Isoctenus charada, Polotow & Brescovit, 2009, Polotow & Brescovit, 2009

Polotow, Daniele & Brescovit, Antonio D., 2009, Revision and cladistic analysis of Isoctenus and description of a new neotropical genus (Araneae, Ctenidae, Cteninae), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 155 (3), pp. 583-614: 600-607

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2008.00452.x

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03EA87DB-F85E-C317-FCA1-FD6DFBEA12AE

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Isoctenus charada
status

SP. NOV.

ISOCTENUS CHARADA   SP. NOV. ( FIG. 12A–D View Figure 12 )

Type material: Male holotype from Usina Hidrelétrica de Segredo, Reservatório   do Rio Jordão , Candói / Mangueirinha, Paraná, Brazil, 24.iv–4.v.1996, R. Bertani, deposited in IBSP 52464   ; Paratypes: 1 male and 1 female with the same data as holotype, deposited in IBSP 52463   .

Additional material examined: None.

Etymology: The species epithet is a Portuguese noun meaning ‘charade’.

Diagnosis: Isoctenus charada   sp. nov. resembles I. segredo   sp. nov. by the morphology of the RTA in male palp ( Fig. 12A, B View Figure 12 ), but can be distinguished by the robust median apophysis with elongated anterior projection and the basal projection of embolus large and curved in male palp ( Fig. 12A View Figure 12 ) and by the short and large median field, slender lateral spurs and spermathecae with a head and base large in the epigynum ( Fig. 12C, D View Figure 12 ).

Description: Male (holotype). Coloration as in I. segredo   . Total length 8.90. Carapace 4.80 long and 3.30 wide. Clypeus 0.20 high. Eye diameters: AME 0.16, ALE 0.20, PME 0.23, PLE 0.22. Leg measurements: I: femur 4.00/ patella 1.80/ tibia 3.80/ metatarsus 3.30/ tarsus 1.60/ total 14.50; II: 3.70/ 1.80/ 3.80/ 3.30/ 1.60/ 13.00; III: 3.30/ 1.70/ 2.70/ 3.10/ 1.30/ 12.10; IV: 4.50/ 1.70/ 3.80/ 4.20/ 1.70/ 15.90. Leg spination as in I. foliifer   , except metatarsus I and II r0-1-0, p-1-1-0. Palp: tibia short, approximately half cymbium length; RTA with conical ventral branch and short and robust dorsal branch with internal grooves; tibia with elongated ventral apophysis ( Fig. 12A, B View Figure 12 ). Cymbium with conical ventral retrolateral projection and truncated dorsal retrolateral projection; short and laminar embolus with rounded tip; median apophysis with rounded posterior projection ( Fig. 12A View Figure 12 ).

Female ( IBSP 52463). Coloration as in I. segredo   . Total length 9.50. Carapace 4.40 long and 3.30 wide. Clypeus 0.16 high. Eye diameters: AME 0.18, ALE 0.18, PME 0.24, PLE 0.21. Leg measurements: I: femur 3.20/ patella 1.60/ tibia 2.70/ metatarsus 2.30/ tarsus 1.00/ total 10.80; II: 3.00/ 1.60/ 2.40/ 2.30/ 1.00/ 10.30; III: 2.70/ 1.40/ 2.00/ 2.40/ 0.90/ 9.40; IV: 3.40/ 1.50/ 3.00/ 3.80/ 1.30/ 13.00. Leg spination as in I. foliifer   , except metatarsus III p1-1-1-1. Epigynum: median field with anterior margin slightly excavated and lateral margins rounded; lateral spurs not covered by the median field and with projected tip ( Fig. 12C View Figure 12 ). Ventral wall with a fold covering part of the spermathecae ( Fig. 12D View Figure 12 ).

Variation: Two males: total length 8.50–8.90.

Distribution: Southern Brazil, State of Paraná.

ISOCTENUS HERTELI   (MELLO- LEITÃO, 1947) COMB. NOV. ( FIG. 13A–D View Figure 13 )

Ctenus herteli Mello-Leitão, 1947   , fig. 24 (female holotype from Volta Grande, Piraquara, Paraná, Brazil, ii.1945, R. Hertel, deposited in MHCI 2476, examined); Pinto-da-Rocha & Caron, 1989: 1026; Platnick, 2008.

Ctenus mourei Mello-Leitão, 1947   , fig. 25 [male lectotype and male paralectotype from Barigüi, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, R. B. Lange, deposited in MHCI 2517 and 2516, designated by Pinto-da-Rocha & Caron (1989), examined]; Pinto-da-Rocha & Caron, 1989: 1026; Platnick, 2008. Syn. nov.

Additional material examined: BRAZIL. Paraná: Curitiba, Barigüi , 2 males ( MHCI 1003, 1017–1023)   ; 1 male ( IBSP)   ; Piraquara (Volta Grande), 1 female ( MHCI 2223); (Banhado)   , 1 female ( IBSP)   ; 1 male, 1 female ( MNRJ 13421 View Materials )   .

