Lissodendoryx (Ectyodoryx) ballena, Fernandez, Julio C. C., Cárdenas, César A., Bravo, Alejandro, Lôbo-Hajdu, Gisele, Willenz, Philippe & Hajdu, Eduardo, 2016

Fernandez, Julio C. C., Cárdenas, César A., Bravo, Alejandro, Lôbo-Hajdu, Gisele, Willenz, Philippe & Hajdu, Eduardo, 2016, Lissodendoryx (Ectyodoryx) Lundbeck, 1909 (Coelosphaeridae, Poecilosclerida, Demospongiae) from Southern Chile: new species and a discussion of morphologic characters in the subgenus, Zootaxa 4092 (1): 72-75

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4092.1.4

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:51F44763-E817-4E58-A4AC-525E63B6D27B

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5615602

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03EF87BE-FFCE-FFBB-419B-FF2AFA1974B7

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Lissodendoryx (Ectyodoryx) ballena
status

sp. nov.

Lissodendoryx (Ectyodoryx) ballena   sp. nov.

( Tabs 1–2 View TABLE 1 View TABLE 2 ; Figs 2–3 View FIGURE 2. A – B View FIGURE 3 )

Holotype. IZUA–POR 166, Islote Ballena   , Gulf of Ancud, southern Chile (42 º09’25.00”S / 72 º 34 ’ 46.50 ”W), 14 m depth, coll. E. Hajdu, Ph. Willenz & G. Lôbo-Hajdu, 24 February 2005. Fragments from holotype deposited under MNRJ 8807, RBINSc–IG 32232 –POR 8807 and MHNG 89960. Paratype. MNRJ 8813, same data as holotype. Fragments from paratype deposited under, RBINSc–IG 32232 –POR 8813 and MHNG 89962.

Diagnosis. Thickly encrusting Lissodendoryx   ( Ectyodoryx   ), with numerous oscules (<0.5 mm across) over all its surface, with orange colour in life, smooth tornotes (108–135 / 2.5–4.8), acanthostyles (I. 180–232 / 8–16.8, II. 77 – 95/ 4.8–8), arcuate isochelae (I. 31–47, II. 23–29, III. 12.5–18), and sigmas (19–26).

Description. Thickly encrusting ( Fig. 2 A View FIGURE 2. A – B ), up to 0.7 cm thick. The holotype covered an area of approximately 10 x 5 cm (in life). Surface slightly rugose, with a few grooves. Oscules spread, few, smaller than 0.5 cm in diameter. Numerous other small openings occur all over the surface of the sponge ( Fig. 2 B View FIGURE 2. A – B ). Colour in vivo orange, turning to dark beige in ethanol. Consistency moderately compressible. Texture velvety.

Skeletal architecture. Plumoreticulate ( Figs 3 View FIGURE 3 A–B). Acanthostyles form echinated tracts from the substrate to near the surface ( Figs 3 View FIGURE 3 C–D). Acanthostyles I (larger) core the tracts, while acanthostyles II (smaller) echinate those tracts. Tornotes are spread at random or slightly obliquely at the surface. These spicules, as well as acanthostyles and every microsclere category can be seen scattered in the choanosome too. Nevertheless, isochelae occur in larger quantities closer to the surface. Subectosomal lacunae were not seen, but numerous roundish canals (up to 700 µm in largest diameter) occur in the choanosome. Both the holotype and paratypes have their choanosome traversed by polychaete tubes. Spongin will envelop some of these choanosomal cavities and support erect acanthostyles I and II ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 G). Larvae were observed in both specimens, up to 220 µm in diameter.

