Adelogorgia osculabunda,

Breedy, Odalisca, 2018, Revision of the genus Adelogorgia Bayer, 1958 (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Octocorallia) with the description of three new species, Zootaxa 4369 (3), pp. 327-348: 337-341

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Adelogorgia osculabunda

sp. nov.

Adelogorgia osculabunda  sp. nov.

( Figs. 8–9View FIGURE 8View FIGURE 9, 7AView FIGURE7)

Material examined.

Holotype: MZUCR 2494 (OCT 0083), ethanol preserved, off Punta Mala , Puntarenas, 09°22.085N − 084°32.206W, 09°22.280N – 084°32.037W, 44.2– 44 m, R/ V Urracá, Trawl 44, R. Vargas, 17 July 2005.GoogleMaps 

Paratypes: COSTA RICA: MZUCR 750, ethanol preserved, Ballena Bay, Nicoya Gulf , 65 m, R/V Victor Hensen  , 3 July 1993  . MZUCR 2495 (OCT 0087) (15 specimens), MZUCR 2496 (OCT 0088) (13 specimens), MZUCR 2496 A, ethanol preserved, Santa Elena Gulf  , Guanacaste, 10°58.10N − 085° 46.09W, 10°59.41N – 085°45.68W, 50.7-51.7 m, Y. Camacho, Trawl 4, R/ V Urracá, 9 July 2005GoogleMaps  . MZUCR 2497 (OCT 0089), ethanol preserved, off Punta Mala , Puntarenas, 44–44.2 m, R. Vargas, Trawl 44, R/ V Urracá, 17 July 2005  . MZUCR 2498 (OCT 0091), ethanol preserved, Santa Elena Gulf, 10°57.82N − 085°46.76W, 10°57.82N – 085°46.42W, 50.7–51.7 m, 54.2GoogleMaps  – 51.5 m, Y. Camacho, Trawl 3, R/V Urracá, 9 July 2005. MZUCR 2499 (OCT 0092) (2 specimens), MZUCR 2500 (OCT 0094) (2 specimens), as the holotype. MZUCR 2501 (OCT 0093), dry, Santa Elena Bay  , Guanacaste, 50 m, E. Ruiz, June 2012  . MZUCR 2506-2508, 2511, dry preserved, Santa Elena Gulf  , Guanacaste, 10°57.82N − 085°46.76W, 10°57.82N – 085°46.42W, 50.7-51.7 m, Y. Camacho, Trawl 4, R/ V Urracá, 9 July 2005GoogleMaps  . MZUCR 2502, 2507, dry, Santa Elena Gulf, 10° 57.82N – 085° 46.76W, 10° 57.82N – 085° 46.42W, 50.7–51.7 m, 54.2GoogleMaps  – 51.5 m, Y. Camacho, Trawl 3, R/V Urracá, 9 July 2005. MZUCR 2505, dry preserved, Naranjo Bay, Papagallo Gulf , 10° 45.565N – 085° 40.757W, 30 m, R. Vargas, R/ V Urracá, dredging, 15 July 2005GoogleMaps  . PANAMÁ: STRI 895View Materials, 3 specimens, ethanol preserved, Station 0, Pearl Islands   , Panamá Gulf, 80 m, H. Guzman, dredging, R/ V Urracá, 18 August 2004  .

GenBank accession numbers MF579538 and MF579541.

Diagnosis. Colonies mostly flabellate, branching mostly dichotomous, with some pseudo-anastomoses. Branches of nearly uniform thickness 3-5 mm in diameter with tapered tips. Branching up to 10 times. End branches up to 35 mm long. Polyps distributed all around the branches. Polyp mounds closely placed and prominent. Anthocodia with 8–10 slightly curved spinous rods in each point, up to 0.26 mm long, and 2–3 rods arranged horizontally in a weak collaret. Coenenchyme with tuberculate spindles, up to 0.21 mm long, double discs with serrate edges up to 0.13 mm long and 0.09 mm wide; and leaf clubs up to 0.25 mm long. Outermost coenenchyme with a predominance of wide warty spindles over double discs. Axial sheath containing radiates and capstans up to 0.11 mm long and 0.09 mm wide, and less developed spindles. Colony colour, pink and coral red polyp mounds. Sclerites pink and whitish, transparent.

