Bomis hippoponoi Szymkowiak

Szymkowiak, Paweł & Królikowska, Sylwia, 2017, Redescription of Bomis larvata L. Koch, 1874 with the description of a new Australian species, Zootaxa 4323 (4), pp. 451-468: 459-466

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4323.4.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:0301AC55-FAA6-45AF-BF1E-32105675F460

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03EF1F6B-FFD3-FF80-FF16-F8ECFEEF0187

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Bomis hippoponoi Szymkowiak
status

sp. nov.

Bomis hippoponoi Szymkowiak   sp. nov.

Figs 29–55 View FIGURES 29–34 View FIGURES 35–38 View FIGURES 39–44 View FIGURES 45–46 View FIGURES 47–49 View FIGURES 50–55 .

Etymology. Hippop - refers to a hippopotamus-like shape of the clypeus. The word hippopotamus is derived from Greek. The suffix -onoi is established as a tribute to the Japanese arachnologist Hirotsugu Ono, one of the world most prominent arachnologists specializing in the taxonomy of Thomisidae   .

Type material: Holotype: female, AUSTRALIA: South Australia: Second Valley, 8.5 km SSE, Fleurieu Swamp Survey , TOR 00903 View Materials , [35°36’05”S, 138°16’45”E], 4–10 December 1996 ( SAM NN28137 View Materials ). GoogleMaps  

Paratypes: AUSTRALIA: New South Wales: 3 females, Lord Howe Island , December 1915 – January 1916, A.M. Lea leg., Rainbow 1920 det. as Diaea albiceris   (misidentification) ( SAM NN257 View Materials )   . Queensland: 1 male, Brisbane, Carindale, Bulimba Creek , 15 m, forest, red gum woodland, sweeping net, 51650, [27°30.2’S, 153°06.6’E], 3 November 2003, S. Wright leg. ( QM S 67337 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Brisbane, Ransome, Chelsea Rd. , iron bank open forest, sweeping net, 51708, [27°29.0’S, 153°11.3’E], 10 November 2003, S. Wright leg. ( QM S 65914 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 2 females, Upper Brookfield, Gold Creek Reserve , 140 m, spotted gum open forest, sweeping net, 51879, [27°27.9’S, 152°52.5’E], 23 February 2004, QM party leg. ( QM S 65535 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Brisbane, Victoria Point, Eprapah Creek , Corridor , 20 m, Pyrethrum   open woodland, 19737, [27.586°S, 153.273°E], 10 February 2010, A. Nakamura, C.J. Burwell. leg. ( QM S 88202 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . South Australia: 1 female, Mount Lofty Ranges, Aldinga Scrub , 14 September 1975, H.M. Cooper leg. ( SAM NN28184 View Materials )   ; 1 male, Aldgate , i1079, on bush, December 1984, B. Guerin leg. ( SAM NN370 View Materials )   ; 1 female, Aldgate , i1079, December 1984, detailed as B. larvata   (misidentification), B. Guerin leg. ( SAM NN373 View Materials )   ; 1 female, Aldgate, Mount Lofty Ranges , on reeds, [35°01’00”S, 138°44’00”E], November 1984, B. Guerin leg. ( SAM NN28142 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Aldgate, Mount Lofty Ranges , on garden shrub, [35°01’00”S, 138°44’00”E], November 1984, B. Guerin leg. ( SAM NN28141 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 4 males, 1 female, Mount Lofty Ranges, Blacks Bluff, Hallett Cove , on Beyeria leschenaultia   , 24 January 1968, H.M. Cooper leg. ( SAM NN28172-6 View Materials )   ; 1 female, Mount Lofty Ranges, Hallett Cove, Black Bluff , on Bayeria leschenaultia   , 14 August 1975, H.M. Cooper leg. ( SAM NN28183 View Materials )   ; 1 female, Mount Lofty Ranges, Hallett Cove, 1 mile S to Curlew Point and pt. Stanvac , foot of coastal cliffs, 1 February 1967, H.M. Cooper leg. ( SAM NN28140 View Materials )   ; 1 male, Adelaide district, Hallett Cove , beating, May 1967, [35°04’00”S, 138°30’00”E], H.M. Cooper leg. ( SAM NN28156-7 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Adelaide district, West Beach , on daisy bushes, 20 November 1975, [34°57’00”S, 138°30’00”E], R. Brooks leg. ( SAM NN28200 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Mount Lofty Ranges, Mount Lofty Ranges, Mount Compass , on coral fern, 28 May [year? no data], [35°21’00”S, 138°17’00”E], R. Cook leg. ( SAM NN28181 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Mount Lofty Ranges, Mount Compass (2.5 km NE), sweeping net, [35°20’00”S, 138°38’00”E], 10 December 1996, [ WIL01202 View Materials ], ( SAM NN28151 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Sedan (10 km N)   , 1 female, Mount Lofty Ranges, Mount Compass (9 km E), pitfall, [ WIL 00802 View Materials ], [35°21’20”S, 138°43’01”E], 4–10 December 1996 ( SAM NN28186 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Western Murray Flats , beating bushes, [34°34’00”S, 139°18’0”E], 1985 ( SAM NN28139 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 3 females (one female detached, epigyne, prosoma and opisthosoma separately in microvial), Kangaroo Island, Cape Gantheaume, Point Tinline , [35°59’00”S, 137°37’0”E], 10–11 November 1987, B. Guerin leg. ( SAM NN28143-5 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, 2 juveniles, Kangaroo Island, Muston , beating dense undergrowth, [35°48’15”S, 137°44’24”E], H.M. Cooper leg. ( SAM NN28153–5 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Kangaroo Island, Muston (2 miles W), [35°48’15”S, 137°44’24”E], 24 June 1975, H.M. Cooper leg. ( SAM NN28180 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Kangaroo Island., Muston , on Correa   , 1 July 1967, H.M. Cooper leg. ( SAM NN28197 View Materials )   ; 2 females, Kangaroo Island, Point Reynolds (N of Pennington Bay), dense underscrub, 29 June 1967, H.M. Cooper leg. ( SAM NN28198–9 View Materials )   ; 1 male, 1 female, Sellicks Hill , dunes (shrubs), February 1967, H.M. Cooper leg. ( SAM NN28146–7 View Materials )   ; 1 female, Southern Flinders Ranges, Melrose , [32°50’00”S, 138°11’00”E], October [year? no data], A.M. Lea leg. ( SAM NN28152 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 4 males, 12 females, Fleurieu Peninsula, Normanville, Bungala River , coastal sand dunes, 5 June 1967, H. M. Cooper leg. ( SAM NN28158–71 View Materials )   ; 1 female, Mount Barker Ranges, Mount Barker summit, [35°3’47”S, 138°55’16”E], 14 September 1975, A. Lees leg. ( SAM NN28182 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, 7 females, Eyre Peninsula, 3 miles N of Ceduna, Denial Bay , coastal strip of sand dunes, 6 June 1968, H.M. Cooper leg. ( SAM NN28189–96 View Materials )   ; 2 females, Wallaroo, North end of bay, beaten off Olearia axillaris   (?), [32°53’00”S, 135°37’00”E], 27 September 1968, H.M. Cooper leg. ( SAM NN28201–2 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   .