Diagnosis: Isoctenus herteli   comb. nov. resembles I. minusculus   comb. nov. by the morphology of the embolus in male palp ( Fig. 13A View Figure 13 ), but can be distinguished by the short tibia, ventral branch of RTA truncate, dorsal branch of RTA short and robust, and robust and large median apophysis with elongated anterior projection in male palp ( Fig. 13A, B View Figure 13 ) and by the short and large median field and spermathecae with a robust head in the epigynum ( Fig. 13C, D View Figure 13 ).

Description: Male ( MHCI 2516). Coloration as in I. foliifer   . Total length 8.80. Carapace 4.70 long and 3.70 wide. Clypeus 0.18 high. Eye diameters: AME 0.14, ALE 0.20, PME 0.24, PLE 0.21. Leg measurements: I: femur 4.60/ patella 2.00/ tibia 4.50/ metatarsus 4.10/ tarsus 1.90/ total 17.10; II: 4.20/ 1.90/ 3.60/ 3.60/ 1.60/ 14.90; III: 3.60/ 1.60/ 3.00/ 3.50/ 1.40/ 13.10; IV: 4.50/ 1.80/ 4.20/ 5.50/ 2.00/ 18.00. Leg spination as in I. foliifer   , except tibia I and II p1-1-0, metatarsus I and II r1-1-0, p-1-1-0. Palp: tibia approximately half cymbium length; tibia with large ventral apophysis ( Fig. 13A, B View Figure 13 ). Cymbium with short and rounded ventral and dorsal retrolateral projection ( Fig. 13B View Figure 13 ); short and laminar embolus with hooked tip and basal projection short and robust; median apophysis with rounded posterior projection ( Fig. 13A View Figure 13 ).

Female (holotype). Coloration as in I. foliifer   . Total length 12.80. Carapace 6.40 long and 4.90 wide. Clypeus 0.26 high. Eye diameters: AME 0.22, ALE 0.20, PME 0.40, PLE 0.30. Leg measurements: I: femur 5.10/ patella 2.50/ tibia 5.40/ metatarsus 3.90/ tarsus 1.60/ total 18.50; II: 4.80/ 2.50/ 4.40/ 3.70/ 1.60/ 17.00; III: 4.30/ 2.10/ 3.60/ 3.70/ 1.60/ 15.30; IV: 5.50/ 2.40/ 5.10/ 5.80/ 1.90/ 20.70. Leg spination as in I. foliifer   . Epigynum: median field with anterior margin smooth; slender lateral spurs not covered by the median field and with slightly projected tip ( Fig. 13C View Figure 13 ). Spermathecae with large head and reduced base; ventral wall with a fold covering part of the spermathecae ( Fig. 13D View Figure 13 ).

Variation: Four males: total length 8.50–9.50, carapace 4.50–5.00, femur I 4.20–4.70; two females: total length 9.00–12.70, carapace 4.50–5.70, femur I 4.00–4.60.

Distribution: Southern Brazil, State of Paraná.

ISOCTENUS MINUSCULUS ( KEYSERLING, 1891)   COMB. NOV. ( FIGS 14A–D View Figure 14 , 19B View Figure 19 )

Ctenus minusculus Keyserling, 1891: 149   , pl. 5, fig. 102 (female holotype from Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1.vii.1890, E. Keyserling, deposited in BMNH 2915, examined); Pickard- Cambridge, 1897: 65, 77; Pickard-Cambridge, 1902: 411; Mello-Leitão, 1936: 3, 11, pl. 1 fig. 16, pl. 2 figs 17, 18; Mello-Leitão, 1947: 270; Bonnet, 1956: 1285; Platnick, 2008.

Additional material examined: BRAZIL. Rio Grande do Sul: 1 male, 3 females ( MNRJ 41666 View Materials )   ; Sobradinho, 1 female ( MCN 3797)   ; Farroupilha, 1 female ( MCN 8303)   ; São Francisco de Paula   , 1 female ( MCN 1669)   ; Caxias do Sul, 1 female ( MCN 1667)   ; Canela, 1 female ( MCN 12361 View Materials )   ; Triunfo, 1 female ( MCN 7318)   ; Porto Alegre, 1 female ( MCN 14401 View Materials )   ; 1 female ( MCTP 3908 View Materials ); ( Reserva Biológica do Lami )   , 1 male, 1 female ( MCTP 411 View Materials )   ; 1 male ( MCN 4227)   , all collected by A. A. Lise; Guaíba   , 1 female ( MCTP 6072 View Materials )   ; 1 female ( MCN 2289)   ; Montenegro, 1 female ( MCN 6072)   ; Osório, 1 male ( MCN 1900)   ; Viamão, 1 female ( MCTP 6215 View Materials ); (Médio Arroio Pesqueiro, 30°09′S 50°57′W) GoogleMaps   , 1 male, 1 female ( MCN 33184 View Materials ); ( Passo do Vigário )   , 1 male ( MCTP 3224 View Materials ); ( Morro do Coco )   , 1 male ( MCN 11283 View Materials )   .