Description. The holotype is a flabellate, 10.5 cm long and 13 cm wide colony; branching is mostly dichotomous ( Fig. 8AView FIGURE 8). Two branches partially joined rise from a holdfast of 2 cm diameter. They form the main stem measuring about 3.5 mm diameter each, and 3 mm long ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 A-B). The main branches subdivide producing several secondary branches of uniform thickness, 4–5 mm diameter, with tapered tips, about 3 mm diameter. The branches emerge at angles of 30–90°, spreading irregularly in one plane like a fan. Some branches stick one to another growing longitudinally at certain points in the colony, and some others with coenenchyme-anastomosis that form triangles or squares. The colony branches up to 10 times. Unbranched terminal ends are 3–35 mm long ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 A-B). The axes are composed of longitudinal gorgonin layers with a loculated central cord filled with organic fibres without mineralization ( Fig. 7AView FIGURE7). The coenenchyme is moderately thick and granular. The polyps are distributed all around the branches, closely placed at the branch-tips, about 0.5–1 mm apart and more separated at the middle and the base of the branches, 1.5–2.5 mm apart. The polyps are translucent, but look like orange due to the light orange anthocodial sclerites. The polyps are fully retractile into prominent polyp mounds, 1–1.5 mm tall, with spiny rims around the circular polyp apertures ( Fig. 8BView FIGURE 8). The polyp mounds do not present a special type of sclerites, but a concentration of thorny, irregular spindles and some leaf clubs appear, around the oral aperture. The anthocodiae are composed of eight subtentacular points consisting of about 8-9 straight to slightly bent spiny rods, 0.17–0.26 mm long and 0.029–0.036 mm wide, 2–3 horizontally arranged forming a weak collaret ( Fig. 9AView FIGURE 9). The coenenchyme is composed of a superficial layer of wide warty spindles, 0.15–0.21 mm long and 0.04–0.08 mm wide ( Fig. 9CView FIGURE 9) and double discs with serrate crests, 0.10–0.13 mm long and 0.07–0.09 mm wide ( Fig. 9DView FIGURE 9), and leaf-clubs 0.13–0.24 mm long and 0.04–0.1 mm wide ( Fig. 9BView FIGURE 9). Beneath this layer, the coenenchyme contains radiates 0.075–0.11 mm long and 0.06–0.085 mm wide ( Fig. 9EView FIGURE 9); and also, immature forms are present. Anthocodial sclerites are whitish and pale pink. Coenenchymal sclerites are mostly pink and of some lighter hues and whitish to transparent ( Fig. 8CView FIGURE 8).

The colony is pink with a conspicuous coral red colour polyp mound ( Fig. 8CView FIGURE 8). The colonies keep the colours either in ethanol or dry preserved, the polyps are translucent. The gastric cavities of the polyps are full of whitish eggs in this specimen.

Variability. The examined colonies reach up to 15 cm tall and about the same width. The branches are thinner, 2–3 mm in diameter in some small colonies. The colony shape varies from a few branches to fan-like colonies. The coenenchyme and sclerites colour are very consistent in the paratype series. The coral-red polyp mounds are always present, and is a distinctive feature for the species that is observed in dry or preserved colonies. However, in some cases in ethanol preserved animals the polyp-mounds are darker as a consequence of alcohol soluble pigments.

Habitat and Distribution. The species has been collected by bottom trawls from sandy or muddy-sand substrata. It was also obtained from fishing lines and nets from rocky shoals, where the colonies were ripped as bycatch or were entangled in the lines from 40 to 60 m deep. Adelogorgia osculabunda  was commonly collected together with Leptogorgia regis Hickson, 1928  , Muricea fruticosa Verrill, 1868  , Muricea subtilis Breedy and Guzman, 2016  and two Psammogorgia  species. The species was found at various localities in Costa Rica, from: off Salinas Bay and Santa Elena Bay to Cape Santa Elena, Guanacaste (northern Pacific); and Punta Mala, Puntarenas (central Pacific) that suggests a wide distribution of the species along the Pacific. In Panamá, Pearl Islands, the colonies were obtained by dredging at 80 m deep, which presently represents the deepest record.

Etymology. Named osculabunda, Latin  adjective derived from osculum: little mouth, kiss. In Latin context, osculabunda  is the one that covers with kisses, in allusion to the red prominent polyp-mounds that cover the branches.

Remarks. This species is similar to A. hannibalis  in the prominent polyp-mounds showing a little darker orange contrasting with the colony colour, but is not as evident as in A. osculabunda  . Thinner colonies of A. osculabunda  look similar to A. hannibalis  , but in A. osculabunda  , the polyp-mounds are closer and stiffer than in A. hannibalis  . Additionally, sclerite analysis shows clear differences between the two species. Comparisons with the other species are shown in Tables 1 and 2.