Other material examined. AUSTRALIA: Queensland: 2 subadult females   , 1 subadult male, 1 juvenile, Brisbane, Ransome, Ransome Reserve , 10 m, Casuarina   sp. woodland, sweeping net, [27°29.6’S, 153°11.1’E], 10 November 2003, S. Wright leg. ( QM S 65915 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . South Australia: 13 juveniles, Mount Lofty Ranges, Blacks Bluff, Hallett Cove , on Beyeria leschenaultia   , 24 January 1968, H.M. Cooper leg. ( SAM NN28172-6 View Materials )   ; 10 juveniles, Mount Lofty Ranges, Hallett Cove, Black Bluff , on Bayeria leschenaultia   , 14 August 1975, H.M. Cooper leg. ( SAM NN28183 View Materials )   ; 1 juvenile, Adelaide district, West Beach , on daisy bushes, 20 November 1975, [34°57’00”S, 138°30’00”E], R. Brooks leg. ( SAM NN28200 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 juvenile, Hallett Cove , on Alyxia buxifolia   , 17 March 1967, H.M. Cooper leg. ( SAM NN28185 View Materials )   ; 28 juveniles, Sellicks Hill , dunes (shrubs), February 1967, H.M. Cooper leg. ( SAM NN28146–7 View Materials )   ; 1 subadult female, 2 juveniles, West Island, near Victor harbor, [35°37’00”S, 138°36’00”E], April 1989, S. Lewer leg. ( SAM NN28148–50 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 juvenile, Southern Flinders Ranges, Mount Remarkable , summit, [32°49’00”S, 138°09’00”E], April 1967, H.M. Cooper leg. ( SAM NN28188 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 juvenile, Eyre Peninsula, 3 miles N of Ceduna, Denial Bay , coastal strip of sand dunes, 6 June 1968, H.M. Cooper leg. ( SAM NN28189–96 View Materials )   .