Spicules. Megascleres ( Tabs 1–2 View TABLE 1 View TABLE 2 ): Tornotes ( Figs 3 View FIGURE 3 H–I), straight, smooth, slightly aniso-tylote, 108– 123.5 (8.4)– 135 / 2.5– 3.5 (0.8)– 4.8. Acanthostyles I ( Figs 3 View FIGURE 3 J–K), straight or slightly curved; base roundish, narrow or slightly swollen; sharp apex, thinning gradually; spines in large numbers, up to 5 µm high, straight or slightly curved, distributed over the entire shaft and base, 180– 202.5 (16)– 232 / 8– 13 (2.6)– 16. Acanthostyles II ( Figs 3 View FIGURE 3 L– M), morphology similar to that of category I, but with smaller spines, 77– 84.2 (4.4)– 95 / 4.8– 7 (0.9)– 8. Microscleres ( Tabs 1–2 View TABLE 1 View TABLE 2 ): Arcuate isochelae I ( Figs 3 View FIGURE 3 E, F, N), shaft arched, smooth and relatively stout; Alae slightly elongate and bent backwards; Young forms with markedly reduced alae, 31– 39 (4)– 47. Arcuate isochelae II ( Figs 3 View FIGURE 3 E, F, O), morphology similar to that of category I, but smaller, 23– 25.3 (1.2)– 29. Arcuate isochelae III ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 P), more slender and smaller than both preceding categories; alae slightly elongate, but not bent backwards, 12.5– 15.3 (1.8)– 18. Sigmas ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 Q), contorted, smooth and pointy, 19– 23.3 (1.5)– 26.

Observation. Acanthostyles I (main choanosomal), acanthostyles II (echinating choanosomal), acanthostyles III (echinating choanosomal).

Ecology. Grows over barnacles, bivalves and rock covered by coralline algae, in a community dominated by mytilids and Crepidula   gastropods. A few bryozoans and corallimorpharians occurred over its surface.

Distribution. Provisionally endemic from its type locality in the Gulf of Ancud (Islote Ballena   ), Chile.

Etymology. The specific epithet ‘ballena’ is used as a noun in apposition and refers to the species’ type locality. The word means whale in Spanish.

Remarks. The Sturges algorithm (Sturges, 1926) confirmed the occurrence of two size classes of isochelae; i.e. 34–46.8 and 12.5–29.5. The smaller size class can be easily distinguished in two morphological categories, thus indisputably raising the number of categories in this proposed new species to three.

As introduced above for the genus Lissodendoryx   , the subgenus Ectyodoryx   currently comprises 32 species recognized as valid according to van Soest et al. (2015), ten of which occur either in Chilean waters, or in neighboring biogeographic provinces, and demand a closer comparison. None of these, nevertheless, has three categories of isochelae as observed in L. (Ectyodoryx) ballena   sp. nov. ( Tab. 2 View TABLE 2 ). Furthermore, only four of these ten species possess ectosomal tornotes; viz. L. (E.) antartica, L. (E.) collinsi   , L. (E.) jasonensis   and L. (E.) minuta   . However, these are quite larger than the tornotes of the new species.

Even though van Soest et al. (2015) assign Lissodendoryx diversichela Lundbeck, 1905   in the N Atlantic to subgenus Ectyodoryx   , we propose its transfer to subgenus Lissodendoryx   on the basis of its original description with a single category of acanthostyles. To the best of our knowledge there has never been a subsequent taxonomic account of this species where a second category of acanthostyles had been found. We would like to highlight the fact that L. (L.) diversichela   has three categories of isochelae, as found in the new species described above.

TABLE 2. Comparative table for the spicule micrometries (µm), distributions and depth of occurrence of Lissodendoryx (Ectyodoryx) Lundbeck, 1909 known from the Antarctic, the Subantarctic region, the SW Atlantic and SE Pacific; * (absent),? (no information).