Diagnosis: Isoctenus minusculus   comb. nov. resembles I. herteli   comb. nov. by the morphology of the embolus ( Fig. 14A View Figure 14 ) in male palp, but can be distinguished by the long and thin tibia, ventral branch of RTA short and laminar, dorsal branch of RTA short and thin with rounded tip and internal grooves and robust median apophysis in male palp ( Fig. 14A, B View Figure 14 ) and by the median field with a median area rounded and elevated, lateral spurs short and laminar and spermathecae smooth with a small head in the epigynum ( Fig. 14C, D View Figure 14 ).

Description: Male ( MCTP 3224). Coloration as in I. segredo   . Total length 8.70. Carapace 4.60 long and 3.40 wide. Clypeus 0.18 high. Eye diameters: AME 0.16, ALE 0.16, PME 0.24, PLE 0.20. Leg measurements: I: femur 4.40/ patella 1.90/ tibia 4.10/ metatarsus 3.90/ tarsus 2.10/ total 16.40; II: 3.90/ 1.80/ 3.40/ 3.30/ 1.70/ 14.10; III: 3.60/ 1.60/ 3.00/ 3.30/ 1.50/ 13.00; IV: 4.70/ 1.80/ 4.30/ 5.20/ 2.00/ 18.00. Leg spination as in I. foliifer   , except tibia II r0-1-0, metatarsus I and II r0-1-0, p1-1-0. Palp: tibia short, approximately twothirds cymbium length with short and curved ventral apophysis ( Fig. 14A, B View Figure 14 ). Cymbium with reduced ventral retrolateral projection and short dorsal retrolateral projection ( Fig. 14B View Figure 14 ); embolus short and laminar with hooked tip and basal projection short and curved ( Fig. 19B View Figure 19 ); median apophysis with conical anterior and posterior projection ( Fig. 14A View Figure 14 ).

Female ( MCTP 6072). Coloration as in I. segredo   . Total length 13.30. Carapace 6.80 long and 5.00 high. Clypeus 0.24 high. Eye diameters: AME 0.23, ALE 0.22, PME 0.30, PLE 0.30. Leg measurements: I: femur 5.20/ patella 2.70/ tibia 4.70/ metatarsus 4.00/ tarsus 1.80/ total 18.40; II: 4.80/ 2.60/ 4.00/ 3.60/ 1.80/ 16.80; III: 4.50/ 2.10/ 3.50/ 3.80/ 1.80/ 15.70; IV: 5.70/ 2.40/ 5.00/ 6.10/ 2.20/ 21.40. Leg spination as in I. foliifer   , except tibia II p0-1-0. Epigynum: oval median field, with anterior margin slightly excavated and posterior margin rounded; lateral spurs not covered by the median field and partially projected over the median field ( Fig. 14C View Figure 14 ). Spermathecae with a small head and large base; ventral wall with a slight fold behind the spermathecae ( Fig. 14D View Figure 14 ).

Variation: Ten males: total length 7.40–8.50, carapace 4.20–4.50, femur I 4.00–4.30; ten females: total length 8.60–11.30, carapace 3.40–5.40, femur I 2.80–4.50.

Distribution: Southern Brazil, State of Rio Grande do Sul.

ISOCTENUS STRANDI   MELLO- LEITÃO, 1936

( FIGS 15A–D View Figure 15 , 19C View Figure 19 )

Isoctenus strandi Mello-Leitão, 1936: 20   , pl. 2 fig. 43 (female holotype from Paranaguá, Paraná, Brazil, O. Leonardos, deposited in MNRJ 41185, currently MNRJ 41875, examined); Mello-Leitão, 1936: 18; Mello-Leitão, 1947: 272; Bonnet, 1957: 2312; Platnick, 2008.

Ctenus pauper Mello-Leitão, 1947: 271   , figs 26, 27 [females lectotype and paralectotype from Barigüi, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, x.1944, R. B. Lange, deposited in MHCI 2518 and 2519, designated by Pinto-da- Rocha & Caron (1989), examined]; Pinto-da-Rocha & Caron, 1989: 1026; Platnick, 2008. Syn. nov.

Ctenus mourei Mello-Leitão, 1947   , fig. 25 [only male paralectotype from, Barigüi, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, R. B. Lange, deposited in MHCI 2445, designated by Pinto-da-Rocha & Caron (1989), examined]. Pinto-da-Rocha & Caron, 1989: 1026; Platnick, 2008.

Additional material examined: BRAZIL. São Paulo: Cananéia, Ilha do Cardoso , 1 male, v.2000, G. Machado ( IBSP 38103 View Materials )   . Paraná: Candói / Mangueirinha, Usina Hidrelétrica de Segredo, Reservatório   do Rio Jordão , 4 males ( IBSP 7225 View Materials , 7228 View Materials , 11018 View Materials )   ; Pinhão , 1 female ( MCN 22216 View Materials )   ; Curitiba , 2 female ( MHCI 1407, 2071); (Barigüi)   , 1 female ( MHCI, 1960); (Instituto Florestal)   , 1 male, 1 female ( MHCI 2921–2922)   ; Morretes, Parque Estadual Pico do Marumbi , 2 males, 5 females ( IBSP 7310 View Materials , 7311 View Materials , 7313 View Materials 7315,7317 View Materials , 7335 View Materials )   ; 1 male ( MHCI 3533–3534)   ; Matinhos, Caiobá , 2 female ( MHCI 1963, 992)   ; Tijucas do Sul, Lagoa , 6 males, 8 females ( IBSP 39108 View Materials , 39138 View Materials , 39148 View Materials , 39150 View Materials , 39226 View Materials , 39241 View Materials , 39244 View Materials )   ; Telêmaco Borba , 3 females ( IBSP 6567 View Materials )   . Santa Catarina   : Mafra, Avencal, 2 males, 2 females ( MHCI 1843–1848)   .