Diagnosis. Anterior margin of clypeus straight ( Figs 36 View FIGURES 35–38 , 39–40 View FIGURES 39–44 ) with dense strobiliform and spinose setae ( Fig. 42 View FIGURES 39–44 ). Venter of opisthosoma with one semi-circular apodeme in the middle and two pairs of small triangular apodemes on the ( Fig. 45 View FIGURES 45–46 ). Epigyne 1.5 to 2 times wider than long with two protruding conical protuberances situated close to each other ( Figs 33 View FIGURES 29–34 , 37 View FIGURES 35–38 , 46 View FIGURES 45–46 ); epigynal orifices directed posteriorly on top of two conical protuberances ( Fig. 46 View FIGURES 45–46 ). Male palp with slightly curved bean-shape tegulum ( Figs 48 View FIGURES 47–49 , 53 View FIGURES 50–55 ); embolus one quarter the length of tegulum ( Figs 48 View FIGURES 47–49 , 53–54 View FIGURES 50–55 ) and protuberance on cymbial depression with plumose and bacilliform hairless setae situated in apical-cymbial depression ( Fig. 54 View FIGURES 50–55 ); cymbial retrolateral margin without notch.

Description. Female: Body length: 2.38 (holotype), 1.72–3.30 (mean=2.15, SD±0.29, n=41), prosoma length: 0.98 (holotype), 0.87–1.25 (mean=1.06, SD±0.08, n=40), prosoma width: 1.00 (holotype), 0.84–1.22 (mean=1.02, SD±0.07, n=41), prosoma height: 0.62 (holotype), 0.49–0.85 (mean=0.69, SD±0.08, n=41), prosoma length/width ratio: 0.98 (holotype), mean 1.01 (n=41), opisthosoma length: 1.40 (holotype), 1.12–2.3 (mean=1.52, SD±0.24, n=41), opisthosoma width: 1.93 (holotype), 1.47–2.88 (mean=1.9, SD±0.28, n=41), opisthosoma height: 1.4 (holotype), 0.75–2.35 (mean=1.12, SD±0.36, n=41), opisthosoma length/width ratio: 0.72 (holotype), mean 0.80 (n=41). Prosoma convex, the highest point at half of its length, the widest about at half of its height ( Fig. 36 View FIGURES 35–38 ); almost the whole dorsum including clypeus and the area of eyes (excluding the area of posterior declivity) are covered by small, numerous tubercles and tiny rounded cavities, best developed on clypeus ( Fig. 41 View FIGURES 39–44 ); ratio of width to height is 1.47; shape of the prosoma resembles a head of a hippopotamus in frontal view ( Figs 36 View FIGURES 35–38 , 39–40 View FIGURES 39–44 ). Clypeus length 0.39, width 0.65; with rounded lateral margins ( Figs 36 View FIGURES 35–38 , 39–40 View FIGURES 39–44 ) covered by 12–14 strobiliform setae (diameter of 5 µm) projecting from small tubercles ( Fig. 42 View FIGURES 39–44 ); the ratio of clypeus length to AME-AME distance 1.5. Eyes. All lenses are small, of nearly the same diameter (0.038 –0.042), rounded (except eliptical PME), ALE, PLE and PME form a separate group of eyes with lenses, separated by an equal distance from each other within a group, MOA takes the shape of a trapezium; AME-AME 0.26, AME-ALE 0.1, ALE-ALE 0.58, ALE-PLE 0.12, ALE-PME 0.13, PLE-PLE 0.59, AME-PME 0.2, PME-PME 0.24, PME-PLE 0.13, MOA length 0.26, MOA anterior width 0.26, MOA posterior width 0.32, x/y ratio 0.71, diameter of lenses: ALEŻPLEŻAME>PME, size of eyes tubercles: ALE>PLE=PME>AME. Chelicerae small fangs have a promarginal area with numerous short, peg-like setae ( Fig. 40 View FIGURES 39–44 ). Labium triangular, significantly narrowing anteriorly, length 0.14, width 0.14; maxillae’s length 0.26; width of labium + maxillae 0.41. Sternum heart-shaped with raised margins, plain central part and shape of posterior part as wide caudal fish fin (1/3 width of the sternum) ( Fig. 43 View FIGURES 39–44 ), ratio of maximum width of sternum to width of its posterior part is 2.24, integument reticulated with alveolate and nearly rounded small cavities ( Fig. 43 View FIGURES 39–44 ) and plumose setae on surface; length 0.47, width 0.4. Integument of all legs is reticulated with numerous wrinkles, cavities, having a single trichobothrium dorsally on the anterior edges of metatarsi and five plumose setae dorsally on the tibiae’s posterior edges of legs I, II and IV; leg formula: II-I-IV-III.

Length of leg segments in females of Bomis hippoponoi   sp. nov.

