria Forest Station , 6.X.2001, (Lichtfalle), 1800 m, 00°15′S 37°34′E, Leg. L. Kühne’ ( ZMHB) GoogleMaps ; ♂ ‘ Aberdare National Park, Ruhuruini Gate – Salient, 21.11.2000, 2126 m, 00°23′S 36°52′E, leg. U. Dall’Asta’ ( ISEA) GoogleMaps ; ♂ same data, but ‘ Ruhuruini Gate – camp site, 22.11.2000, 2278 m, 00°23′S 36°49′E’ ( ISEA) GoogleMaps ; ♂ same data, but ‘ 2334 m, 2.04.2000 ’ ( RMCA) GoogleMaps ; 4♂♂ ‘ Gatemaiyu Forest , 2280 m, 00°58′S 36°41′E, 4.IV.2003, leg. J.&W. De Prins’ ( RMCA) GoogleMaps ; ♂ ‘ Kakamega Forest, Udo Camp , 1600 m, 00°21′N 34°52′E, 17.04.2001, leg. U. Dall’Asta’ ( ISEA) GoogleMaps ; ♂ same data, but sec. forest, 0°21,1N 34°51E, 13.04.2002, Lichtfalle (2), leg. L. Kühne ( ISEA) GoogleMaps ; ♂ ‘ Rift Valley prov., Mt. Elgon nat. Park., Chorlim gate, Rongai Camp , 2206 m, 17– 21.11.2006, N; 01°01′ 51.7″ E: 034°46″ 40.8″, leg. Lars Ove Hansen & Karsten Sund, at light, meadow/forest’ (Aarvik) ; ♂ ‘ Afrique or. anglaise, Kenya verst ouest, zone intérieure, Nyere, Janv. 1912, Alluaud & Jeannel’ ( MNHN) ; ♂ ‘ Treetops , Nyeri, 9.VI.1966, J. Stamatov’ ( AMNH) . No data : ♂ without locality ( ISEA) .
This is the largest representative of the genus ( Fig. 2B View Figure 2 ). It differs from P. carnea , P. obscurus sp. nov., and P. nigrita by the larger size, slightly concave termen, and the stout labial palpus ( Fig. 6B View Figure 6 ), with the large third segment almost entirely fused with the second one. The most difficult species from which to separate it is P. perpusilla , the most variable species. Most of the largest specimens of P. perpusilla lack am 3, whereas m 3 is prominent, elongate (oval), and reaches the discal cell. In P. carnea if am 3 is atrophied, then m 3 is rather small, discoidal, and distinctly separat- ed from the discal cell. Male genitalia ( Fig. 4B View Figure 4 ) can easily separate P. erubescens from congeners. The exceptions can be some specimens of P. carnea and P. perpusilla . In this group the shape and length of the lobes of the uncus and their processes can sometimes exhibit intermediate forms difficult to ascribe unequivocally to one of these three taxa. In such cases coloration and wing pattern should be analyzed. The collecting location of specimens can also be used, as P. erubescens is an East African taxon with a distinctly restricted range. The phallus of P. erubescens bears no cornuti ( Fig. 5B View Figure 5 ). The female is unknown.
Specimens have been collected throughout the year except for March, July, September, and December.
This is one of the two species (along with P. nigrita ) with a distribution restricted to the highlands and mountains of equatorial East Africa ( Fig. 7B View Figure 7 ). Data retrieved from the labels (N = 20) indicate the vertical range between 1200 and 2300 m a.s.l. The highest precisely recorded collecting site is 2334 m a.s.l. (Aberdare National Park).
Only one COI sequence was obtained for P. erubescens .
Przybyłowicz (2009) erroneously interpreted the type locality of P. erubescens as being located in Uganda. The holotype was in fact collected in south-west Kenya, east from Kisumu.
The specimens, although ‘generally’ rather characteristic, can cause difficulties in determination in the case of reduced patterns. The determination should always rely on an analysis of several characters and series of properly ascribed specimens. For nearly all characters the specimens in which they are atypically developed can thus be identified.
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