Diagnosis: Isoctenus strandi   resembles I. malabaris   by the morphology of tibia and presence of two small apical spines in male palp ( Fig. 15A, B View Figure 15 ) and morphology of the spermathecae in the epigynum ( Fig. 15D View Figure 15 ), but can be distinguished by the ventral and dorsal branches of RTA large and robust ( Fig. 15A, B View Figure 15 ), short embolus ( Fig. 19C View Figure 19 ) and slender median apophysis in male palp ( Fig. 15A View Figure 15 ) and by the subquadrangular median field in the epigynum ( Fig. 15C View Figure 15 ).

Description: Male ( MHCI 2921). Coloration as in I. foliifer   , except a lighter arrow mark in abdomen dorsum. Total length 9.90. Carapace 5.40 long and 4.50 wide. Clypeus 0.22 high. Eye diameters: AME 0.19, ALE 0.18, PME 0.24, PLE 0.26. Leg measurements: I: femur 5.00/ patella 2.30/ tibia 5.10/ metatarsus 4.80/ tarsus 2.10/ total 19.30; II: 4.90/ 2.20/ 4.20/ 4.30/ 1.80/ 17.30; III: 4.30/ 1.90/ 3.50/ 4.40/ 1.70/ 15.80; IV: 5.50/ 2.10/ 5.00/ 6.60/ 2.20/ 21.40. Leg spination as in I. foliifer   , except tibia II r0-1-0; metatarsus I and II r1-1-0, p1-1-0. Palp: tibia short, approximately half cymbium length; short ventral apophysis ( Fig. 15A, B View Figure 15 ). Cymbium with conical ventral and dorsal retrolateral projection ( Fig. 15B View Figure 15 ). Embolus with hooked tip and basal projection short and curved; median apophysis with elongated anterior projection and robust posterior projection ( Fig. 15A View Figure 15 ).

Female (holotype). Coloration as in I. foliifer   . Total length 12.80. Carapace 6.60 long and 5.00 wide. Clypeus 0.18 high. Eye diameters: AME 0.24, ALE 0.16, PME 0.27, PLE 0.22. Leg measurements: I: femur 5.20/ patella 2.90/ tibia 5.50/ metatarsus 4.20/ tarsus 1.60/ total 19.40; II: 5.10/ 2.60/ 4.90/ 3.90/ 1.60/ 18.10; III: 4.50/ 2.10/ 3.70/ 4.20/ 1.50/ 16.00; IV: 6.00/ 2.40/ 5.20/ 5.10/ 1.70/ 20.40. Leg spination as in I. foliifer   , except tibia II p0-1-0. Epigynum: median field with anterior margin slightly excavated; lateral spurs robust not covered by the median field and with a rounded tip ( Fig. 15C View Figure 15 ). Spermathecae with large head and small and projected base; ventral wall slightly elevated ( Fig. 15D View Figure 15 ).

Variation: Ten males: total length 7.20–9.50, carapace 4.00–5.10, femur I 3.30–4.50; ten females: total length 10.60–13.10, carapace 4.50–5.80, femur I 3.50–4.80.

Distribution: South-eastern and southern Brazil, States of São Paulo, Paraná and Santa Catarina   .

ISOCTENUS MALABARIS POLOTOW ET AL., 2007  

( FIG. 19D View Figure 19 )

Isoctenus malabaris Polotow et al., 2007: 216   , figs 1–5 (male holotype and female paratype from Centro de Pesquisas e Conservação da Natureza Pró-Mata (29°28′21″S, 50°09′25″W), São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 02.i.2001, R. Ott, deposited in MCN 39321 View Materials , examined; paratypes with same data as holotype: 3 males and 3 females, deposited in IBSP 51957, 51958; MCTP 17142, 17143; MZSP 25327, 25328, examined). Platnick, 2008.

Additional material examined: None.

Diagnosis: Isoctenus malabaris   resembles I. strandi   by the morphology of tibia and presence of two small apical spines in male palp ( Polotow et al., 2007, figs 1, 2) and morphology of the spermathecae in the epigynum ( Polotow et al., 2007, figs 3–5), but can be distinguished by conical ventral branch of RTA, slender dorsal branch of RTA, elongated embolus ( Fig. 19D View Figure 19 ) and robust median apophysis in male palp ( Polotow et al., 2007, figs 1, 2) and by the oval median field projected posteriorly and short lateral spurs in the epigynum ( Polotow et al., 2007, figs 3–5).

Description: Male and female are described in Polotow et al. (2007, figs 1–5).

Distribution: Southern Brazil, State of Rio Grande do Sul.

