Magnolia javieri A.Vázquez, Tribouillier & Archila, 2021

Vázquez-García, J. Antonio, Tribouillier-Navas, Erick, Archila, Fredy, Véliz, Mario, Peña, A. Salome Ortega & Shalisko, Viacheslav, 2021, Three new species of Magnolia (Magnoliaceae) endemic to the north-wet-arc in the Maya Highlands of Guatemala, Phytotaxa 529 (1), pp. 57-70 : 60

publication ID 10.11646/phytotaxa.529.1.4


persistent identifier

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scientific name

Magnolia javieri A.Vázquez, Tribouillier & Archila

sp. nov.

Magnolia javieri A.Vázquez, Tribouillier & Archila , sp. nov. ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 )

Type:— GUATEMALA. Alta Verapaz: Municipality of Tactic, Finca Río Frio, 1345 m, 15°20’32.7”N, 90°25’09.1”W, with Spondias purpurea , Liquidambar styraciflua , Alnus acuminata ; Perymenium grande , Persea schiedeana and Pouteria viridis, Feb 2015 (fl, fr), Tribouillier & Archila MG-077 (holotype: BIGU; isotype: IBUG). GoogleMaps

Magnolia javieri belongs to the M. sect. Magnolia and is similar to M. archilana , also from Alta Verapaz, differing from the latter in its smaller, abaxially glabrous leaves vs. abaxially ferruginous-pubescent on the veins, apex deeply emarginate vs. round, apiculate; smaller flowers and fruits ( Table 1 View Table 1 ). Another similar species is M. guatemalensis from the Alta Verapaz Department. It differs in its longer petiole, smaller leaves and abaxially glabrous, shorter peduncles, smaller flowers, sepals and petals, fewer stamens, glabrescent polyfollicles and more carpels.

Trees 9.0–12.0 m tall, 30.0 cm diameter at 1.3 m above ground; branches 0.5 cm in diameter; petiole 2.3–2.8 × 0.2–0.3 cm, inconspicuously ribbed and basally slightly geniculate glabrous; leaves 9.0–11.0 × 5.0– 7.5 cm, obovate, glabrous on both surfaces, with 14 veins per side, apex deeply emarginate, base obtuse, strongly revolute; flowers 9.0– 10.0 cm in diameter, white; perules 0.9 × 0.3 cm, glabrous; rough, spathaceous bract 1, 2.0 cm long and 2.0 cm wide, glabrous on both surfaces, with a small group of hairs on the apex; flower peduncle 1.5–1.8 × 0.4–0.6 cm, glabrous, ribbed; sepals 3, 4.0–4.3 × 1.5–1.7 cm, white-greenish, glabrous, oblong, rounded apex, with conspicuous veins; petals 6, 4.5–4.6 × 2.2–2.3 cm, white, spatulate, glabrous; staminophore 0.5–0.7 cm long; purple; stamens 80–82, 0.8–0.9 cm long; gynoecium 1.6–1.8 × 1.0– 1.2 cm, greenish white, glabrescent with pubescence at the base and edges of the carpels, the hairs hyaline; polyfollicles 4.0–4.4 × 1.8–2.0 cm, ellipsoid, pale green, glabrescent, pendulous at maturity, suberect in their juvenile stage, follicles 40–44, 1.1–1.2 × 0.4–0.5 cm; seeds 0.4 × 0.5 cm, with salmon-coloured sarcotestas.

Distribution, phenology and ecology: — Known only from Tactic, Alta Verapaz and Uspantán, Quiché with only 24 individuals, at 1350–1670 m in cloud forest; flowering June–August, fruiting August–September.

Other specimens examined:— GUATEMALA. Alta Verapaz: municipality of Tactic, Finca Río Frío , 1345 m, Aug 2020 (fl, fr), Tribouillier & Archila MG-078 (BIGU) . El Quiché: municipality of Uspantán , 1661 m, 15°20’51.2”N, 90°50’17.0”W, Jun 2021 (fl) Vázquez, et al.10191 (IBUG); (fl) Aguilar et al. MG-100 (BIGU); (inm. fl) Aguilar et al. MG-101 (BIGU); (fl) Aguilar et al. MG-102 (BIGU); (inm. fl) Aguilar et al. MG-103 (BIGU); (inm. fl) Aguilar et al. MG-104 (BIGU); (fl) Aguilar et al. MG-105 (BIGU) GoogleMaps

Etymology:— Dedicated to Javier Archila Cortez, co-collector of the species.

Conservation status:— Endemic to two locations in Alta Verapaz and Quiché. After field exploration, no further populations were encountered. The species was unofficially assessed as endangered (EN), fulfilling criterion B2ab (iii) following IUCN (2019) criteria, version 14. The area of occupancy of population was estimated as 8 km 2 using the 2× 2 km grid cells, thus the taxon meets the B2 area of occupancy requirement for critically endangered species. However, in the number of localities, the taxon does only fulfils the conditions for endangered. The condition (b (iii)) is fulfilled as the decline in species habitat area is inferred, since the species habitat in type locality is at risk of destruction in absence of conservation actions, caused by logging of forests for establishment of monoculture plantations of Pinus maximinoi Moore (1966: 8) . Additional factors considered in the assessment include the severe fragmentation of the potential habitat due to the expansion of the agriculture, cutting of trees for firewood and production of timber and establishment of other commercial forest monocultures. These forests are not within any protected area.

Table 1. Comparison of Magnolia javieri with M. archilana and M. guatemalensis.

  M. javieri M. archilana M. guatemalensis
Petiole length (cm) 2.3–2.8 2.0–2.2 1.5–2.0
Leaf size (cm) 9.0–11.0 × 5.0–7.5 12.0–14.0 × 8.0–9.0 12.0–16.0 × 8.0–11.0
Leaf abaxial vestiture Glabrous Ferruginous pubescent in the veins Scattered brown-pubescent
Leaf ápex Deeply emarginate Round and apiculate acute, acuminate to cuspidate
Flower size (cm) 9.0–10.0 12.0–14.0 13.0–15.0
Sepal size (cm) 4.0–4.3×1.5–1.7 7.5–7.8 × 3.5–4.0 5.8–6.0 × 2.1–2.2
Outer petal size (cm) 4.5–4.6 ×2.2–2.3 8.3–8.8 × 5.5–5.8 6.5–7.0 × 2.8–3.0
Peduncle length (cm) 1.5–1.8 3.0–3.4 2.8–3.2
Stamen number 80–82 72–76 92–98
Fruit size (cm) 4–4.4×1.8–2.0 7.0–7.5 ×3.4–3.6 5.0–7.5 × 2.3–2.7
Fruit vestiture Pubescent Glabrous Pubescent
Carpel number 40–44 34–39 22–25