species ectosomaldiactines Acanthostyles   microscleres: distribution/depth
        i. arcuate isochelae  
        s. sigmas  
L. (E.) ballena   108– 123.5 – 135 / I. 180– 202.5 – 232 /   i. I. 31– 39 – 47 Gulf of Ancud [Islote
sp. nov. 2.5– 3.5 – 4.8 8– 13 – 16   i. II. 23 – 25.3 – 29 Ballena   ], S Chile / 14m
  smooth tornotes II. 77 – 84.2 – 95 / i. III. 12.5– 15.3 – 18   i. III. 12.5– 15.3 – 18  
    4.8– 7 – 8   s. 19– 23.3 – 26  
L. (E.) corrugata   sp. nov. 108– 172 – 204 / I. 252– 313.5 – 358 /   i. I. 28– 34 – 40 Gulf of Corcovado
  4.8– 5.1 – 6 tylotes 8– 13.5 – 16.8   i. II. 16– 22 – 24 [Guaitecas] and Gulf of
  with microspined II. 90 – 126 – 158 /     Ancud [Comau fjord], S  
  ends 7.5– 10.3 – 12.5     Chile / 18–30m
L. (E.) coloanensis   150– 187. 2 – 198 / I. 190– 267.5 – 300 /   i. I. 26– 29. 3 – 31.2 Straits of Magellan
sp. nov. 4– 4.7 – 5 tylotes with 7.2– 8 – 9 i. II. 19 – 19.7 – 22   i. II. 19 – 19.7 – 22 [Santa Inés Isl.], S Chile /
  microspined ends   II. 84 – 100 – 115 /     20m
    6– 7. 5 – 8      
L. (E.) diegoramirezensis   223– 233.5 – 252 / I. 435– 536 – 602 /   i. 22 – 23.5 – 24 56 ºS, off Diego Ramírez 56 ºS, off Diego Ramírez
sp. nov. 7.2– 8. 4 – 9.6 24– 26.6 – 31   s. I. 45 – 55. 5– 60 Archipelago, off Cape
  tylotes with II. 320– 391 – 415 /   s. II. 16.8– 20.8 – 25 Horn/ 2000m
  microspined ends   19– 20 – 21      
    III. 220– 232.5 – 242 /      
    14–15 – 17      
L. (E.) anacantha   263–296 / 7–10 I. 416–664 / 18– 25 I. 416–664 / 18– 25   i. 20–25 W Antarctic Peninsula
(Hentschel, 1914) as tylotes with II. 176–232 / 8–9   s. I. 37 –45 (662 'S/ 8938 'W)/ 380 –
Ectyodoryx   microspined ends       s. II. 17–19 385m
frondosa var. anacantha            
[original description]          
L. (E.) anacantha   252– 275.8 – 292 / I. 346– 437 – 620 / 16 – i. 22 – 24.7 – 27   i. 22 – 24.7 – 27 see above
(Hentschel, 1914) 9– 10.6 – 12 tylotes 30 –43   s. I. 40 – 45.2 – 48  
[holotype with microspined II. 225– 255.6 – 296 / 16 s. II. 24 – 26.3 – 28  
remeasured] ends   18.4 –20      
L. (E.) anacantha sensu   Record without any description     W Antarctic Peninsula,
Burton, 1932         Wilhelm II Land / 160m
L. (E.) anacantha   sensu   250–300 / 7–10 I. 360–664 / 18– 40 I. 360–664 / 18– 40   i. 17–25 Antarctica   (Kaiser
Koltun, 1964 strongyles with II. 176–300 / 8–17   s. I. 30–60 Wilhelm II Land,
  microspined ends       s. II. 17–25 BANZARE Coast, Lars
          Christensen Coast)/ 320– 540m 540m
          540m
L. (E.) antartica 224–264 / 5 smooth 272–296 / 15– 16   i. 22–27 / 10–13 W Antarctic Peninsula
(Hentschel, 1914) tornotes     s. 21–25 (662 'S– 8938 'W)/ 380m
L. (E.) collinsi Goodwin   , 216– 256 – 295 / I. 300–342 – 396 /   * South Georgia / 17.4m
Brewin & Bricle, 2012 5.4– 7.8 – 10.9 9.1–12.3 – 15.2      
  smooth tornotes II. 95 –121– 178 /      
    3.8–7.3 – 13.9      
L. (E.) jasonensis   167–202 – 234 / I. 274–315 – 416 /   i. 25–32 – 38 Falklands/ Malvinas
Goodwin, Jones, Neely & 2.3–4.2 – 5.7 5.1–10.3 – 15.1     Islands, SW Atlantic/ 13 –
Brickle, 2011 smooth tornotes II. 99 –128– 147 /     20m
    8.9–13.5 – 17.2      
L. (E.) minuta   (Calcinai & 183–188 – 199 / I. 219–238.5 – 260 /   i. I. 20–25 – 30 Ross Sea, Antarctica   /
Pansini, 2000) 2.6–5 smooth aniso- 7–8.6 – 10 i. II. 14 –15.7– 18   i. II. 14 –15.7– 18 197m
  tornotes II. 102–115 – 132 /   s. 20–27 – 56  
    5–7 – 10