GENUS PARABATINGA   GEN. NOV.

( FIGS 16 View Figure 16 , 17 View Figure 17 , 20C View Figure 20 )

Type species: Parabatinga brevipes ( Keyserling, 1891)   comb. nov.

Etymology: The species epithet is a Tupi noun ‘paraba’ means spot and ‘tinga’ means white, and refers to the white spots in ventral abdomen.

Diagnosis: Parabatinga   gen. nov. is distinguished from other Cteninae   genera by the dorsal branch of RTA with hyaline tip ( Fig. 17A, B View Figure 17 ), embolus with distal hyaline projection ( Fig. 16C View Figure 16 ) and median apophysis with a prolateral laminar process ( Fig. 16D View Figure 16 ). Females of Parabatinga   gen. nov. are distinguished by spermathecae oval and dorsally projected ( Fig. 17D View Figure 17 ).

Description: Medium-sized ecribellate spiders. Total body length (males and females): 10.20–22.35. Carapace piriform. Thoracic groove longitudinal. Chilum divided. Eyes: ctenoid pattern 2-4-2, with the anterior and posterior row recurved in dorsal view. Clypeus with long, erect black bristles. Clypeus high proportional to AME diameter. Eyes round, except the anterior lateral oval. Chelicerae promargin of fang furrow with three teeth, the median almost twice as high as the laterals; retromargin with three similar sized teeth; intermarginal denticles present between pro- and retromarginal teeth. Endites three times labium length, with external lateral margin excavated, distally truncate. Subapical serrula. Labium short, as long as wide, with rounded tip bearing dense apical scopula. Sternum oval, not extending between legs IV. Leg formula 4123. Trochanters deeply notched. Ventral scopula on tarsi and metatarsi dense in females and light in males. Tibiae I and II with five pairs of ventral spines and metatarsi I and II with tree pairs of ventral spines. Smooth tarsal organ with rounded aperture and a distal fold ( Fig. 16A View Figure 16 ). Rounded trichobothria with four transverse grooves ( Fig. 16B View Figure 16 ). Tarsi with two pectinate claws and dense claw tufts. Female pedipalp claw pectinate with three elongated teeth ( Fig. 20C View Figure 20 ). Abdomen oval with numerous dorsal erect black bristles.

Male palp: Tibia short, approximately half cymbium length; RTA divided in ventral branch short and conical and dorsal branch sinuous and elongated with rounded and hyaline tip; ventrobasal depression of cymbium to accommodate the ventral tibial apophysis short and curved ( Fig. 17A, B View Figure 17 ). Cymbium elongated, distally coniform and proximally subrectangular; ventrobasal depression of cymbium delimited retrolaterally by a voluminous and ventrobasally projected fold ( Fig. 17A, B View Figure 17 ); tegulum oval, with prolateral depression to accommodate the embolus and with a large hyaline area, at median apophysis and embolus base, divided by a short and large sclerotized area ( Fig. 17B View Figure 17 ); embolus short and large, with a basal prolateral projection that notches on to a depression on the subtegulum (locking lobes sensu Griswold, 1993) ( Fig. 17A View Figure 17 ); median apophysis robust, prolaterally excavated and retrolaterally convex (cup-shaped sensu Griswold, 1993) ( Fig. 17A View Figure 17 ); conductor laminar, short and hyaline, not involving the tip of embolus ( Fig. 16C View Figure 16 ); subtegulum well developed and prolaterally positioned, with approximately one-third tegulum area; median area of the subtegulum with a depression limited by a basal projection, to notch on to the basal prolateral projection of the embolus ( Fig. 17A View Figure 17 ).

Epigynum: Divided into median and lateral fields, which bear lateral spurs; median field with anterior margin deeply excavated, rounded posterior margin and projected lateral margins; lateral projections positioned anteriorly and prolonged as an internal wall, partially visible in ventral view; copulatory openings situated anteriorly ( Fig. 17C View Figure 17 ). Copulatory ducts short, covered by a ventral wall; fertilization ducts short, originating from basal area of the spermathecae ( Fig. 17D View Figure 17 ).

Composition: Only the type species, P. brevipes   .

PARABATINGA BREVIPES ( KEYSERLING, 1891)   COMB. NOV. ( FIGS 16 View Figure 16 , 17 View Figure 17 , 20C View Figure 20 )

Ctenus brevipes Keyserling, 1891: 148   , fig. 101 (female holotype from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1.vii.1890, R. von Ihering, deposited in BMNH 2914, examined); Pickard-Cambridge, 1897: 65, 77; Pickard- Cambridge, 1902: 411; Strand, 1909b: 410; Mello- Leitão, 1936: 7; Mello-Leitão, 1947: 270; Bonnet, 1956: 1276; Platnick, 2008.

Ctenus taeniatus Keyserling, 1891: 151   , fig. 104 (male holotype from Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1.vii.1890, R. von Ihering, deposited in BMNH 2912, examined); Pickard-Cambridge, 1897: 65, 74; Pickard-Cambridge, 1902: 413; Mello-Leitão, 1936: 3, 5, 13; Bonnet, 1956: 1290; Eickstedt, 1977: 213; Simó & Brescovit, 2001; Platnick, 2008. Syn. nov.

