Croton billbergianus Müller Argoviensis (1865: 98), Muller Argoviensis, 1865

Caruzo, Maria Beatriz Rossi & Cordeiro, Inês, 2013, Taxonomic revision of Croton section Cleodora (Euphorbiaceae), Phytotaxa 121 (1), pp. 1-41: 21

publication ID 10.11646/phytotaxa.121.1.1

persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Croton billbergianus Müller Argoviensis (1865: 98)


10. Croton billbergianus Müller Argoviensis (1865: 98)   ( Fig. 1A–D View FIGURE 1 ). Type:— PANAMA. Colón: Portobelo, s.dat., J.I. Billberg 316 (holotype B†, lectotype S!, here designated, isolectotype F!)   .

Croton grosseri Pax (1904: 290)   . Type:— COSTA RICA. Carrilo , 300 m, 8/ 9 July 1889, H.F. Pittier & T.A. Durand 1206  

(holotype not located, isotype A!, US!).

Croton billbergianus subsp. pyramidalis (Donnell Smith) G.L. Webster (1988: 1123)   . Croton pyramidalis Donnell Smith  

(1903: 7). Type:— GUATEMALA. Alta Veracruz : Río Dolores near Cubilgüitz, July 1901, H. von Türckheim 7974  

( holotype US!, isotype K!)   .

Shrubs to trees 2–10 m tall, sometimes climbing; latex orange; multiradiate, appressed-stellate and dendritic trichomes, usually porrect; branchlets cylindric, striate, floccose, dendritic trichomes. Leaves discolorous, with a pair of sessile saucer-shaped basilaminar glands; lamina 3–25 × 2–18 cm, elliptical, ovate to cordate, apex long acuminate to cuspidate, base slightly rounded to cordate, margin minutely serrate, with glands; upper surface glabrescent, scattered appressed-stellate trichomes, porrect, mainly on midvein, lower surface pubescent to sparsely pubescent, multiradiate and appressed-stellate, trichomes, usually porrect; venation pinnate, brochidodromous; petiole 1–5 cm long; stipules 0.1–1 cm long, entire, linear-lanceolate, deciduous. Inflorescences 7–22 cm long, terminal, rarely axilar, lax, apparently branched; inflorescence axis flattened, striate, floccose, dendritic trichomes; proximal cymules bisexual, with 1 pistillate flower and ca. 2 staminate flowers, distal cymules with ca. 2 staminate flowers; bracts 2–4 mm long, entire, linear, prophylls ca. 1 mm long, linear. Staminate flowers 0.7–1 cm long, subcampanulate, long pedicellate; pedicels 3–6 mm long; calyx 3–5 mm long, pubescent externally, appressed-stellate trichomes, glabrate internally; calyx lobes 5, united half of their length, then free for 1–2 mm, entire, equal, valvate, ovate, apex acute, margin villose; petals 3–5 mm long, spathulate, apex rounded, margin villose; disk 5-segmented; stamens ca. 16, filaments filiform, villose at the base, anthers ellipsoid; receptacle villose with simple trichomes. Pistillate flowers 6–8 mm long, campanulate, pedicellate; pedicels 2–3 mm long; calyx 4–6 mm long, pubescent externally, brown appressedstellate trichomes, glabrescent internally; calyx lobes 5, united at the base, then free for the terminal 3–5 mm, entire, equal, imbricate, ovate-lanceolate to triangular, apex acute to acuminate; petals absent; disk entire, deeply 5-lobed; ovary subglobose, hirsute-tomentose, appressed-stellate porrect trichomes; styles 3, multifid, united into a short column at the base, each one entire up to 1/3 of their length, then branching into ca. 24 terminal arms, covered by appressed-stellate trichomes, included in calyx. Fruits ca. 1.5 cm long, subglobose, warty, scattered appressed-stellate trichomes, calyx lobes inconspicuously accrescent, reflexed; seeds 4–6 mm long, ellipsoid, ribbed.

Distribution and habitat: — Croton billbergianus   is widely distributed in Central America, reaching Mexico in North America and Colombia in South America. It is found in moist forests from sea level to about 800 m elevation.

Phenology:— Flowering in February–September, and November; fruiting in April–October and December.

Taxonomic notes: —This species differs from the others of Croton section Cleodora   mainly by its apparently branched inflorescences and calyx lobes conspicuously reflexed.

Selected specimens examined: — MEXICO. Veracruz: Vicinity of playa escondida, 10 km N of Sotecomapan, 18º35’30’’N, 95º03’W, fl., 21 April 1983, M. Nee 26703 (DAV, F, MICH, NY, US, XAL) GoogleMaps   . BELIZE. Toledo: Punta Corda , 1 August 1980, J.D. Dwyer 15176 (DAV, MO)   . COSTA RICA. Limón: Cantón de Pococí, Along the margin of Rio Corinto , approx. 1.5km S of where Hwy. 32 crosses the river, 10º12’14.1’’N, 83º53’16.1’’W, 1080 m, fl., 12 April 2006, B. Van Ee & M. Van Ee   595 (MICH, WIS) GoogleMaps   . GUATEMALA. Cortes: E shore of Lago de Yojoa , 7 mi S of Agua Azul, 2000 ft., fl., 1 August 1962, G.L. Webster et al. 12754 (DAV, MBM, MICH)   . NICARAGUA. Zelaya: Nova Guinea , 11º46’N, 84º22’30’’W, 180 m, fr., 11 August 1982, M. Araquistain 3084 (DAV, HNMN) GoogleMaps   . PANAMA. Colón: Road to Rio Indios , 3 km S of Pina, elev. 50 m, 7 July 1976, G.A. Sullivan 134 (MO, VEN)   . COLOMBIA. Antioquia: Disturbed forest area approx. 15 km southeast of Turbo near the highway to Chigorodó , elevation less than 100 m, fl., 31 March 1962, C. Feddema 2104 (MICH, NY, US)   .


Instituto de Ecología, A.C.


Missouri Botanical Garden


University of Wisconsin


University of Michigan


Universidad Centroamericana


Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela














Croton billbergianus Müller Argoviensis (1865: 98)

Caruzo, Maria Beatriz Rossi & Cordeiro, Inês 2013

Croton billbergianus subsp. pyramidalis (Donnell Smith) G.L. Webster (1988: 1123)

Webster, G. L. & Huft, M. J. 1988: )

Croton grosseri

Pax, F. A. 1904: )