Pravistylus Theron

Stiller, M., 2010, Revision of the Southern African leafhopper genus Pravistylus (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Deltocephalinae) 2468, Zootaxa 2468 (1), pp. 1-81: 5-6

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.2468.1.1

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scientific name

Pravistylus Theron


Pravistylus Theron  

Pravistylus eductus (Naudé)   ; Theron 1975, 195.

Type species: Deltocephalus eductus Naudé, 1926   , 45. By original designation.

Type locality: South Africa, Free State Province, Petrusburg [c. 29°06'S, 25°28'E], 22–25.iv.1918, J.C. Fauré GoogleMaps   .

Diagnosis. Small leafhopper (2.4–3.5 mm long), brown to pale yellowish, sometimes fuscous patterns dorsally; usually brachypterous, hind wing sometimes fully developed. Male with apex of vertex produced 1.4 times more than length next to eye. Female with apex of vertex produced 1.5 times more than length next to eye. Male and female with head 1.1 times wider than pronotum. Plate shape often unique, in ventral or ventroposterior view, usually visible for identification without dissection. Aedeagus usually symmetrical, shaft tubular, U- to C-shaped in lateral view; gonopore apical or subapical; rarely modified, as in P. caenophallus   and P. scolophallus   . Posterior margin of female sternite 7 often with diagnostic shape.

Male. Genital capsule.

Pygofer base (without lobe) generally square or rectangular; ventroposterior margin sometimes variably bulbous; rarely with modifications. Anal tube with anteroventral sclerotized, H-shaped lattice, articulated with dorsal apodeme of aedeagus.

Pygofer lobe variable, narrow, acuminate, directed posteriad or dorsoposteriad (e.g. Fig. 1 m & q) or widely merged with pygofer and usually with apex rounded (e.g. Figs 1 b, e, h, p, u, x, ab & af); rarely with ventral tooth on median margin (e.g. Figs 1 y & af); usually bearing microtrichia (e.g. Figs 1 a, c, f, g, j & l). Pygofer lobe apex in most species finely denticulate.

Plate variable, apex variably elongate, with sclerotized process, ( Figs 2 a–i), apex truncate, digitate, acuminate, rounded, or rarely emarginate ( Figs 2 aq–as); with uniseriate, lateromedial macrosetae; (some species with interspecific variation, Figs 2 ak–ap, other species uniform).

Aedeagus in lateral view usually with shaft narrow, tubular, arising apically, medially or basally relative to atrium, position on atrium often diagnostic; preatrium present, absent or rarely modified ( Figs 3 a –ai). Rarely shaft modified with median process and apex expanded ( Figs 3 ak, 4 ai) or shaft apex asymmetrical and denticulate ( Figs 3 m, 4 k & l).

Style posteriorly with well developed dorsal apophysis, elongate or short; toothed ventrally; preapical lobe usually well developed. Anteriorly usually with well developed basal medial lobe, usually at right angle to base of style; basal lateral lobe weakly developed. Generally with basal part angled towards dorsal apophysis ( Figs 5a, g & j), or basal part well separated from dorsal apophysis ( Figs 5 k, s & aa), or intermediate ( Figs 5 ad, ae & aj).

Connective elongate, usually symmetrical with stem and arms of similar length, usually straight in lateral view, sometimes apex of stem curved dorsally, sometimes entire stem angled dorsally, one species with apex of stem fused with paraphyses ( Fig. 6 a). Parasitized specimens usually with Y-shaped connective.

Female. Genitalia.

Sternite 7 variable. Base transversely rectangular, rarely square ( Figs 7 m & n) or rarely longitudinally rectangular ( Fig. 7 cf). Posterior margin usually ligulate, variable in length, width; or, if ligula absent, margin with wide or narrow notch, flanked by pointed process, e.g. P. mutilidiscus   sp. n., and notch less than one third as wide as greatest width across sternite ( Figs 7 aw–bh); P. dentidiscus   sp. n., notch about half as wide as greatest width across sternite ( Figs 7 j–l). Some species with intraspecific variation, e.g. P. mutilidiscus   sp. n. with narrow notch ( Figs 7 az, bc), or ligula ( Figs 7 aw, bf). Ligula sometimes damaged in P. mutilidiscus   sp. n., margins frayed, or partially broken ( Figs 7 ba, be).

Relationships. Pravistylus   is typical of the tribe Paralimnini   , as defined by Webb & Heller (1990), Zahniser & Dietrich (2008) and Webb & Viraktamath (2009).

Unique features of Pravistylus   are as follows:

The shape of the subgenital plate is more modified than in genera listed in Webb and Heller. This modification is formed by a narrowed and generally sclerotized caudal apex formed by the more or less sinuous lateral and medial margins of the plate. The plate in Lecacis   and Platentomus   has the medial margin sinuous and the lateral margin rounded or straight. In Nicolaus   the plate is modified on its dorsal subapical surface.

The style has the anterior medial arm elongate and narrow and is directed mesally. The basal part of the style is generally membranous and often has the anterior medial arm contiguous with or dorsad to the distal part.

The female sternite 7 has the posterior margin modified. It is rarely notched and then flanked by paired sharp points, but commonly it is ligulate to varying degrees.

Shared features of Pravistylus   with other genera are as follows:

The pygofer lobe of Pravistylus   is similar to that of other genera in the Paralimnini   .

The aedeagus with its thin, tubular shaft, and in lateral view that is C- or U-shaped, resembles those of Hiltus Theron   , Jannius Theron   , Paralimnus Matsumura   , Vecaulis Theron   and Teyasteles Theron.  

Close resemblance is found in the external appearance of Vilargus Theron   , and to a lesser extent, in Elginus Theron   , Lecacis Theron   , Nicolaus Lindberg   and Platentomus Theron   , but not in genitalia.

In external morphology, Pravistylus   resembles several other genera including Holarctic genera such as Adarrus Ribaut   , Arocephalus Ribaut   , Errastunus Ribaut   , Jassargus Zachvatkin   ( Paralimnini   ) and Deltocephalus Burmeister   and Turrutus Ribaut   ( Deltocephalini   ), when compared with illustrations in Remane & Wachmann (1993). However, according to genitalia of these genera as depicted in Ossiannilsson (1983) they share no similarities with Pravistylus   .

The elongate connective with fused arms, which is the defining feature of Paralimnini   .