Ctenus thomasi Pickard-Cambridge, 1902: 403   , figs 1, 2 (female holotype from La Plata, Argentina, 11.x.1897, O. Thomas, deposited in BMNH 122, not examined); Pickard-Cambridge, 1902: 411, 413; Mello- Leitão, 1933: 47; Eickstedt, 1977: 213 (syn.); Bonnet, 1956: 1291; Platnick, 2008.

Ctenus tatarandensis Tullgren, 1905: 48   , pl. 7 fig. 22 (female holotype from Tatarenda, Bolívia, B. E. Nordenskiöld, deposited in SMNH, examined); Bonnet, 1956: 1291; Platnick, 2008. Syn. nov.

Ctenus anisitsi Strand, 1909a: 311   (female holotype from Villa Sana, Paraguay, 19.i.1903, J. D. Anisits, deposited in ZMB, examined); Bonnet, 1956: 1275; Platnick, 2008. Syn. nov.

Ctenus atrivulvus Strand, 1909a: 314   (female holotype from Bahia, Brazil, deposited in ZMB, examined); Bonnet, 1956: 1275; Platnick, 2008. Syn. nov.

Ctenus mentor Strand, 1909a: 315   (female holotype from Santa Catarina   , Brazil, deposited in ZMB, examined); Bonnet, 1956: 1285; Platnick, 2008. Syn. nov.

Ctenus brevipes brevilabris Strand, 1909b: 410   (female holotype from Teresópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, deposited in ZMB 30718 View Materials , examined); Bonnet, 1956: 1276; Platnick, 2008. Syn. nov.

Ctenus binotatus Mello-Leitão, 1936: 6   , pl. 1 fig. 2 (female holotype from Terenos, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, deposited in IBSP 152, currently IBSP 424, examined); Mello-Leitão, 1936: 5; Eickstedt, 1977: 213 (syn.); Bonnet, 1956: 1276; Platnick, 2008.

Ctenus gynheraldicus Mello-Leitão, 1936: 8   , pl. 1 fig. 9 (female holotype from São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, 19.viii.1935, O. J. Batista, deposited in IBSP 181, not examined, lost); Mello-Leitão, 1936: 5; Lehtinen, 1967: 254; Eickstedt, 1977: 213 (syn.); Bonnet, 1956: 1282; Platnick, 2008.

Ctenus albovittatus Mello-Leitão, 1939: 74   , figs 56– 58 (male holotype from Leones, Córdoba, Argentina, Bleek-Heitz, deposited in NMB 1166a, examined); Eickstedt, 1977: 213 (syn.); Bonnet, 1956: 1274; Platnick, 2008.

Isoctenus masculus Mello-Leitão, 1939: 527   , figs 9, 10 (male holotype from Lagoa do Peri, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina   , Brazil, 16.ix.1936, V. Sesconetto, deposited in IBSP 984, examined); Bonnet, 1957: 2312; Platnick, 2008. Syn. nov.

Ctenus birabeni Mello-Leitão, 1941: 157   , pl. VIII fig. 35 (immature holotype from Juramento, Salta, Argentina, deposited in MLP 14822 View Materials , examined); Platnick, 2008. Syn. nov.