Dorsum of opisthosoma with apodemes in arrangement of 1-2-2 ( Fig. 44 View FIGURES 39–44 ) with two elongated stripes from the centre of opisthosoma to its margins ( Fig. 44 View FIGURES 39–44 ); eight folds around the sides. The epigyne wide, two outlines of adjoining peanut-shaped insemination ducts oriented towards each other initially, with highly sclerotized internal margins ( Figs 33 View FIGURES 29–34 , 37 View FIGURES 35–38 ); curled reproductive ducts make one turn toward the spherical spermathecae ( Figs 34 View FIGURES 29–34 , 38 View FIGURES 35–38 ). The prosoma is dark laterally and lighter in the middle, with incidental dark markings ( Figs 29, 31 View FIGURES 29–34 ); the dorsum of the opisthosoma has a light anterior part and a separate white stripe or white paths extending above the intermediate pair of dorsal apodemes ( Figs 29, 31 View FIGURES 29–34 ); the posterior part of the dorsum appears both light and darkcolored ( Figs 29, 31 View FIGURES 29–34 ); marginal folds have usually several white spots ( Fig. 31 View FIGURES 29–34 ).

Male: Body length: 1.38–1.7 (mean 1.57, SD±0.12, n=15), prosoma length: 0.75–1.44 (mean 0.9, SD ±0.16, n=15), prosoma width: 0.72–0.92 (mean 0.85, SD±0.05, n=15), prosoma height: 0.48–0.72 (mean 0.59, SD±0.06, n=15), prosoma length/width ratio: mean 1.06 (n=15), opisthosoma length: 0.82–1.25 (mean 1.12, SD±0.14, n=15), opisthosoma width: 1.1–1.48 (mean 1.31, SD±0.12, n=15), opisthosoma height: 0.6–1 (mean 0.77, SD±0.13, n=15), opisthosoma length/width ratio: mean 0.85 (n=15). The prosoma is as wide as long ( Figs 32 View FIGURES 29–34 , 47 View FIGURES 47–49 ), and is covered by numerous tubercles and rounded small cavities ( Fig. 50 View FIGURES 50–55 ). The clypeus is 0.35 long with the ratio of its length to AME-AME distance being 2.0, the ventral margin is straight ( Figs 50–51 View FIGURES 50–55 ) with numerous marginal strobiliform setae ( Fig. 51 View FIGURES 50–55 ). All eyes and eye tubercles are small, ALE, PLE and PME tubercles of equal size, the x/ y ratio of 0.77, the diameter of lenses AME>ALE=PLE>PME, the size of eye tubercles ALE=PLE ≈ PME>AME. The legs have rugose surfaces covered by various types of setae, the most diverse on the tibiae (plain spiniform, spinose, robust ensiform with truncated tip, plumose with clavate shape) ( Fig. 52 View FIGURES 50–55 ), two or three trichobothria are found on each tibia dorsally on the proximal end and one trichobothrium on each metatarsus on the dorsal side, the leg formula follows the pattern of I=II-III=IV. Embolus is short, one quarter the length of the tegulum ( Figs 48 View FIGURES 47–49 , 53– 54 View FIGURES 50–55 ). Cymbial depression with protuberance supplied by several hairy setae and one hairless, baciliform seta with circularly twisted furrows (groves) ( Fig. 54 View FIGURES 50–55 ), on top of the cymbium there are numerous setae similar to the ventral cymbial protuberance ( Fig. 54 View FIGURES 50–55 ). The palpal tibia has no apophyses ( Figs 48–49 View FIGURES 47–49 , 53, 55 View FIGURES 50–55 ), but four types of setae retrolaterally (baciliform, setiform, spiniform, clavate; all spinose) ( Figs 49 View FIGURES 47–49 , 55 View FIGURES 50–55 ). The other parts of the body and appendages correspond to the female description.

Distribution. The species has been recorded most frequently in Southern Australia. It was also collected in Queensland and in New South Wales (Lord Howe Island).

Habitat preferences. The species inhabits mainly shrubs, dense undergrowth and reeds. It is found in woodlands, gardens, on coastal cliffs and in sand dunes.

Remarks on identification. Though it is difficult to distinguish these two species in the field due to their small dimensions, the slightly divergent patterns on a female dorsal part of the abdomen is a good feature for the initial identification. The white transverse stripe is situated anteriorly to the intermediate pair of apodemes in females of B. hippoponoi   but posteriorly in B. larvata   . The two species are easily identified when the diagnostic features are analyzed with optical equipment. Also the ratio of the sternum’s width to the width of its posterior part (SWR) is slightly different. Mean SWR for B. larvata   was 2.31 and for B. hippoponoi   2.24 ( Fig. 56 View FIGURE 56 ). However, there is a zone of overlap, and the discriminant analysis did not separate the data set into two groups (Wilks' Lambda=0.95, F=2.51, p=0.11).

SAM

South African Museum

QM

Queensland Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Thomisidae

Genus

Bomis