Additional material examined: COLOMBIA. Meta: Puerto Lleros, Lomalinda, 73°22′W, 3°18′N, 2 male ( CAS) GoogleMaps   ; San Ignácio, 3 females ( IBSP 4893 View Materials )   . BRAZIL. Pará: Serra Norte , 1 male ( MPEG)   ; Tocantins: Palmas, 1 female ( MCN 22617 View Materials )   . Maranhão: Balsas, 1 female, 1 male ( IBSP 36595 View Materials , 36597 View Materials )   . Sergipe: São Cristóvão, Campus UFSE, 1 female ( IBSP 10383 View Materials )   ; Santa Luzia do Itanhi, Mata do Crasto , 1 female ( IBSP 10162 View Materials )   . Mato Grosso: Nova Mutum, 1 male ( IBSP 29530 View Materials )   . Goiás: Niquelândia, Área U.H.E., Serra da Mesa, Margem esquerda do Rio Bagagem , 14°01′S, 48°18′W, 2 males ( IBSP 6268 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Mineiros, Parque Nacional das Emas, 1 female ( IBSP 9527 View Materials )   ; Catalão, 2 males ( IBSP 26243 View Materials )   . Distrito Federal: Brasília, 1 male, 8 females ( IBSP 2806 View Materials , 2807 View Materials , 2808 View Materials , 2809 View Materials , 2810 View Materials , 2813 View Materials , 2814 View Materials , 2815 View Materials )   . Bahia: Paulo Afonso, Raso da Catarina   , 2 males ( IBSP 7255 View Materials , 7256 View Materials )   ; Barro Alto, 1 female ( IBSP 159 View Materials )   ; Nova Redenção, 1 female ( IBSP 20978 View Materials )   ; Cachoeira, 1 female ( IBSP 3416 View Materials )   ; Porto Seguro, 4 males ( IBSP 4222 View Materials )   . Mato Grosso do Sul: Corumbá, 1 male, 3 females ( IBSP 20573 View Materials , 20575 View Materials , 20577 View Materials )   ; Camapuã, 3 females ( IBSP 2349 View Materials )   ; Terenos, 1 female ( IBSP 1051 View Materials )   ; Paranaíba, 1 male, 2 females ( IBSP 6551 View Materials , 6553 View Materials , 6554 View Materials )   ; Dourados, 1 male ( IBSP 4969 View Materials )   ; Bodoquena, Serra da Bodoquena , 1 female ( IBSP 33024 View Materials )   ; Bataguassú, Fazenda Orelha de Onça , 1 female ( IBSP 35419 View Materials )   . Minas Gerais: João Pinheiro, 1 female ( IBSP 8519 View Materials )   ; Santana do Riacho, Serra do Cipó , 2 females ( IBSP 8361 View Materials , 8365 View Materials )   ; Uberaba, 1 male, 28.VIII.1968 ( MHCI 4298)   ; Indianópolis, 1 male, 1 female ( IBSP 7631 View Materials )   ; Fronteira, 1 female ( IBSP 3561 View Materials )   ; Santa Bárbara, Parque Nacional da Serra da Caraça , 1 male ( IBSP 7423 View Materials )   ; Poços de Caldas , 1 female ( IBSP 5257 View Materials )   . Espírito Santo: São Mateus, Reserva Florestal Vale do Rio Doce , 2 males ( IBSP 12748 View Materials , 12763 View Materials )   ; São José do Calçado, Rio Itabapuana, Usina Hidrelétrica do Rosal , 1 female ( IBSP 26452 View Materials )   . Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro, 1 female, 2 males ( MNRJ 388 View Materials , 674 View Materials )   . São Paulo: Pereira Barreto, Usina Hidrelétrica de Três Irmãos , 6 males, 1 female ( IBSP 4855 View Materials )   ; Dobrada, 1 female ( IBSP 4234 View Materials )   ; Itapira, 1 male ( IBSP 3204 View Materials )   ; Maracaí, 1 female ( IBSP 5513 View Materials )   ; Monte Mor, 2 males ( IBSP 2704 View Materials )   ; Rancharia, 1 female ( IBSP 3472 View Materials )   ; São Carlos, 1 male ( IBSP 3206 View Materials )   ; Águas de Santa Bárbara , 1 male, 2 females ( IBSP 6964 View Materials , 6969 View Materials )   ; Pinhalzinho, 1 male ( IBSP 20131 View Materials )   ; Piracaia, 1 female ( IBSP 7410 View Materials )   ; Vinhedo, 1 female ( IBSP 24066 View Materials )   ; Assis, 1 male ( IBSP 4227 View Materials )   ; Itupeva, 1 female ( IBSP 3614 View Materials )   ; Jundiaí, 2 males ( IBSP 14445 View Materials )   ; Sorocaba, 1 male ( IBSP 6399 View Materials )   ; São Paulo, 5 females, 1 male ( IBSP 1382 View Materials )   ; Ibiúna, 1 female ( IBSP 2712 View Materials )   ; Igaratá, 1 male ( IBSP 20417 View Materials )   ; Miracatu, 1 female ( IBSP 3697 View Materials )   . Paraná: Ponta Grossa, 1 female ( IBSP 24039 View Materials )   . BOLIVIA. La Paz: Rio Blanco , 1 female ( IBSP 4699 View Materials )   . Santa Cruz: Buena Vista , 1 female ( IRSN)   . Beni: 1 male, 1 female ( CBF)   . PARAGUAY. Departamento Central: Assunción, 1 female ( IBSP 8441 View Materials )   . URUGUAY. Canelones: Marindia, 1 male ( IBSP 4038 View Materials )   . Lavalleja: Solis de Mataojo , 1 female ( IBSP 4042 View Materials )   ; Cerro Arequita, 1 female ( IBSP 4049 View Materials )   ; Aguas Blancas, 1 female ( IBSP 4039 View Materials )   . Colonia: Colonia (Astilleros), 1 female ( IBSP 4046 View Materials )   .

Diagnose: As in generic description.

Description: Male ( IBSP 23889). Carapace, sternum, endites, labium, legs and dorsal abdomen brown; black ventral abdomen, with two white points close to the spinnerets and two white points next to the epigastric furrow. Total length 12.60. Carapace 7.10 long and 5.30 wide. Clypeus 0.30 high. Eye diameters: OMA 0.28. OLA 0.24. OLP 0.32. OMP 0.38. Leg measurements: I: femur 6.10/ patella 2.80/ tibia 5.90/ metatarsi 5.20/ tarsi 2.50/ total 22.50; II: 5.20/ 2.50/ 4.70/ 4.50/ 1.80/18.70; III: 4.60/ 2.10/ 3.90/ 4.60/ 1.60/ 22.80; IV: 6.30/ 2.50/ 5.30/ 6.90/ 2.20/ 23.20. Leg spination: tibia I e II v2-2-2-2-2, p1-1-0, r1-1-0, III e IV v2-2-2, p1-1, r1-1; metatarsi I e II v2-2-2, p1-1-0, r1-1-0, III v2-2-2, p1-1-1, r1-1-1, IV v1-1-1-1-1-1, p1-1- 1-1, r1-1-1-1. Palp: as in generic description.

Female ( IBSP 23889). Coloration as in male. Total length 14.30. Carapace 6.80 long and 5.10 wide. Clypeus 0.32 high. Eye diameters: OMA 0.24, OLA 0.21, OLP 0.28, OMP 0.34. Legs measurement: I: femur 5.30/ patella 2.70/ tibia 4.80/ metatarsi 3.90/ tarsi 1.70/ total 18.40; II: 4.50/ 2.60/ 3.80/ 3.70/ 1.60/ 16.20; III: 4.10/ 2.00/ 3.10/ 3.60/ 1.60/ 14.40; IV: 5.50/ 2.40/ 4.70/ 6.00/ 1.90/ 20.50. Leg spination: tibia I and II v2-2-2-2-2, p0, r0, III and IV v2-2-2, p1-1, r1-1, metatarsi I and II v2-2-2, p0, r0, III v2-2-2, p1-1-1, r1-1-1, IV v1-1-1-1-1-2, p1-1-1, r1-1-1-1. Epigynum: as in generic description.

Variation: Ten males: total length 10.20–14.10, carapace 5.40–7.50, femur I 4.70–6.80; ten females: total length 11.40–22.35, carapace 6.20–9.50, femur I 5.30–7.50.

Distribution: Colombia, States of Maranhão, Sergipe, Mato Grosso, Goiás, Distrito Federal, Bahia, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Paraná, north, north-east, south-east and southern Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and Uruguay.

IBSP

Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo

MCTP

Museu de Ciencias

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

MPEG

Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi

IRSN

Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique

CBF

Coleccion Boliviana de Fauna

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Ctenidae

Genus

Isoctenus

Loc

Isoctenus charada

Polotow, Daniele & Brescovit, Antonio D. 2009
2009
Loc

Isoctenus malabaris

Polotow D & Brescovit AD & Ott R 2007: 216
2007
Loc

Ctenus pauper Mello-Leitão, 1947: 271

Pinto-da-Rocha R & Caron SF 1989: 1026
de Mello-Leitao CF 1947: 271
1947
Loc

Ctenus birabeni Mello-Leitão, 1941: 157

de Mello-Leitao CF 1941: 157
1941
Loc

Ctenus albovittatus Mello-Leitão, 1939: 74

von Eickstedt VR 1977: 213
Bonnet P 1956: 1274
de Mello-Leitao CF 1939: 74
1939
Loc

Isoctenus masculus Mello-Leitão, 1939: 527

Bonnet P 1957: 2312
de Mello-Leitao CF 1939: 527
1939
Loc

Isoctenus strandi Mello-Leitão, 1936: 20

Bonnet P 1957: 2312
de Mello-Leitao CF 1947: 272
de Mello-Leitao CF 1936: 20
de Mello-Leitao CF 1936: 18
1936
Loc

Ctenus binotatus Mello-Leitão, 1936: 6

von Eickstedt VR 1977: 213
Bonnet P 1956: 1276
de Mello-Leitao CF 1936: 6
de Mello-Leitao CF 1936: 5
1936
Loc

Ctenus gynheraldicus Mello-Leitão, 1936: 8

von Eickstedt VR 1977: 213
Lehtinen PT 1967: 254
Bonnet P 1956: 1282
de Mello-Leitao CF 1936: 8
de Mello-Leitao CF 1936: 5
1936
Loc

Ctenus anisitsi

Bonnet P 1956: 1275
Strand E 1909: 311
1909
Loc

Ctenus atrivulvus

Bonnet P 1956: 1275
Strand E 1909: 314
1909
Loc

Ctenus mentor

Bonnet P 1956: 1285
Strand E 1909: 315
1909
Loc

Ctenus brevipes brevilabris

Bonnet P 1956: 1276
Strand E 1909: 410
1909
Loc

Ctenus tatarandensis

Bonnet P 1956: 1291
Tullgren A 1905: 48
1905
Loc

Ctenus thomasi

von Eickstedt VR 1977: 213
Bonnet P 1956: 1291
Pickard-Cambridge FO 1902: 403
Pickard-Cambridge FO 1902: 411
1902
Loc

Ctenus minusculus Keyserling, 1891: 149

Bonnet P 1956: 1285
de Mello-Leitao CF 1947: 270
de Mello-Leitao CF 1936: 3
Pickard-Cambridge FO 1902: 411
Keyserling E 1891: 149
1891
Loc

Ctenus brevipes

Bonnet P 1956: 1276
de Mello-Leitao CF 1947: 270
Strand E 1909: 410
Pickard-Cambridge FO 1897: 65
Keyserling E 1891: 148
1891
Loc

Ctenus taeniatus

von Eickstedt VR 1977: 213
Bonnet P 1956: 1290
de Mello-Leitao CF 1936: 3
Pickard-Cambridge FO 1902: 413
Pickard-Cambridge FO 1897: 65
Keyserling E 1891: 151
1891